1. bookTom 25 (2013): Zeszyt 8 (December 2013)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Otwarty dostęp

Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 25 (2013) - Zeszyt 8 (December 2013)
Zakres stron: 671 - 684
Otrzymano: 19 Jun 2013
Przyjęty: 30 Nov 2013
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

1. Baker, R.R. and L.J. Bishop: The Pyrolysis of Tobacco Ingredients; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 71 (2004) 223–311.10.1016/S0165-2370(03)00090-1Search in Google Scholar

2. Baker, R.R., E.D. Massey, and G. Smith: An Over-view of the Effects of Tobacco Ingredients on Smoke Chemistry and Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42S (2004) S53–S83.10.1016/j.fct.2004.01.001Search in Google Scholar

3. Baker, R.R., J.R. Pereira da Silva, and G. Smith: The Effect of Tobacco Ingredients on Smoke Chemistry. Part I: Flavorings and Additives; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42S (2004) S3–S37.10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00189-3Search in Google Scholar

4. Carmines, E.L.: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 1: Cigarette Design, Testing Approach, and Review of Results; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 77–91.Search in Google Scholar

5. Chepiga, T.A., M.J. Morton, P.A. Murphy, J.T. Avalos, B.R. Bombick, D.J. Doolittle, M.F. Borgerding, and J.E. Swauger: A Comparison of the Mainstream Smoke Chemistry and Mutagenicity of a Representative Sample for the U.S. Cigarette Market with two Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (K1R4F and K1R5F); Food Chem. Toxicol. 38 (2000) 949-962.Search in Google Scholar

6. Counts, M.E., F.S. Hsu, S.W. Laffoon, R.W. Dwyer, and R.H. Cox: Mainstream Smoke Constituent Yields and Predicting Relationships From a Worldwide Market Sample of Cigarette Brands: ISO Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39 (2004) 111-134.Search in Google Scholar

7. Counts, M.E., M.J. Morton, S.W. Laffoon, R.H. Cox, and P.J. Lipowicz: Smoke Composition and Predicting Relationships for International Commercial Cigarettes Smoked with Three Machine-Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 41 (2005) 185-227.Search in Google Scholar

8. Counts, M.E., F.S. Hsu, and FJ. Tewes: Development of a Commercial Cigarette “Market Map” Comparison Methodology for Evaluating New or Non-Con-ventional Cigarettes; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46 (2006) 225-242.Search in Google Scholar

9. Gaworski, CL., M.J. Oldham, K.A. Wagner, C.R.E. Coggins, and G.J. Patskan: An Evaluation of the Tox-icity of 95 Ingredients Added Individually to Experi-mental Cigarettes: Approach and Methods; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 (S1) (2011) 1-12.Search in Google Scholar

10. Gaworski, CL., K.A. Wagner, M.J. Morton, and M.J. Oldham: Insights From a Multi-Year Program De-signed to Test the Impact of Ingredients on Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Toxicity; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 (S1) (2011) 1-12.Search in Google Scholar

11. Green, CR., J.N. Schumacher, R.A. Lloyd Jr, and A. Rodgman: Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2007) 258-289.Search in Google Scholar

12. Harris, J.E.: Incomplete Compensation Does Not Im-ply Reduced Harm: Yields of 40 Smoke Toxicants per Milligram Nicotine in Regular Filter Versus Low-Tar Cigarettes in the 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6 (2004) 797-807.Search in Google Scholar

13. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: The Changing Cigarette: Chemical Studies and Bioassays; in: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 13., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Insti-tutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA, pp. 159-191, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

14. Rodgman, A. and T.A. Perfetti: The Composition of Tobacco Smoke: A Chronology of the Studies of Four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 208-254.Search in Google Scholar

15. Roemer, E., F.J. Tewes, T.J. Meisgen, D.J. Veltel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Ef-fects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 3: In Vitro Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 105-111.Search in Google Scholar

16. Rustemeier, K., R. Stabbert, H.-J. Haussmann, E. Roemer, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 2: Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 93-104.Search in Google Scholar

18. Stavanja, M.S., P.H. Ayres, D.R. Meckley, B.R. Bombick, D.H. Pence, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Mor-ton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Honey as an Ingredient Added to Ciga-rette Tobacco; J Toxicol Environ Health Part A. 66 (2003) 1453–1474.Search in Google Scholar

19. Stavanja, M.S., P.H. Ayres, D.R. Meckley, E.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Morton, C.D. Gar-ner, D.H. Pence, and J.E. Swauger: Safety Assess-ment of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) as an In-gredient Added to Cigarette Tobacco; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2006) 267–281.Search in Google Scholar

20. Stephens, W.E.: Dependence of Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Yields on Physical Parameters: Implications for Exposure, Emissions Control and Monitoring; Tob. Control 16 (2007) 170–176.Search in Google Scholar

21. Theophilus, E.H., B.R. Bombick, D.R. Meckley, M.A. Higuchi, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Morton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Propane Expanded Tobacco; Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (2003) 1771–1780.Search in Google Scholar

22. Theophilus, E.H., D.B. Poindexter, D.R. Meckley, B.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, M.A. Higuchi, P.H. Ayres, M.J. Morton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Dry Ice Ex-panded Tobacco; Toxicol. Letters. 145 (2003) 107–119.Search in Google Scholar

23. Vanscheeuwijck, P.M., A. Teredesai, P.M. Terpstra, J. Verbeeck, P. Kuhl, B. Gerstenberg, S. Gebel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 4: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 113–131.Search in Google Scholar

24. Baker, R.R.: The Development and Significance of Standards for Smoking-Machine Methodology; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 23–41.Search in Google Scholar

25. FTC 1967 Press Release, August 1, 1967; Available at http://www.pmi.com/eng/tobacco_regulation/ regulating_tobacco/regulation_of_tobacco_smoke/ documents/1967_ftc_press_release_ftc%20to%20 begin%20cigarette%20testing.pdf (accessed Decem-ber 2013)Search in Google Scholar

26. National Cancer Institute: The FTC Cigarette Test Method for Determining Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide Yields of U.S. Cigarettes; Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 7. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA (1996) NIH Pub. No. 96–4028 (Chapters 1, 2, 9, 11).Search in Google Scholar

27. National Cancer Institute: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 13. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA (2001) NIH Pub. No. 02–5074 (Chapters 3, 6, 7).Search in Google Scholar

28. Rodgman, A.: FTC ‘Tar’ and Nicotine in Mainstream Smoke: A retrospective; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 23 (1997) 5–74.Search in Google Scholar

29. Connolly, G.N., H. R. Alpert, G.F. Wayne, and H. Koh: Trends in Nicotine Yield in Smoke and its Relationship with Design Characteristics Among Popular U.S. Cigarette Brands 1997–2005; Tob. Control (2007) 16(5):e5.10.1136/tc.2006.019695259854817897974Search in Google Scholar

29. Borgerding, M.F., J.A. Bodnar, D.E. Wingate, C.R. Taylor, J.R. Reid, M.A. Sudholz, K.F. Podraza, F.S. Hsu, and J.F. Whidby: The 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study; Massachusetts Department of Public Health under the Massachusetts public records law, 2000. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/ documentStore/y/e/k/yek21c00/Syek21c00.pdf (ac-cessed December 2013).Search in Google Scholar

30. Gregg, E., C. Hill, M. Hollywood, M. Kearney, K. McAdam, D. McLaughlin, S. Purkis, and M. Williams: The UK Smoke Constituents Testing Study. Summary of Results and Comparison With Other Studies; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2004) 117–138.Search in Google Scholar

31. Morton, M.J. and S.W. Laffoon: Cigarette Smoke Chemistry Market Maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 51 (2008) 1–30.Search in Google Scholar

32. Swauger, J.E., T.J. Steichen, P.A. Murphy, and S. Kinsler: An Analysis of the Mainstream Smoke Chemistry of Samples of the U.S. Cigarette Market Acquired Between 1995 and 2000; Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 35 (2002) 142–156.Search in Google Scholar

33. Laugesen, M. and J. Fowles: Marlboro Ultrasmooth: A Potentially Reduced Exposure Cigarette?; Tob. Control 15 (2006) 430–435.Search in Google Scholar

34. van Amsterdam, J.G.C., T.M. Brunt, A.P.J. Verlaan, R.F.M.J. Cleven, A. Opperhuizen, and W. Vleeming: The Relation Between the Quantity of Ammonium Compounds in Tobacco and the Nitrogen Monoxide (NO) Levels in the Smoke of Cigarettes Marketed in the Netherlands; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 196–203.Search in Google Scholar

35. Watson, C., J. McCraw, G. Polzin, and D.L. Ashley: Development of a Method to Assess Cigarette Smoke Intake; Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (2004) 248–253.Search in Google Scholar

36. Hammond, D., F. Wiebel, L.T. Kozlowski, R. Borland, K.M. Cummings, R.J. O'Connor, A. McNeill, G.N. Connolly, D. Arnott, and G.T. Fong: Revising the machine smoking regime for cigarette emissions: Implications for tobacco control policy. Tob. Control 16 (2007) 8–14.Search in Google Scholar

37. World Health Organization: Scientific Advisory Committee on Tobacco Product Regulation (SACTob) Recommendation on Tobacco Product Ingredients and Emissions (2004); Available at http://www.who.int/tobacco/sactob/recommendations/ en/ingredients_en.pdf (accessed August 10, 2011).Search in Google Scholar

38. World Health Organization: The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation: Report of a WHO Study Group. WHO Technical Report Series 945 (2007); Available at http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_ interaction/tobreg/who_tsr.pdf (accessed August 10, 2011).Search in Google Scholar

39. Kozlowski, L.T., N.Y. Mehta, C.T. Sweeney, S.S. Schwartz, G.P. Vogler, M.J. Jarvis, and R.J. West: Filter Ventilation and Nicotine Content of Tobacco in Cigarettes from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States; Tob. Control 7 (1998) 369–375.Search in Google Scholar

40. Moore, G.E., I. Bross, R. Shamberger, and F.G. Bock: Tar and Nicotine Retrieval from Fifty-Six Brands of Cigarettes; Cancer 20 (1967) 323-332.Search in Google Scholar

41. Moore, G.E. and F.G. Bock: “Tar” and Nicotine Lev-els of American Cigarettes; in: National Cancer Insti-tute Monograph 28: Toward a Less Harmful Ciga-rette, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, USA (1968) pp. 89-94.Search in Google Scholar

42. St. Charles, F.K., CJ. Cook, and P.M. Clayton: The Linear Relationship Between Cigarette Tar and Nicotine Yields: Regulatory Implications for Smoke Con-stituent Ratios; Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 59 (2011) 143-148.Search in Google Scholar

43. Federal Register, August 1, 1967. Cigarettes: Testing for Tar and Nicotine Content; Vol. 32, No. 147, p. 11178.Search in Google Scholar

44. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 4387; Third Ed., Cigarettes - Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

45. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10315 Second Ed. and Corrigendum I, 2000 Cigarettes - Determination of Nicotine in Smoke Condensates - Gas Chromato-graphic Method. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

46. Massachusetts General Laws: Chapter 94, Sect. 3 07B, 105 Code of Massachusetts Regulations 660.000 et seq., 1997.Search in Google Scholar

47. Canada, 2000. Canada Government Tobacco Act: Tobacco Reporting Regulations, SOR/2000-273. Reg-istration June 26, 2000. Schedule 2: Official Methods for Collection of Emission Data on Mainstream Smoke. Methods available at: http://www.hcsc. gc.ca/ hecs-sesc/tobacco/legislation/index_testmethods_ main.html (accessed 2013) or through Health Canada, Tobacco Control Programme, P.L. 3506C, Ottawa, Canada, K1A 0K9.Search in Google Scholar

48. Morton, M.J., D.L. Williams, H.B. Hjorth, and J.H. Smith: Machine-Smoking of Cigarette Filter Color to Estimate Tar Yield by Visual Assessment and Through the Use of a Colorimeter; Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 56 (2010) 321-331.Search in Google Scholar

49. Ehmke, H. and G. Neurath: Einfluss des Feuchtig-keitsgehaltes von Cigaretten auf die Zusammensetz-ung des Rauches II (The Influence of Tobacco Moisture Content on the Composition of Mainstream Smoke II); Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1964) 205-208.Search in Google Scholar

50. Green, CR., F.W. Conrad, M.F. Dube, J.L. Harris, and A.L. Angel: Dry Cigarette Chemistry; RJR Inter-nal Report (1982) Available at: http://www.legacy. library.ucsf.edu/tid/gff97c00/pdf (accessed June 28, 2009).Search in Google Scholar

51. Neurath, G. and H. Horstmann: Einfluss des Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes von Cigaretten auf die Zu-sammensetzung des Rauches und die Glut-zonentemperatur (The Influence of Tobacco Moisture Content on the Composition of Mainstream Smoke as Well as on the Temperature in the Combustion Zone); Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1963) 93-100.Search in Google Scholar

52. Zha, Q. and S.C. Moldoveanu: The influence of cigarette moisture to the chemistry of particulate phase smoke of a common commercial cigarette. Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2004) 93-100.Search in Google Scholar

53. Littel, R.C., G.A. Milliken, W.W. Stroup, R.D. Wolfinger, and O. Schabenberger: SAS for Mixed Models; Second Ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

54. Verbeke, G. and G. Molenberghs: Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data; New York, Springer-Verlag, 2000.10.1007/978-1-4419-0300-6Search in Google Scholar

55. Miura, K., S. Kitao, Y. Egashira, N. Nishiyama, and K. Ueyama: Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 277-287.Search in Google Scholar

56. Baker, R.R.: Temperature Variation Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; High Temp. Sci. 7 (1975) 236-247.Search in Google Scholar

57. Baker, R.R.: Variation of the Gas Formation Regions Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1981) 1-17.Search in Google Scholar

58. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Chemical and Bio-logical Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes that Heat Instead of Burn tobacco; RJ. Reynolds Company, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

59. Roemer, E., R. Stabbert, K. Rustemeier, DJ. Veltel, T.J. Meisgen, W. Reininghaus, R.A. Carchman, CL. Gaworski, and K.F. Podraza: Chemical Composition, Cytotoxicity, and Mutagenicity of Smoke from U.S. Commercial and Reference Cigarettes Smoked Under Two Sets of Machine Smoking Conditions; Toxicol-ogy 195 (2004) 31-52.Search in Google Scholar

60. SAS Institute Inc.: SAS/STAT® version 9.1 User's Guide; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

61. Gori, G.B. and CJ. Lynch: Analytical Cigarette Yields as Predictors of Smoke Bioavailability; Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 5 (1985) 314-326.Search in Google Scholar

62. Curran, J.G. and J.E. Keifer: A Method for Measuring the Elution of Nicotine and Total Particulate Matter From a Cigarette Filter; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 29-35.Search in Google Scholar

63. Norman, A.: Cigarette Design and Materials; in: Tobacco: Production, Chemistry, and Technology, ed-ited by D.L Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1999, pp. 353-387.Search in Google Scholar

64. Norman, V.: The Effect of Perforated Tipping Paper on the Yield of Various Smoke Components; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1974) 282-287.Search in Google Scholar

65. Cahours, X., T. Verron, and S. Purkis: Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 381-395.Search in Google Scholar

66. Purkis, S.W., C. Mueller, M. Intorp, and H. Seidel: The Influence of Cigarette Designs and Smoking Re-gimes on Vapour Phase Yields; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 33-46.Search in Google Scholar

67. Hammond, D., G.T. Fong, K.M. Cummings, R.J. O'Connor, G.A. Giovino, and A. McNeill: Cigarette Yields and Human Exposure: A Comparison of Alter-native Testing Regimens; Cancer Epidemiol. Bio-markers Prev. 15 (2006) 1495-1501.Search in Google Scholar

68. Marian, C, R.J. O'Connor, M.V. Djordjevic, V.W. Rees, D.H. Hatsukami, and P.G. Shields: Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies; Can-cer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3305–3320.Search in Google Scholar

69. Urban, H.J., W. Gomm, and M. Schorp: A Modelling Approach to Develop Machine Smoking Protocols Reflecting Human Puffing Behaviour for Conventional Cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2008) 8–18.Search in Google Scholar

70. Harris, J.E.: Smoke Yields of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Relation to FTC Tar Level and Ciga-rette Manufacturer: Analysis of the Massachusetts Benchmark Study; Public Health Reports 116 (2001) 336–343.Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo