Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 5 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (June 2022)

Tom 4 (2021): Zeszyt 2 (December 2021)

Tom 4 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (June 2021)

Tom 3 (2020): Zeszyt 2 (December 2020)

Tom 3 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (June 2020)

Tom 2 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (December 2019)

Tom 2 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (June 2019)

Tom 1 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (December 2018)

Tom 1 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (June 2018)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2668-5124
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Sep 2019
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (June 2021)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2668-5124
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Sep 2019
Częstotliwość wydawania
2 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Micro-Anatomical Characterization of African Native Monotypic Genera - Anogeissus (DC.) Guill and Quisqualis Linn (Combretaceae)

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to explore the micro-anatomical characteristics of leaf and petiole of two unstudied West African native monotypic genera - Anogeissus and Qusqualis in Combretaceae with a view to characterizing the taxa, providing useful research-based information for identification. The samples were prepared following standard procedures. The light microscopic study of the transverse sections of the leaves in A. leiocarpus revealed a thick upper and lower cuticle while the cuticle on both leaf surfaces in Q. indica remain thin. The midrib vascular bundle of the leaf in Q. indica is characterized by arc-shape and starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of the ground tissue. The uniseriate rows of lamina epidermis were oval, squared, rectangular or polygonal in Q. indica while it was rectangular or slightly oval in A. leiocarpus. Vascular bundle in the leaves and petioles of both taxa were collateral. Simple, slender and short unicellular non-glandular trichomes were also observed in the leaf and petiole micro-anatomy of both taxa. It was concluded that the micro-anatomical features of the leaves and petioles are important parameters of characterization, used in the identification of the studied taxa.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Combretaceae
  • Ground tissue
  • Monotypic
  • Palisade
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of HRPF2 Gene Deletion in Plasmodium Falciparum in Northwestern Nigeria

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 10 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) plays an important role in malaria management and control. The Pf HRP2 based RDT kit is the most widely used RDT for malaria diagnosis in Nigeria but is affected by the deletion of HRP2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Therefore, identifying the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with deleted Pf HRP2 is important for malaria control. Pf HRP2 gene deletion was assessed in this study by first carrying out Giemsa stained thick blood film microscopy and Pf HRP2 RDT strip test. The samples were further analyzed for molecular examination by PCR assay for multiple single–copy genes (Pf Cox3, Pf HRP2, Pf HRP3 and Pf Beta tubulin). This study found the existence of eight (8) Plasmodium falciparum isolates lacking the HRP2 gene in the samples analyzed, this necessitates the need to develop a unique RDT Kit targeting other housekeeping genes unique for Plasmodium falciparum with far greater sensitivity than the current ones as to reduce the chances of false negative RDT result as well as developing unique RDT Kits targeting both PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 genes concomitantly in order to reduce the chances of having a false positive RDT results.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Malaria
  • Gene deletion
  • RDT
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) on Some Physical and Bioactive Compounds of ‘Iceberg’ Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 21 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a recent concerned application in the indoor crop system of the modern plant production. In our research, we evaluated the influence of four monochromic LED lights including 100% White (W), Yellow (Y), Red (R) and Blue (B) in comparison to solar lightening condition (GR) as a control. In this regard, some morphological characteristics and biochemical content of the common outdoor ‘Iceberg’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was measured. The results show that leaf length, leaf area and total head weight were significantly greater in the plants grown under B LED, while all the other physical parameters were significantly higher in the plants grown under GR environmental conditions. On the other hand, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrate content were also influenced by different light treatments. Plants grown under LED light treatment resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll content compared to the control. However, significantly greater carotenoid content was in the plants grown under GR condition. The highest total chlorophyll content was recorded under B and R LED, whereas the lowest was in the GR condition. The lowest nitrate content in the blade and petiole was recorded in the plants grown under Y LED, while the highest nitrate content was recorded in the GR. Based on our result, it is possible to grow and improve some quality parameters of common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce under LED where the solar light is limited or unavailable. Thus, plants performed better under GR light conditions than monochromic LEDs; however, some LED lights could improve some quality parameters and biochemical contents in the ‘iceberg’ lettuce variety.

Słowa kluczowe

  • LED light
  • morphological parameters
  • bioactive contents
  • common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce ( L.)
  • nitrate content
Otwarty dostęp

Homage to George E. Palade Cell Protein Secretion in Vascular Biology: Overview and Updates

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 31 - 43

Abstrakt

Abstract

This short overview and updates expresses our brain-and-heart homage to George Emil Palade, “the most influential cell biologist ever”. In his 1971 paper Palade wrote for Albert Claude, the founder of biological electron microscopic method: “Seldom has a field owed so much to a single man”. Herein, we articulate the same words for George Palade, the Teacher of many generations in cell biology research and education. Accordingly, we focus on two paradigm shifts in the cell biology, namely (i) the transition from light to transmission electron microscopy in studying cell protein secretion made by George Palade, and (ii) the transition from contractile to secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells made by Maria Daria Haust followed and developed by our research group. Altogether, we argue that one of the present challenges in vascular biology is to cultivate secreto-centric thinking and thus further focusing on how we could make the vascular muscle’s secretory pathways work for the benefit of human’s cardiovascular health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • George Palade
  • proteins
  • secretory pathways
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi complex
  • microtubules
  • colchicine
  • therapy
  • cardiovascular diseases
Otwarty dostęp

Perspectives on Antiviral Drugs Development in the Treatment of COVID-19

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 44 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of this review is to highlight the urgent development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Antiviral medication against SARS-CoV-2 comprises only remdesivir as an approved drug. Scientists are making considerable efforts to identify other effective antivirals. Investments into the de novo design of new drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are few. Molnupiravir proved to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is very close to approval. Pfizer’s two new compounds (PF-07321332, oral administration and PF-07304814, systemic administration) are in the early stages of development. Two types of methods are preferred to discover new antivirals in a short period. Repositioning of approved drugs for antiviral effect conducted to some clinical results for favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, danoprevir/ritonavir, umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, camostat and nafamostat. Virtual screening of known molecules’ libraries indicated several compounds that were tested or are being tested in clinical trials. In conclusion, only a few innovative antiviral molecules are in various stages of development. However, the repositioning of many known compounds is being studied, including using virtual screening. The pharmaceutical industry is adapting and reinventing itself so that humanity can face a new pandemic in the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19
  • antivirals
  • remdesivir
  • molnupiravir
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • azithromycin
  • ivermectin
  • camostat
Otwarty dostęp

Ecosystem Services of Hospital Gardens - Based on Microclimate Analyses of Green and Blue Garden Elements

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 60 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

The increasing urbanization process of the last decades has resulted in negative impacts and changes in the quality of the urban environment, as reflected in mortality and morbidity data (Páldy, 2018). The quality of the environment, the urban climate, the increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events, ultimately threaten human well-being. To design and build liveable cities, the quality of the urban environment must be improved, and improving micro- or local climate is an important factor in this. Increasing the proportion and quality of biologically active surfaces, i.e. the ecosystem services provided by green spaces, is one of the most effective tools for urban conditioning and enhancing human well-being. Determining the proportions of the green area, the design of vegetation, the choice of pavements and microarchitectures all determine the microclimate of an open-space. This has been confirmed by a large body of research and implemented work, but it is also important for designers to make a preliminary prediction of the impact of any intervention on the climatic conditions of the design site. These predictions will help cost-effective designing to determine which intervention will result in climate change.

This research uses two specific examples to examine the effectiveness of each landscape designing tool and to show which designing tool produces what and how much climatic impact. For these studies, we used a climate modeling program (ENVI-MET), which runs simulations to infer the climate modifying effects of landscape planning tools.

In the course of the research, we have shown that the local climate of hospital gardens could be significantly influenced by favorable, environmental-friend paving, a higher green cover ratio, and a well-developed and sufficiently dense tree canopy, and various water features.

Słowa kluczowe

  • urban microclimate
  • hospital gardens
  • ecosystem services of urban green infrastructure
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Different Substrate on the Morphological Characteristics of Hungarian Tagetes Patula Cultivars

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 73 - 82

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this trial was to find the optimal substrate (sand, peat and 1:1 mixture of them) for germination and growing of Tagetes patula ‘Robuszta Kénsárga’, ‘Vénusz’ and ‘Tigris’, with the use of 40 seeds according to substrates and cultivars in nine groups. Germination and survival ratio, plant height, root length, flower number and –diameter were examined. Almost all seeds germinated successfully, and the highest surviving was around 80% in case of peat + sand, and the lowest (50%) when plants grown in pure sand. The latter substrate resulted the longest roots (especially in the groups of ‘Tigris’) and all cultivars (particularly ‘Vénusz’) reached the lowest height with the use of this soil. On the other hand, peat effected the shortest roots, tallest specimens, most flowers of every cultivars. In case of flower number, there were significant differences between ‘Tigris’ (with averagely 58-70 flowers) and the other two types (23-39 flowers), irrespectively of the substrates. ‘Vénusz’ developed the smallest flower heads (maximum 3.5 cm) in all cases; the other cultivars produced at least 4 cm inflorescences. The lowest plant values experienced with the use of sand and the best results on peat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • substrates
  • germination
  • plant height
  • rooting
  • flowering
Otwarty dostęp

Inclusion Complex of Gedunin-2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin Prepared by Kneading and Freeze-Drying Methods: Synthesis and Structural Characterization

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 83 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potential application of gedunin, a pharmacologically active limonoid, is limited in medicine because it has poor aqueous solubility. This study was aimed at preparation and characterization of an inclusion complex of gedunin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) to increase the solubility in aqueous solvents and thus enhance the possibility of pharmaceutical formulation and oral administration of gedunin. Inclusion complex of gedunin isolated from Entandrophragma angolense heartwood with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) was prepared using freeze-drying and kneading methods. The gedunin-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex (GCD) was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Elemental analysis indicated that gedunin and HBD formed 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex. Results of FT-IR indicated that gedunin was stabilized in HBD cavity by intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. 1H-NMR revealed that the entire gedunin molecule was not trapped into the core of the HBD. Nevertheless, the fraction trapped may be sufficient to enhance the apparent solubility of gedunin. XRD results showed the formation of new solid crystalline phase. The results obtained by different characterization techniques clearly indicated that both kneading and freeze-drying methods led to inclusion complex formation which may enhance oral administration of gedunin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gedunin
  • 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
  • inclusion complex
  • spectroscopy
8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Micro-Anatomical Characterization of African Native Monotypic Genera - Anogeissus (DC.) Guill and Quisqualis Linn (Combretaceae)

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to explore the micro-anatomical characteristics of leaf and petiole of two unstudied West African native monotypic genera - Anogeissus and Qusqualis in Combretaceae with a view to characterizing the taxa, providing useful research-based information for identification. The samples were prepared following standard procedures. The light microscopic study of the transverse sections of the leaves in A. leiocarpus revealed a thick upper and lower cuticle while the cuticle on both leaf surfaces in Q. indica remain thin. The midrib vascular bundle of the leaf in Q. indica is characterized by arc-shape and starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of the ground tissue. The uniseriate rows of lamina epidermis were oval, squared, rectangular or polygonal in Q. indica while it was rectangular or slightly oval in A. leiocarpus. Vascular bundle in the leaves and petioles of both taxa were collateral. Simple, slender and short unicellular non-glandular trichomes were also observed in the leaf and petiole micro-anatomy of both taxa. It was concluded that the micro-anatomical features of the leaves and petioles are important parameters of characterization, used in the identification of the studied taxa.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Combretaceae
  • Ground tissue
  • Monotypic
  • Palisade
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of HRPF2 Gene Deletion in Plasmodium Falciparum in Northwestern Nigeria

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 10 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) plays an important role in malaria management and control. The Pf HRP2 based RDT kit is the most widely used RDT for malaria diagnosis in Nigeria but is affected by the deletion of HRP2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Therefore, identifying the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with deleted Pf HRP2 is important for malaria control. Pf HRP2 gene deletion was assessed in this study by first carrying out Giemsa stained thick blood film microscopy and Pf HRP2 RDT strip test. The samples were further analyzed for molecular examination by PCR assay for multiple single–copy genes (Pf Cox3, Pf HRP2, Pf HRP3 and Pf Beta tubulin). This study found the existence of eight (8) Plasmodium falciparum isolates lacking the HRP2 gene in the samples analyzed, this necessitates the need to develop a unique RDT Kit targeting other housekeeping genes unique for Plasmodium falciparum with far greater sensitivity than the current ones as to reduce the chances of false negative RDT result as well as developing unique RDT Kits targeting both PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 genes concomitantly in order to reduce the chances of having a false positive RDT results.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Malaria
  • Gene deletion
  • RDT
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) on Some Physical and Bioactive Compounds of ‘Iceberg’ Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 21 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a recent concerned application in the indoor crop system of the modern plant production. In our research, we evaluated the influence of four monochromic LED lights including 100% White (W), Yellow (Y), Red (R) and Blue (B) in comparison to solar lightening condition (GR) as a control. In this regard, some morphological characteristics and biochemical content of the common outdoor ‘Iceberg’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was measured. The results show that leaf length, leaf area and total head weight were significantly greater in the plants grown under B LED, while all the other physical parameters were significantly higher in the plants grown under GR environmental conditions. On the other hand, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrate content were also influenced by different light treatments. Plants grown under LED light treatment resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll content compared to the control. However, significantly greater carotenoid content was in the plants grown under GR condition. The highest total chlorophyll content was recorded under B and R LED, whereas the lowest was in the GR condition. The lowest nitrate content in the blade and petiole was recorded in the plants grown under Y LED, while the highest nitrate content was recorded in the GR. Based on our result, it is possible to grow and improve some quality parameters of common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce under LED where the solar light is limited or unavailable. Thus, plants performed better under GR light conditions than monochromic LEDs; however, some LED lights could improve some quality parameters and biochemical contents in the ‘iceberg’ lettuce variety.

Słowa kluczowe

  • LED light
  • morphological parameters
  • bioactive contents
  • common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce ( L.)
  • nitrate content
Otwarty dostęp

Homage to George E. Palade Cell Protein Secretion in Vascular Biology: Overview and Updates

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 31 - 43

Abstrakt

Abstract

This short overview and updates expresses our brain-and-heart homage to George Emil Palade, “the most influential cell biologist ever”. In his 1971 paper Palade wrote for Albert Claude, the founder of biological electron microscopic method: “Seldom has a field owed so much to a single man”. Herein, we articulate the same words for George Palade, the Teacher of many generations in cell biology research and education. Accordingly, we focus on two paradigm shifts in the cell biology, namely (i) the transition from light to transmission electron microscopy in studying cell protein secretion made by George Palade, and (ii) the transition from contractile to secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells made by Maria Daria Haust followed and developed by our research group. Altogether, we argue that one of the present challenges in vascular biology is to cultivate secreto-centric thinking and thus further focusing on how we could make the vascular muscle’s secretory pathways work for the benefit of human’s cardiovascular health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • George Palade
  • proteins
  • secretory pathways
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi complex
  • microtubules
  • colchicine
  • therapy
  • cardiovascular diseases
Otwarty dostęp

Perspectives on Antiviral Drugs Development in the Treatment of COVID-19

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 44 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of this review is to highlight the urgent development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Antiviral medication against SARS-CoV-2 comprises only remdesivir as an approved drug. Scientists are making considerable efforts to identify other effective antivirals. Investments into the de novo design of new drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are few. Molnupiravir proved to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is very close to approval. Pfizer’s two new compounds (PF-07321332, oral administration and PF-07304814, systemic administration) are in the early stages of development. Two types of methods are preferred to discover new antivirals in a short period. Repositioning of approved drugs for antiviral effect conducted to some clinical results for favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, danoprevir/ritonavir, umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, camostat and nafamostat. Virtual screening of known molecules’ libraries indicated several compounds that were tested or are being tested in clinical trials. In conclusion, only a few innovative antiviral molecules are in various stages of development. However, the repositioning of many known compounds is being studied, including using virtual screening. The pharmaceutical industry is adapting and reinventing itself so that humanity can face a new pandemic in the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19
  • antivirals
  • remdesivir
  • molnupiravir
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • azithromycin
  • ivermectin
  • camostat
Otwarty dostęp

Ecosystem Services of Hospital Gardens - Based on Microclimate Analyses of Green and Blue Garden Elements

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 60 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

The increasing urbanization process of the last decades has resulted in negative impacts and changes in the quality of the urban environment, as reflected in mortality and morbidity data (Páldy, 2018). The quality of the environment, the urban climate, the increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events, ultimately threaten human well-being. To design and build liveable cities, the quality of the urban environment must be improved, and improving micro- or local climate is an important factor in this. Increasing the proportion and quality of biologically active surfaces, i.e. the ecosystem services provided by green spaces, is one of the most effective tools for urban conditioning and enhancing human well-being. Determining the proportions of the green area, the design of vegetation, the choice of pavements and microarchitectures all determine the microclimate of an open-space. This has been confirmed by a large body of research and implemented work, but it is also important for designers to make a preliminary prediction of the impact of any intervention on the climatic conditions of the design site. These predictions will help cost-effective designing to determine which intervention will result in climate change.

This research uses two specific examples to examine the effectiveness of each landscape designing tool and to show which designing tool produces what and how much climatic impact. For these studies, we used a climate modeling program (ENVI-MET), which runs simulations to infer the climate modifying effects of landscape planning tools.

In the course of the research, we have shown that the local climate of hospital gardens could be significantly influenced by favorable, environmental-friend paving, a higher green cover ratio, and a well-developed and sufficiently dense tree canopy, and various water features.

Słowa kluczowe

  • urban microclimate
  • hospital gardens
  • ecosystem services of urban green infrastructure
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Different Substrate on the Morphological Characteristics of Hungarian Tagetes Patula Cultivars

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 73 - 82

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this trial was to find the optimal substrate (sand, peat and 1:1 mixture of them) for germination and growing of Tagetes patula ‘Robuszta Kénsárga’, ‘Vénusz’ and ‘Tigris’, with the use of 40 seeds according to substrates and cultivars in nine groups. Germination and survival ratio, plant height, root length, flower number and –diameter were examined. Almost all seeds germinated successfully, and the highest surviving was around 80% in case of peat + sand, and the lowest (50%) when plants grown in pure sand. The latter substrate resulted the longest roots (especially in the groups of ‘Tigris’) and all cultivars (particularly ‘Vénusz’) reached the lowest height with the use of this soil. On the other hand, peat effected the shortest roots, tallest specimens, most flowers of every cultivars. In case of flower number, there were significant differences between ‘Tigris’ (with averagely 58-70 flowers) and the other two types (23-39 flowers), irrespectively of the substrates. ‘Vénusz’ developed the smallest flower heads (maximum 3.5 cm) in all cases; the other cultivars produced at least 4 cm inflorescences. The lowest plant values experienced with the use of sand and the best results on peat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • substrates
  • germination
  • plant height
  • rooting
  • flowering
Otwarty dostęp

Inclusion Complex of Gedunin-2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin Prepared by Kneading and Freeze-Drying Methods: Synthesis and Structural Characterization

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2021
Zakres stron: 83 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potential application of gedunin, a pharmacologically active limonoid, is limited in medicine because it has poor aqueous solubility. This study was aimed at preparation and characterization of an inclusion complex of gedunin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) to increase the solubility in aqueous solvents and thus enhance the possibility of pharmaceutical formulation and oral administration of gedunin. Inclusion complex of gedunin isolated from Entandrophragma angolense heartwood with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) was prepared using freeze-drying and kneading methods. The gedunin-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex (GCD) was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Elemental analysis indicated that gedunin and HBD formed 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex. Results of FT-IR indicated that gedunin was stabilized in HBD cavity by intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. 1H-NMR revealed that the entire gedunin molecule was not trapped into the core of the HBD. Nevertheless, the fraction trapped may be sufficient to enhance the apparent solubility of gedunin. XRD results showed the formation of new solid crystalline phase. The results obtained by different characterization techniques clearly indicated that both kneading and freeze-drying methods led to inclusion complex formation which may enhance oral administration of gedunin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gedunin
  • 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
  • inclusion complex
  • spectroscopy

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