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COVID-19: Some Pathophysiological and Endocrine Aspects


The pandemic caused by COVID-19 infection almost two years ago is associated with many unknown multi-organ damages, including the endocrine system. Based on the fact that endocrine gland tissues express ACE-2 and TMPRSS2, it has been suggested that they may be directly attacked by the virus and cause toxic effects on them directly or indirectly by an autoimmune mechanism. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones are crucial for the course and progression of the disease and modulate the magnitude of the immune response and adaptation to stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize the state of the art in the COVID-19 and endocrine problems in its clinical and pathophysiological part and to answer the question of to what extent patients with COVID-19 have a higher risk of adverse outcomes.

Częstotliwość wydawania:
2 razy w roku
Dziedziny czasopisma:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, other, Ophthalmology, Public Health, Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy