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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1846-9558
Pierwsze wydanie
28 Feb 2007
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 68 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (March 2018)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1846-9558
Pierwsze wydanie
28 Feb 2007
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Effective anti-adhesives of uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection. Design of receptor analogues that competitively bind to UPEC surface adhesins placed at the top of pili organelles led to the development of anti-adhesive drugs that are increasingly recognized as important and promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment of UTIs.

Słowa kluczowe

  • urinary tract infections
  • type I fimbriae
  • P pili
  • mannosides
  • cranberry
  • polyphenols
Otwarty dostęp

Efficacy of nucleoside analogues for hepatitis B virus-related liver failure: A network meta-analysis

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 19 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of nucleoside analogues (NAs) in the treatment of HBV-related liver failure. The data of patients with HBV-related liver failure treated with nucleoside analogues were used to conduct a network meta-analysis. A total of 1660 patients from 12 articles about the efficacy of lamivudine, entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir for HBV-related liver failure treatment were recruited in the study. The highest two- and three-month survival rate was recorded for patients using tenofovir. The end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and mortality in patients undergoing tenofovir treatment were the lowest. Patients treated with telbivudine had the highest one-month survival rate. Patients receiving enticavir therapy showed the lowest HBV DNA level. Our results indicate that tenofovir may be the best therapy for the treatment of HBV-related liver failure compared to other nucleoside analogues (including lamivudine, entecavir and telbivudine) and non-NAs treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • liver failure
  • hepatitis B virus
  • nucleoside analogue
  • tenofovir
  • network meta-analysis
Otwarty dostęp

A headspace-gas chromatography method for isopropanol determination in warfarin sodium products as a measure of drug crystallinity

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 31 - 46

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coumadin® a nd s everal generic products of warfarin s odium (WS) contain the crystalline form (clathrate) in which WS and isopropanol (IPA) are associated in a 2:1 molar ratio. IPA is critical in maintaining the WS crystalline structure. Physicochemical properties of the drug and drug product may change when the crystalline drug transforms to amorphous form. A headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed and validated for IPA determination in the WS drug product. n-propanol (NPA) was used as internal standard and the method was validated for specificity, system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, limits of detection and quantification, and robustness. The method was specific, with good resolution between IPA and NPA peaks. Chromatographic parameters (retention time, IPA/NPA area ratio, tailing factor, theoretical plates, USP symmetry, capacity factor, selectivity and resolution) were consistent over three days of validation. The analytical method was linear from 2-200 μg mL-1 (0.1- 10 % IPA present in the drug product). LOD and LOQ were 0.1 and 2 μg mL-1, respectively. Accuracy at low (2 μg mL-1) and high (200 μg mL-1) IPA concentrations of the calibration curve was 103.3-113.3 and 98.9-102.2 % of the nominal value, resp. The validated method was precise, as indicated by the RSD value of less than 2 % at three concentration levels of the calibration curve. The method reported here was utilized to determine accurately and precisely the IPA content in in-house formulations and commercial products. In summary, IPA determination by HS-GC provides an indirect measure of WS crystallinity in the drug product. Nevertheless, it should be confirmed by another analytical method since IPA from the drug substance is not distinguishable from IPA that may be present outside the drug crystals in a dosage form when prepared by wet granulation with IPA.

Słowa kluczowe

  • warfarin crystallinity
  • isopropanol
  • headspacegas chromatography
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative chemical investigation and evaluation of antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal and Solanum nigrum (L.) berries

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 47 - 60

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, berries of two different species of Solanaceae family, Withania somnifera (WS) and Solanum nigrum (SN), were extracted in methanol and then fractionated with solvents, ranging from non-polar to polar, for their phytochemical profiling and investigation of antioxidant and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition capacity. The methanolic extract and n-hexane, ethyl acetate (WSEA, SNEA) and aqueous fractions were chemically analyzed and evaluated for biological activity. Total flavonoids and total phenolics were quantified in WSEA (96.91 ± 1.56 μg QE mg-1 sample and 178.45 ± 2.78 μg GAE mg-1 s ample, r esp.) and S NEA (89.58 ± 0.98 μg QE mg-1 sample and 120.15 ± 2.33 μg GAE mg-1 sample, resp.). HPLC-DAD analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of WS and SN measured 13.74 and 5.34 μg GAE mg-1 dry fraction and 3.72 and 3.41 μg QE mg-1 dry fraction, resp. WSEA and SNEA fractions showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and iron reducing power activity. The highest inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme was also exhibited by WSEA and SNEA (59.6 and 58.7 %) resp. This investigation justifies the medicinal value of W. somnifera and S. nigrum berry extracts as potential and readily available sources of natural antioxidants. Marked tyrosinase enzyme inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of both plant extracts might be due to polyphenols and flavonoids.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Withania somnifera
  • Solanum nigrum
  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant
  • tyrosinase inhibition
  • HPLC-DAD
Otwarty dostęp

Advanced spectrophotometric chemometric methods for resolving the binary mixture of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 61 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prediction power of partial least squares (PLS) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methods have been studied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of the binary drug combination - doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride. Analysis of first-order UV overlapped spectra was performed using different PLS models - classical PLS1 and PLS2 as well as partial robust M-regression (PRM). These linear models were compared to MCR-ALS with equality and correlation constraints (MCR-ALS-CC). All techniques operated within the full spectral region and extracted maximum information for the drugs analysed. The developed chemometric methods were validated on external sample sets and were applied to the analyses of pharmaceutical formulations. The obtained statistical parameters were satisfactory for calibration and validation sets. All developed methods can be successfully applied for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of doxylamine and pyridoxine both in laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial dosage forms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • doxylamine succinate
  • pyridoxine hydrochloride
  • binary mixture
  • partial least squares (PLS)
  • partial robust M-regression (PRM)
  • multivariate curve resolution-alternative least squares (MCR-ALS)
Otwarty dostęp

Induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in hepatocytes by beta-naphthoflavone: Time-dependent changes in activities, protein and mRNA levels

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 75 - 85

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, time-dependency of the induction effect of a selective inducer on the activity, protein and mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1/2 (CYP1A1/2), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA), in primary culture of rat hepatocytes was tested and evaluated. To show the differences in responses of tested enzymes, the common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand agonist, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), was used. Induction of CYP1A1/2 by BNF was detected at all time intervals and at all levels (i.e., mRNA, protein, enzyme activity). Different responses of NQO1 and GSTA upon BNF treatment were observed. Our results demonstrate that the responses of different xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to the inducer vary in time and depend on the measured parameter. For these reasons, an induction study featuring only one-time interval treatment and/ or one parameter testing could produce misleading information.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)
  • beta-naphthoflavone
  • rat hepatocyte
  • time dependency
  • mRNA-protein correlation
Otwarty dostęp

Distinguishing Smilax glabra and Smilax china rhizomes by flow-injection mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 87 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract

Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Smilax glabra
  • Smilax china
  • rhizome
  • flow injection
  • mass spectrometry
  • PCA
  • OPLS-DA
Otwarty dostęp

HPTLC determination of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 97 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

A new HPTLC-densitometric method for diosgenin determination in fenugreek seeds was established after optimization of the conditions for efficient saponin extraction and acid hydrolysis. Several procedures were tested, the best of which was a three-step Soxhlet extraction, followed by hydrolysis of the obtained methanolic extract with 2 mol L-1 H2SO4. Best diosgenin separation from other hydrolysis products was obtained on HPTLC Si60F254 plates u sing a mixture of n-heptane/ethyl acetate (7:3, V/V) and modified anisaldehyde as a spraying reagent. The method was preliminarily validated and the determined amounts of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds of Polish and African origin were found to be similar and ranged from 0.12-0.18 %.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • diosgenin
  • HPTLC
  • quantitative analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces lipid accumulation but does not alter the expression of Pref-1 in rat adipose tissue

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 109 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections. In the low dose FLX group, the size of vacuoles increased both in male and female animals. The high dose of FLX also induced a significant increase of vacuole size, but only in male animals. Neither of the two doses of FLX has significantly affected the Pref-1 expression in any type of adipose tissue.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fluoxetine
  • adipose tissue
  • preadipocyte factor-1
  • vacuole size
Otwarty dostęp

Medication adherence and health-related quality of life among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 117 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study evaluated medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Slovenian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examined the factors associated with HRQoL. Demographic and therapy information was collected from 65 patients through interviews. The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were used to evaluate HRQoL and adherence, resp. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between the factors and HRQoL. The mean St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score (range 0-100, with higher scores indicating lower HRQoL) was 41.4. COPD affected patients’ daily activities more than their social and psychological functioning. Slightly more than 53 % of the patients were optimally adherent, while 12 % were non-adherent. Patients with lower HRQoL had a larger number of medications for concomitant diseases, experienced COPD exacerbation in the last year, and had less education. No statistically significant correlation was found between medication adherence and HRQoL.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • healthrelated quality of life
  • adherence
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Effective anti-adhesives of uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection. Design of receptor analogues that competitively bind to UPEC surface adhesins placed at the top of pili organelles led to the development of anti-adhesive drugs that are increasingly recognized as important and promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment of UTIs.

Słowa kluczowe

  • urinary tract infections
  • type I fimbriae
  • P pili
  • mannosides
  • cranberry
  • polyphenols
Otwarty dostęp

Efficacy of nucleoside analogues for hepatitis B virus-related liver failure: A network meta-analysis

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 19 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of nucleoside analogues (NAs) in the treatment of HBV-related liver failure. The data of patients with HBV-related liver failure treated with nucleoside analogues were used to conduct a network meta-analysis. A total of 1660 patients from 12 articles about the efficacy of lamivudine, entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir for HBV-related liver failure treatment were recruited in the study. The highest two- and three-month survival rate was recorded for patients using tenofovir. The end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and mortality in patients undergoing tenofovir treatment were the lowest. Patients treated with telbivudine had the highest one-month survival rate. Patients receiving enticavir therapy showed the lowest HBV DNA level. Our results indicate that tenofovir may be the best therapy for the treatment of HBV-related liver failure compared to other nucleoside analogues (including lamivudine, entecavir and telbivudine) and non-NAs treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • liver failure
  • hepatitis B virus
  • nucleoside analogue
  • tenofovir
  • network meta-analysis
Otwarty dostęp

A headspace-gas chromatography method for isopropanol determination in warfarin sodium products as a measure of drug crystallinity

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 31 - 46

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coumadin® a nd s everal generic products of warfarin s odium (WS) contain the crystalline form (clathrate) in which WS and isopropanol (IPA) are associated in a 2:1 molar ratio. IPA is critical in maintaining the WS crystalline structure. Physicochemical properties of the drug and drug product may change when the crystalline drug transforms to amorphous form. A headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed and validated for IPA determination in the WS drug product. n-propanol (NPA) was used as internal standard and the method was validated for specificity, system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, limits of detection and quantification, and robustness. The method was specific, with good resolution between IPA and NPA peaks. Chromatographic parameters (retention time, IPA/NPA area ratio, tailing factor, theoretical plates, USP symmetry, capacity factor, selectivity and resolution) were consistent over three days of validation. The analytical method was linear from 2-200 μg mL-1 (0.1- 10 % IPA present in the drug product). LOD and LOQ were 0.1 and 2 μg mL-1, respectively. Accuracy at low (2 μg mL-1) and high (200 μg mL-1) IPA concentrations of the calibration curve was 103.3-113.3 and 98.9-102.2 % of the nominal value, resp. The validated method was precise, as indicated by the RSD value of less than 2 % at three concentration levels of the calibration curve. The method reported here was utilized to determine accurately and precisely the IPA content in in-house formulations and commercial products. In summary, IPA determination by HS-GC provides an indirect measure of WS crystallinity in the drug product. Nevertheless, it should be confirmed by another analytical method since IPA from the drug substance is not distinguishable from IPA that may be present outside the drug crystals in a dosage form when prepared by wet granulation with IPA.

Słowa kluczowe

  • warfarin crystallinity
  • isopropanol
  • headspacegas chromatography
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative chemical investigation and evaluation of antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal and Solanum nigrum (L.) berries

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 47 - 60

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, berries of two different species of Solanaceae family, Withania somnifera (WS) and Solanum nigrum (SN), were extracted in methanol and then fractionated with solvents, ranging from non-polar to polar, for their phytochemical profiling and investigation of antioxidant and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition capacity. The methanolic extract and n-hexane, ethyl acetate (WSEA, SNEA) and aqueous fractions were chemically analyzed and evaluated for biological activity. Total flavonoids and total phenolics were quantified in WSEA (96.91 ± 1.56 μg QE mg-1 sample and 178.45 ± 2.78 μg GAE mg-1 s ample, r esp.) and S NEA (89.58 ± 0.98 μg QE mg-1 sample and 120.15 ± 2.33 μg GAE mg-1 sample, resp.). HPLC-DAD analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of WS and SN measured 13.74 and 5.34 μg GAE mg-1 dry fraction and 3.72 and 3.41 μg QE mg-1 dry fraction, resp. WSEA and SNEA fractions showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and iron reducing power activity. The highest inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme was also exhibited by WSEA and SNEA (59.6 and 58.7 %) resp. This investigation justifies the medicinal value of W. somnifera and S. nigrum berry extracts as potential and readily available sources of natural antioxidants. Marked tyrosinase enzyme inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of both plant extracts might be due to polyphenols and flavonoids.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Withania somnifera
  • Solanum nigrum
  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant
  • tyrosinase inhibition
  • HPLC-DAD
Otwarty dostęp

Advanced spectrophotometric chemometric methods for resolving the binary mixture of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 61 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prediction power of partial least squares (PLS) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methods have been studied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of the binary drug combination - doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride. Analysis of first-order UV overlapped spectra was performed using different PLS models - classical PLS1 and PLS2 as well as partial robust M-regression (PRM). These linear models were compared to MCR-ALS with equality and correlation constraints (MCR-ALS-CC). All techniques operated within the full spectral region and extracted maximum information for the drugs analysed. The developed chemometric methods were validated on external sample sets and were applied to the analyses of pharmaceutical formulations. The obtained statistical parameters were satisfactory for calibration and validation sets. All developed methods can be successfully applied for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of doxylamine and pyridoxine both in laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial dosage forms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • doxylamine succinate
  • pyridoxine hydrochloride
  • binary mixture
  • partial least squares (PLS)
  • partial robust M-regression (PRM)
  • multivariate curve resolution-alternative least squares (MCR-ALS)
Otwarty dostęp

Induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in hepatocytes by beta-naphthoflavone: Time-dependent changes in activities, protein and mRNA levels

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 75 - 85

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the present study, time-dependency of the induction effect of a selective inducer on the activity, protein and mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1/2 (CYP1A1/2), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA), in primary culture of rat hepatocytes was tested and evaluated. To show the differences in responses of tested enzymes, the common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand agonist, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), was used. Induction of CYP1A1/2 by BNF was detected at all time intervals and at all levels (i.e., mRNA, protein, enzyme activity). Different responses of NQO1 and GSTA upon BNF treatment were observed. Our results demonstrate that the responses of different xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to the inducer vary in time and depend on the measured parameter. For these reasons, an induction study featuring only one-time interval treatment and/ or one parameter testing could produce misleading information.

Słowa kluczowe

  • aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)
  • beta-naphthoflavone
  • rat hepatocyte
  • time dependency
  • mRNA-protein correlation
Otwarty dostęp

Distinguishing Smilax glabra and Smilax china rhizomes by flow-injection mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 87 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract

Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Smilax glabra
  • Smilax china
  • rhizome
  • flow injection
  • mass spectrometry
  • PCA
  • OPLS-DA
Otwarty dostęp

HPTLC determination of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 97 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

A new HPTLC-densitometric method for diosgenin determination in fenugreek seeds was established after optimization of the conditions for efficient saponin extraction and acid hydrolysis. Several procedures were tested, the best of which was a three-step Soxhlet extraction, followed by hydrolysis of the obtained methanolic extract with 2 mol L-1 H2SO4. Best diosgenin separation from other hydrolysis products was obtained on HPTLC Si60F254 plates u sing a mixture of n-heptane/ethyl acetate (7:3, V/V) and modified anisaldehyde as a spraying reagent. The method was preliminarily validated and the determined amounts of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds of Polish and African origin were found to be similar and ranged from 0.12-0.18 %.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • diosgenin
  • HPTLC
  • quantitative analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces lipid accumulation but does not alter the expression of Pref-1 in rat adipose tissue

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 109 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections. In the low dose FLX group, the size of vacuoles increased both in male and female animals. The high dose of FLX also induced a significant increase of vacuole size, but only in male animals. Neither of the two doses of FLX has significantly affected the Pref-1 expression in any type of adipose tissue.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fluoxetine
  • adipose tissue
  • preadipocyte factor-1
  • vacuole size
Otwarty dostęp

Medication adherence and health-related quality of life among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Data publikacji: 16 Feb 2018
Zakres stron: 117 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study evaluated medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Slovenian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examined the factors associated with HRQoL. Demographic and therapy information was collected from 65 patients through interviews. The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were used to evaluate HRQoL and adherence, resp. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between the factors and HRQoL. The mean St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score (range 0-100, with higher scores indicating lower HRQoL) was 41.4. COPD affected patients’ daily activities more than their social and psychological functioning. Slightly more than 53 % of the patients were optimally adherent, while 12 % were non-adherent. Patients with lower HRQoL had a larger number of medications for concomitant diseases, experienced COPD exacerbation in the last year, and had less education. No statistically significant correlation was found between medication adherence and HRQoL.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • healthrelated quality of life
  • adherence

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