1. bookTom 15 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)
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A review on electrical vehicle adaptation in India

Data publikacji: 06 Oct 2022
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 15 (2022) - Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)
Zakres stron: -
Otrzymano: 18 Jan 2021
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski
Introduction

Environmental parameter monitoring is extremely important, and there are several issues associated with it. Fresh water and fresh air are two of the most crucial ingredients required for the existence of all living creatures, including humans. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compound (VOC), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and others contribute to air pollution (Islam et al., 2017). Electric vehicle technology has been around for more than a century. Electric vehicles have more potential to reduce the climate change, air pollution fossil fuel usage and impacts due to greenhouse gas emissions (Bose and Sivraj, 2020). India intends to have to make electric vehicle on its road within five years at any rate of 15% of vehicle. The Indian government's desire to join an extensive rundown of nations around the globe that are now looking to cut non-renewable energy sources forcefully. Electric vehicles may represent around 7% of deals in India by 2030. The Indian government giving motivators through the FAME plot structure the year 2015 to decrease the cost of electric vehicles. Likewise, the public authority has endorsed pilot ventures, charging framework ventures, and innovative improvement ventures. India is looking to solve, there is a significant issue of battery loading framework for both wired and remote battery charging framework. The normalization of the parts of the electric vehicle loading, range, and cost is a significant hindrance to arrangement. In India Nowadays there is a little size of AC and DC battery loading units accessible, which are introduced with the help of EV makers. The Alternative Current slow charging foundation at habitations, work environments, and public spots needs exceptionally low venture when contrasted with fuel bunks. Yet, at the same time, presently, the charging foundation development in India is not sufficient. We ought to grow an enormous size of charging framework in India. It needs nonstop help from the public authority, utility grid specialists, and vehicles makers (Shivanand et al., 2019). Now there are six techniques to load an EV batery: 800V charging system, public charging system, smart grid charging system, wireless charging system, household charging, conductive charging system. India is the third-biggest market for vehicles with EV comprising under 1% of absolute cars on-road. Be that as it may, numerous variables are being the absence of public battery loading framework. In this paper, the possibility to expand battery loading stations by using power structure shafts and load EV battery, the charging rate is caught by the controller. So every transmission pole has the capability of turning into a charging station. Subsequently, the development of the charging framework will encourage the enhancement of electric vehicles in the Indian market (Deshpande and Deshpande, 2015).

People and logistics may move around more effectively with a well-designed transportation infrastructure (Tie and Tan, 2013). Road transportation accounts for roughly 75% of overall energy waste in the transportation industry. The automobile industry has had a long-term influence on pollution levels (Chakraborty et al., 2019). It has played a vital role in the development of human civilization. Internal combustion engines (ICE) account for 20 to 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions (Secretariat, 2011). The ideal gas law is used to explain the greenhouse effect created by internal combustion engines, which has a substantial influence on human health by producing hazardous gases such as NO2, CO2, CO, and NO (Tie and Tan, 2013). ICE vehicles waste energy due to friction and heat loss on moving components (Chau and Chan, 2007). In this respect, the replacement of internal combustion engines (ICEs) elevates electric vehicles (EVs) to the top of the pollution reduction priority list (Thiel et al., 2010). Battery-powered electric cars require a big battery pack with a restricted driving range for propulsion (Fontaras et al., 2016). HEVs are expected to be more fuel efficient than ICE cars and to maintain their state of charge (SOC) during the voyage (Kumar and Jain, 2014). They achieved zero emissions by using modern high-efficiency power train technology to battery and hybrid electric cars (Dost et al., 2018).

Battery technology

Electric vehicles use equivalent batteries with Lithiumion being the most notable science. There are two distinct approaches to extricate the lithium used in batteries: one is mining spodumene and petalite metal utilizing dissipation lakes on salt lakes. The battery framework is the vital innovation of battery used vehicles and characterizes their reach and execution qualities. The Lithium battery produces the electricity using the chemical energy. The Lithiumion battery is required to be the prevailing science for electric vehicles for a long time to come, as most research work is completed in the field of Lithium-ion batteries. This battery has generally high force and energy for a given weight or size, and can altogether lessen costs contrasted and different batteries. The energy thickness of the battery is assessed to generally double, up to about 300 Wh per kg in the period of 2007 and 2030. Electric vehicles require quick charging of lithium-ion batteries. Because charge current is a well-known degradation factor, system integrators must examine the influence of fast charging on battery ageing under a variety of operating scenarios in order to develop utilization strategies (Mathieu et al., 2021). The characteristics of cell were changed to determine which were the most crucial to control during fast charging. The ambient temperature was researched in addition to the charge current and end-of-charge voltage to address another gap in our current understanding. The findings demonstrated that quick charging's effect on cycle life is highly dependent on the materials and design of each cell (Mathieu et al., 2021). Likewise, this battery has a generally life cycle is long and self-discharging losses is low. However, one of the disadvantages is their affectability to over-charging.

The other car battery ideas incorporate nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH), sodium-nickel chloride (Na/NiCl2), and non-electrochemical choices, for example, supercapacitors, which permit quick charging yet give low energy density (Wolfram and Lutse, 2016). When all is said in done, can be seen the trends of lithium-ion batteries for Electric vehicles. Yet, it isn’t yet affirmed which battery will be the most ideal later on. The exploration work is proceeding to complete additionally for lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries, which one is prepared for mass market creation in the next 10 years (Frieske et al., 2013).

Method of charging infrastructure
800 voltage charging system

The electric vehicle which is working using the battery system needs to load the battery at a particular time respectively. In these batteries, systems have a voltage level 150 to 450V. And some of the high power (>250 kW) required electric vehicles require voltage up to 650 to 800 V. so the charging infrastructure should be split into two parts, one is 400 V and another is 800 V. The current requirement in the 800 V system is reduced by 50% as contrasted with the 400 V network. So the decrease of current will lessen the cross-segment of the wiring harness. The decrease of the cross-part of the wiring harness will lessen the size and weight of the charging circuit. So the high power low current framework will diminish the thermal losses in the battery framework and furthermore decreases the copper losses. This strategy will expand the effectiveness and diminishing the material expense. In this manner, the high-voltage charging framework assists with advancing the Electric vehicle from all angles thinking about effectiveness, weight, cost, and portability (Atkar et al., 2020).

Public charging system

The quick occasion to charge the battery system of the electric vehicle is to build up the general public battery loading station close by transmission poles which port 230V supply for household consumption. This strategy should be possible by using a household socket source through a NEMA 5–15 connecter. It will introduce the method 2 battery loading stations (AC level 2) effectiveness to help electrical vehicle use. The next method of the charging system is the type 1charging station(AC level 1) with a voltage 240 from the transformer to the house for domestic purposes. To we will connect one more step-down transformer that converts the voltage level from 240 to 120V. A public battery loading station can be created between the incoming supply and loading requirement of EV clients. The output of the charging connector directly gives high current DC electricity to the batteries in the DC charging technique. Up to 50 kW charging rates are possible. They have a 48V/72V voltage rating. Buses and taxis, which frequently travel large distances, require a lot of DC rapid charging infrastructure (Kumar and Padmanaban, 2019).

The advantage of people in the general public charging station is that it tends to be created in the current electrical framework set up by the public authority.

Smart grid charging system

The outcome of the phenomenon is that during demand time the voltage at the load terminal may diminish essentially, normalizing the reliability of the whole power network. To disregard these effects, another charging procedure named smart charging system has been proposed. In this technique, the reloading rate of electric vehicles relies upon the real-time worldwide power need feedback and fluctuates progressively. So the peak demand for power can be alleviated. Be that as it may, some condition makes an issue to implement this smart charging system. That is, a control place associating all battery loading piles is essential, the battery framework is needed to acknowledge different charging power levels and requires a developed communication system covering the power systems. These issues make the execution of smart charging monetarily and technically tough (Atkar et al., 2020).

Wireless charging

The wireless charging framework gives a more advantageous battery loading administration for EVs. This technology works with the coupled magnetic field to communicate power without actually interfacing. Three techniques are habitually used to reload the electric vehicle battery. Method one is Electromagnetic induction which is used to back to electric force, that is the essential hypothesis of wireless charging utilizing, this is very like the transformer. The benefit of this strategy is its effortlessness and development and its drawback is the little greatest charging distance between the reloading pile and the EV. The next technique is a wireless charging framework that uses the hypothesis of electromagnetic resonance. The charging distance of the strategy is commonly bigger than the first technique. Be that as it may, it can just transmit 100 W. The third technique for charging framework uses high-frequency radio waves (from 300 MHz to 300 GHz) to transmit power. The benefit of this strategy is large distance charging is applicable. In any case, the drawback is because of the omnidirectional radiation pattern of radio waves the battery reloading efficiency is exceptionally low (Atkar et al., 2020).

Household charging

In this technique, the current will be taken from a household socket. This is the most popular pricing method. To charge the electric vehicles, the client will require a 230 V/15 A single-phase supply. They have a maximum output of 2.5 kW. The charging procedure takes time, therefore users are expected to charge their electric vehicles at night. The metering is linked to the house metering system, thus no separate invoicing is required. However, a framework to govern residential charging, including separate metering and instructions for builders to incorporate EV charging stations in flats and apartments, may emerge shortly (Kumar and Padmanaban, 2019). There are three sorts of the charging framework to charge the electric vehicle. In sort 1 the charging points are given AC power to the vehicle through a standard low-power 110V network system, like those utilized in households in the United States or Japan. It burns through 20 hr to completely charge a 24 kWh battery. The sort 2 charging framework resembles a private or public charging points in the United States. In this strategy, the AC power through a 240V network system, and would thus be able to cut charging time by about half. In this sort 3 charging framework the current converts AC line voltage to a high-voltage DC. Connected to quite a quick charging point, a battery can be energized to 80% within 30 minutes. Yet, the expense of the sort 3 charger is much higher than those for type 1 and type 2.

Conductive charging system

Conductive charging infers a battery reloading structure where there is quick contact between the force supply and the vehicle through the charger. There are three kinds of charging for an electric vehicle: Slow charging (AC level 1), Fast charging (AC level 2), and Rapid charging (DC charging). Fast charging stations are the quickest way to charge an electric vehicle (other than battery swapping). It is also available for commercial use and can be charged at a public charging station. It is commonly referred to as a Level 3 charger because it provides high power by utilizing three-phase circuits. In general, the equipment size ranges from 50 to 150 kW, and the battery can reach 50% charge in as little as 10 to 15 min (Zhang et al., 2016). The chargers, on the other hand, are extremely expensive, sometimes costing tens of thousands of rupees. The cost of electricity is a major factor in determining the cost of operation. It consumes a lot of power, and a fast-charging station can be thought of as a medium voltage client who can buy electricity in the regulated market via the tariff (Zhang et al., 2016). Table 1 shows comparison of different level of charging. The proposed system involving MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker) 40A, MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) 20A, ammeter, voltmeter. In this system, the two MCBs are contact with a force attachment and the force attachment is related with the charging station, the essential force attachment is associated with the BougeRV level 2 EV charger 240 V 16A compact EVSE. By then enters the contractual worker and MCB 1, next, it will go to the charging plug for the vehicle. By then, the second force attachment is contact with contractual worker 2 it goes to MCB 16A, by then, it is related with two battery reloading charging plugs for an electric bicycle or bike. The regulator is used to figure the force needed during charging base on voltage and current information, by then it will be changed over into the expense (Mali et al., 2022).

Comparison of different level of charging (Mali et al., 2022).

S. No Parameters Slow charging Fast charging Rapid charging
1 Power 3 kW 7–43 kW 50–250 kW
2 Charging time 6–8 hr (100%) 1 hr (100%) 25 min (100%)
3 Battery type Li-ion, Pb Acid, Ni-MH Li-ion, Ni-MH, ZEBRA Li-ion
4 Recommended location Public parking Charging units Charging units
Challenges in the growth of charging infrastructure
Increasing the electricity demand

If the electric vehicle charging framework is introduced for an enormous scope, the energy needed from the utility grid increments. The absolute power generation in India during the 2018 to 2019 is 1547 TWh. This energy is utilized in homegrown, business, modern, and agribusiness areas. The absolute power need if all the current Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles are changed over into Battery Electric Vehicles in the period of 2016 to 2017 is 439 TWh which is 34.26% extra than the current power generation. The power generation in India will develop alongside the interest in the homegrown, business, mechanical, and horticulture areas in 2030. Then again, there will be a development in the creation of cars in India by 2030 likewise these vehicles are 100% Battery Electric Vehicles. So in India by 2030, 100% of BEVs would require the energy of 929.3 TWh which is about 37% extra power to be delivered then again the assessed power generation of 2500 TWh. Figure 1. Shows the projected electricity demand up to 2030.

Figure 1

Projected electricity demand up to 2030 (Maghfiroh et al., 2019).

Lack of concession for charging infrastructure

In India, the public authority giving concession for buying the electric vehicles and it is required to give admission to introducing people in general charging foundation too. According to the FAME plot the Indian government dispensed 300 million INR (5 Million USD) for the charging foundation during the year 2015 to 2017; however, the normalization and running of not many pilot ventures with respect to the charging framework (Spencer and Awasthy, 2019).

Factors affecting the EV adaptation in India
Lack of charging infrastructure

In India, Nowadays there are few Direct Current charging units that are introduced by Electric Vehicle produces. What's more, the public Alternative Current slow charging focuses are additionally existing in India with under 3.3 kW power rating which is restricted by locally available charger limits of electric vehicles. The charging framework needs less venture when contrasted with the fuel stations, yet at the same time, the development of energizing foundation is not to the imprint as it needs nonstop help from the public authority, utility grid specialists, and EV makers.

Higher charging times

The typical electric vehicle in India needs minimum 7 to 8 hr for full charging if charging is started using a 230 V single-stage flexibly. Yet, half of the client's require battery loading time to be under 2 hr and 30% of client's necessities under 4 hr (Sutopo et al., 2018). The Direct Current quick charging unit decrease the battery loading time to under 2 hr, yet the numbers of charging units are restricted as it cannot be introduced in homegrown spots.

Price vs range factor

When compared to conventional vehicles, the price of the electric vehicle is higher. These days there are almost 25 different models of bike battery-worked vehicles India out of this simply 4 to 5 models are utilizing lithium-ion batteries. 60% of the clients expecting the scope of more than 300 km per charge. There are around 25 different models of four wheelers battery-worked vehicles, most of them are using lithium-ion batteries. But the range of some of these vehicles between 120 and 270 km per charge and some of these have ranged between 300 and 400 km per charge. The reach tension of an electric vehicle would not be a hindrance if there is a plentiful charging framework inside urban communities in India

Lack of awareness & EV manufactures

In India, the greater part of the drivers have an absence of awareness about electric vehicles. It will influence the development of EVs due to the non-presence of EVs on the roads and furthermore absence of manufactures. The electric vehicle produces are as of now directing lobbies for the mindfulness and the public authority is required to help for a huge scope (Nair et al., 2017).

Development needs and improvements

The environment and the electricity grid may both gain from EV deployment. EVs are cleaner for the environment than traditional internal combustion engine cars since they emit no tailpipe emissions. From the standpoint of the electricity grid, EV deployment offers several benefits to the smart grid, including V2G technology and the facilitation of RES integration. EV technologies are still in their early stages of development.Despite significant advancements over the years, the present lithium-based EV battery has a low energy density, a short life cycle, and a high starting cost. Some battery technologies have the potential to provide better performance, although they are currently in the experimental stage (Nair et al., 2017). EVs can wreak havoc on power quality, but they are also impacted by it. Prior to connecting EVs to distribution networks, emission limitations and immunity levels must be established, taking into consideration the characteristics of EVs as either users or producers of electricity. Mobility, generating/consuming flexibility, and the utilization of power electronic interface devices must all be considered (Moschakis et al., 2012). Current power quality requirements may be partially or completely implemented for the integration of EV ideas using the network user and DG unit paradigm. A number of nations have accepted these standards, with minor differences and/or additional requirements based on voltage levels, grid architecture and design, load kinds, and so on. It has been demonstrated that the EMC-Power Quality requirements can be breached by a moderate or high penetration of EVs in existing electric networks (Rezek, 2011).

In India to accomplish a operation on the organization of 6 to 7 million EV by 2021 and boycott petroleum and diesel vehicle deals structure from 2030 to diminish the ozone depleting substance discharges, the development of charging framework assumes a significant job. Table 2 shows Electric Cars Details and Specification in Last 4 Years (Electric Car Details and Specification, 2020). The enormous scope electric vehicle charging framework requires adequate energy to shape the utility grid and producing this utilizing sustainable power sources will assist with accomplishing the objective. Till April 2017, if India was having 100% Battery Electric Vehicles in the transportation area, just 6.09% of power would have been obliged from existing sun-oriented plants and the leftover power would have been obliged from different sources. Yet, with assistance of the objective of 100 GW sun oriented force by 2022, 32.45% of the necessary power (600 TWh) can be obliged from sun powered plants for the presence of BEVs in the period of 2022 to 2023. The energy generation improvement from inexhaustible sources needs to address for the enormous scope charging framework development in India. And furthermore the joining of wind force and housetop sun based force with capacity in the conveyance lattice to fulfill extra need by electric vehicles. It requires legitimate wanting to screen and control of charging foundation, as an expansion in entrance of Electric Vehicles can prompt an increment in pinnacle load interest on an all around focused on dispersion organization (Comparing All Cars Details, 2020).

Electric cars details and specification in last 4 years (Electric Car Details and Specification, 2020; Comparing All Cars Details, 2020).

Year Company name Model name Battery type Rating of battery Battery capacity Required charging type
2022 Hyundai Ioniq Lithium-ion 28 kWh 280 km/Full charge Fast charging
2021 BMW iX Lithium-ion 76.6 kWh 425 km/Full charge Fast Charging
2021 Jaguar I-Pace Lithium-ion 90 kWh 470 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2020 Mercedes Benz EQC Lithium-ion 80 kWh 350 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Mahindra eKUV 100 Lithium-ion 15.9 kWh 147 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Tata Altroz Lithium-ion 15.9 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Audi E-Tron Lithium-ion 95 kWh 328 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2020 Nissan Leaf Lithium-ion 62 kWh 364 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2019 Hyundai Kona Electric Lithium-ion Polymer 64 kWh 400 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2019 Tata Nexon EV Advanced Li-ion Polymer 30.2 kWh 312 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 MG eZS Lithium-ion 44.5 kWh 230 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 Suzuki Wagon Electric Lithium-ion 25 kWh 150 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 Renault Kwid EV Lithium-ion 26.8 kWh 271 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata NEO (JAYEM NEO) Lithium titanate 17 kWh 150 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata Tiago EV Lithium-ion 16.2 kWh 142 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata Tigor Electric Lithium-ion 21.5 kWh 100 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Nissan NOTE E-POWER Lithium-ion 40 kWh 311 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Mahindra e2o Plus Lithium-ion 10.08 kWh 120 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Mahindra e-Verito Lithium-ion 21.2 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Jaguar i-Pace Lithium-ion 84.7 kWh 370 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2018 Honda Accord Hybrid Lithium-ion 1.3 kWh + fuel tank (49 gals) 967 km/Full charge Slow Charging
2018 Toyota Prius Lithium-ion 4.4 kWh 24 km/Full charge Slow charging
2017 Mahindra eVerito Lithium-ion 18.85 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2017 Toyota Camry Hybrid Nickel-Metal hydride 1.6 kWh 16 km/Full charge Slow charging
2017 Volvo XC90 T8 Plug-In Hybrid Lithium-ion 9.2 kWh 21 km/Full charge Fast charging

The charging time of battery and driving reach is connected to innovation and charging foundation. The charging time can be decreased through quick charging stations and comparatively the driving reach can be tended to by choosing higher energy batteries or through a very much dispersed foundation of the battery trading technique.

The battery-swapping station can plan to charge the batteries during the off-peak time at decreased power slabs. Likewise some examination test is done in bi-directional energy stream for focusing on high energy density to charge the Electric vehicle (Hrbac et al., 2019).

India faces a significant hurdle in transitioning from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles. This will need extensive planning, research, and development. Government policies such as FAME and a few others must be modified on a regular basis in order to stay up with global developments. India should concentrate on increasing the energy efficiency of electric vehicles (Comparing All Cars Details, 2020).

The public authority of India is supporting India's biggest private vehicle armada organization Operational-level agreement (OL A) which was dispatched Battery Electric Vehicles for public transportation in Nagpur city on May 2017 (Hrbac et al., 2019). With the assistance of this help from the public authority, numerous associations and new businesses have just begun chipping away at building electric vehicles and building up the charging foundation. This will helps in making mindfulness in individuals and furthermore helps in making a serious market. In addition to battery performance and charging time, the availability of charging infrastructure is linked to driving range, which is one of the factors that influences the adoption of electric vehicles (Al-Saadi et al., 2022; Introducing, 2020). Fast and smart charging stations are projected to drive the growth of electric vehicles in this way; the EV's sluggish charging durations are seen as a disadvantage when compared to the convenience of filling up at a petrol station. Furthermore, the provision of several prices and technical charging choices for time-of-use pricing will encourage consumers to shift their charging from peak to off-peak periods (Arribas-Ibar et al., 2021; Gnann et al., 2018).

Conclusion with future work

Accordingly, batteries with more energy and power densities are being developed, for example, lithiumair (Li-air), lithium-metal or lithium-sulfur (Li-S), anyway these are far from commercialization. Li-air batteries may arrive at energy densities of up to 11,680 Wh per kg, which approximates the enthusiastic substance of gasoline. The significant obstructions to variation of EVs in India are absence of charging framework, battery loading time, driving reach, absence of awareness, and absence of Electric Vehicle producers. The charging time and driving reach will be tended to by developing the charging framework introduced for enormous scope. The difficulties development of charging framework is controlled by fulfilling the power need from the generating network, accessibility of charging guidelines, and constant help from the public authority, EV producers, and utility grid experts for establishments. The Indian government is wanting to expand the charging norms for the huge scope charging foundation development. In India, by 2030 the power needed for the presence of 100% BEVs would be 37% higher than the assessed power age. In India, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy sources (MNRE) has wanted to take a shot at a National Sun oriented power operation to introduce 100Gw of sun-oriented force by 2022. The sun oriented powered operation creates 137 Twh of power which make up 32.45% of the power needed for 100% BEVs during 2022 to 2023. So, by 2030, every one of these activities can develop the accessibility of huge scope charging framework in India and therefore large variation of electric vehicles can be accomplished.

Figure 1

Projected electricity demand up to 2030 (Maghfiroh et al., 2019).
Projected electricity demand up to 2030 (Maghfiroh et al., 2019).

Electric cars details and specification in last 4 years (Electric Car Details and Specification, 2020; Comparing All Cars Details, 2020).

Year Company name Model name Battery type Rating of battery Battery capacity Required charging type
2022 Hyundai Ioniq Lithium-ion 28 kWh 280 km/Full charge Fast charging
2021 BMW iX Lithium-ion 76.6 kWh 425 km/Full charge Fast Charging
2021 Jaguar I-Pace Lithium-ion 90 kWh 470 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2020 Mercedes Benz EQC Lithium-ion 80 kWh 350 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Mahindra eKUV 100 Lithium-ion 15.9 kWh 147 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Tata Altroz Lithium-ion 15.9 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2020 Audi E-Tron Lithium-ion 95 kWh 328 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2020 Nissan Leaf Lithium-ion 62 kWh 364 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2019 Hyundai Kona Electric Lithium-ion Polymer 64 kWh 400 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2019 Tata Nexon EV Advanced Li-ion Polymer 30.2 kWh 312 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 MG eZS Lithium-ion 44.5 kWh 230 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 Suzuki Wagon Electric Lithium-ion 25 kWh 150 km/Full charge Fast charging
2019 Renault Kwid EV Lithium-ion 26.8 kWh 271 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata NEO (JAYEM NEO) Lithium titanate 17 kWh 150 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata Tiago EV Lithium-ion 16.2 kWh 142 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Tata Tigor Electric Lithium-ion 21.5 kWh 100 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Nissan NOTE E-POWER Lithium-ion 40 kWh 311 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Mahindra e2o Plus Lithium-ion 10.08 kWh 120 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Mahindra e-Verito Lithium-ion 21.2 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2018 Jaguar i-Pace Lithium-ion 84.7 kWh 370 km/Full charge Rapid charging
2018 Honda Accord Hybrid Lithium-ion 1.3 kWh + fuel tank (49 gals) 967 km/Full charge Slow Charging
2018 Toyota Prius Lithium-ion 4.4 kWh 24 km/Full charge Slow charging
2017 Mahindra eVerito Lithium-ion 18.85 kWh 140 km/Full charge Fast charging
2017 Toyota Camry Hybrid Nickel-Metal hydride 1.6 kWh 16 km/Full charge Slow charging
2017 Volvo XC90 T8 Plug-In Hybrid Lithium-ion 9.2 kWh 21 km/Full charge Fast charging

Comparison of different level of charging (Mali et al., 2022).

S. No Parameters Slow charging Fast charging Rapid charging
1 Power 3 kW 7–43 kW 50–250 kW
2 Charging time 6–8 hr (100%) 1 hr (100%) 25 min (100%)
3 Battery type Li-ion, Pb Acid, Ni-MH Li-ion, Ni-MH, ZEBRA Li-ion
4 Recommended location Public parking Charging units Charging units

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