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Vitamin D3 deficiency and smell regions in adolescents: an MRI evaluation


OBJECTIVES. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 deficiency on peripheral and central odor centres by using cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

MATERIAL AND METHODS. In this retrospective study, cranial MRI images of 23 adolescents with vitamin D3 deficiency and 18 adolescents with normal vitamin D3 levels (≥ 20 ng/ml) were evaluated. Blood tests for vitamin D3, B12, hemoglobin and calcium levels were also taken from the database of our hospital. Peripheral odor centers, olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth, and also central odor centers, insular gyrus and corpus amygdala area were measured on cranial MRI.

RESULTS. The insular gyrus and corpus amygdala area were not different between the study group with vitamin D3 deficiency and the control group (p>0.05). There was no difference between OB volume of the study and control groups (p>0.05). Although the right insular area was lower in girls than males (p<0.05), there was no correlation between OB volume and gender (p>0.05). Higher hemoglobin levels were related to higher OB volume on the right side (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION. In the group with vitamin D3 deficiency, olfactory bulb volume of the left side was asymmetrically larger than the one on the right side. Therefore, the measurements of vitamin D3 should be performed in adolescents, and the patients with the vitamin D3 levels of < 20 ng/ml should be supplemented with medical treatment and reinforcing vitamin D synthesis by the exposure of sunlight more.

Częstotliwość wydawania:
4 razy w roku
Dziedziny czasopisma:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, other, Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Speech, Voice and Paediatric Hearing Disorders, Oromaxillofacial Surgery