Background: Improved prognosis and delay of clinical complications in diabetes mellitus can be ensured by early screening and regular monitoring after diagnosis. This requires venipuncture at regular intervals of time causing anxiety and discomfort to the patient. Hence, development of a painless, non-invasive procedure is desirable for which saliva is a potential tool. Also, this would provide easy and cost-effective means for large scale screening and epidemiological intervention.
Aim: To measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and compare and correlate with salivary glucose levels in normal and diabetic individuals. Also, the correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and salivary glucose is studied in the diabetics and controls.
Methods: Blood and salivary glucose was estimated by GOD-POD method and glycated hemoglobin by HPLC. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS 16. Mean, Standard deviation, independent t test, ANOVA (f test), Pearson’s correlation coefficient along with regression analysis was carried out and comparison was done between the control and diabetic groups and the different subgroups within the diabetic group.
Results: A significant difference between the salivary glucose levels in subjects indicating that a deranged glycemic status is reflected in saliva. Also, salivary glucose increases in proportion to an increase in the FPG and HbA1C of the diabetics. The regression coefficient was calculated and a formula was derived for prediction of FPG and HbA1c using salivary glucose.
Conclusion: Saliva can be used as a screening tool for diabetes. Standardization of the technique and setting up a reference range will also make it useful in diagnosing diabetes mellitus.