1. bookTom 19 (2001): Zeszyt 7 (October 2001)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Otwarty dostęp

Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: Identification, Tobacco Precursors, Control of Levels: A Review

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 19 (2001) - Zeszyt 7 (October 2001)
Zakres stron: 361 - 379
Otrzymano: 20 Jul 2001
Przyjęty: 27 Sep 2001
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

1. Van Duuren, B.L., J.A. Bilbao, and CA. Joseph: The carcinogenic nitrogen heterocycles in cigarette smoke condensate; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 25 (1960) 53K61.Search in Google Scholar

2. Rodgman, A.: Tobacco smoke components. Letter to the Editor; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 18 (1998) 126K129.Search in Google Scholar

3. Wynder, E.L. and E.A. Graham: Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologie factor in bronchiogenic carci-noma: A study of six hundred and eighty-four proved cases; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 143 (1950) 329K336; Doli, R. and A.B. Hill: Smoking and carci-noma of the lung. Preliminary report; Brit. Med. J. ii (1950) 739K748; Schrek, R, L.A. Baker, G.P. Ballard, and S. Dolgoff: Tobacco smoking as an etiologie factor in disease; Cancer Res. 10 (1950) 49K58; Doli, R. and A.B. Hill: A study of the aetiology of carci-noma of the lung; Brit. Med. J. ii (1952) 1271K1286.Search in Google Scholar

4. Wynder, E.L, E.A. Graham, and A.B. Croninger: Study on the experimental production of cancer with tobacco tar; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 1 (1953) 62K63; Experimental production of carcinoma with cigarette tar; Cancer Res. 13 (1953) 855K864.Search in Google Scholar

5. Hartwell, J.L.: Survey of compounds which have been tested for carcinogenic activity; USPHS Publ. No. 149 (1947), Washington, D.C.; Survey of compounds which have been tested for carcinogenic activity; USPHS Publ. No. 149, 2nd Edition (1951), Washington, D.C.Search in Google Scholar

6. Fieser, L.F.: Chemical carcinogenesis. Arthur Stolle Festschrift (1957) 489K498.Search in Google Scholar

7. Oxalic acid [HOOC-COOH], which contains no C-H linkage, appeared to be an exception to the rule that a C-H linkage was a molecular necessity for the generation of PAHs. Oxalic acid does generale traces of PAHs on heating [Gilbert, J.A.S. and A.J. Lindsey: The thermal decomposition of some to-bacco constituents; Brit. J. Cancer 11 (1957) 398K402]. However, when heated, oxalic acid decom-poses to carbon dioxide and formie acid [H-COOH] that does contain the requisite C-H linkage.Search in Google Scholar

8. Rodgman, A, C.J. Smith, and T.A. Perfetti: The composition of cigarette smoke: A retrospective, with emphasis on polycyclic components; Humań Exptl. Toxicol. 19 (2000) 573K595.Search in Google Scholar

9. Kosak, A.I.: The composition of tobacco smoke; Experientia 10 (1954) 69K71.Search in Google Scholar

10. Rodgman, A.: Some studies of the effects of additives on cigarette mainstream smoke properties. I. Fla-vorants; manuscript submitted to Beitr. Tabak-forsch. Int.Search in Google Scholar

11. Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. I. The isolation and/or identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Camel cigarette smoke; RDR, 1956, No. 9, September 28 (INT-501008241 -8293); Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. IV. 3,4,8,9-Dibenzpyrene in Camel cigarette smoke condensate; RDR, 1957, No. 13, October 7 (INT- 501008378 -8386) 12. Rodgman, A. and L.C. Cook: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XIV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; RDR, 1960, No. 20, May 26 (INT-501008592 -8660); Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XIX. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; RDR, 1961, No. 1, January 6 (INT-500935976 -5996).Search in Google Scholar

13. Hartwell, J.L.: Survey of compounds which have been tested for carcinogenic activity; USPHS Publ. No. 149 (1947), Washington, D.C; Survey of compounds which have been tested for carcinogenic ac-tivity; USPHS Publ. No. 149, 2nd Edition (1951), Washington, D.C; Shubik, P. and J.L. Hartwell: Survey of compounds which have been tested for carcinogenic activity, Suppl. 1; USPHS Publ. No. 149 (1957) Washington, D.C; Suppl. 2; USPHS Publ. No. 149 (1969) Washington, D.C.Search in Google Scholar

14. Dipple, A, R.C. Moschel, and C.A.H. Bigger: Poly-nuclear hydrocarbons; Chapter 2, in: Chemical car-cinogens, Second edition, edited by CE. Searle, Am. Chem. Soc. Monograph 182, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. 1984, 41K163.Search in Google Scholar

15. Snook, M.E, R.F. Severson, H.C Higman, and O.T. Chortyk: Isolation and identification of poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of tobacco smoke; 28th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 28, Paper No. 40, 1974, p. 27; Snook, M.E, R.F. Severson, R.F. Arren-dale, H.C. Higman, and O.T. Chortyk: High molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of cigarette smoke; 29th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 29, Paper No. 21, 1975, p. 19; Snook, M.E, R.F. Severson, H.C. Higman, R.F. Arrendale, and O.T. Chortyk: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of tobacco smoke: Isolation and identification; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1976) 250K272; Snook, M.E, R.F. Severson, R.F. Arrendale, H.C. Higman, and O.T. Chortyk: The identification of high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a bio-logically active fraction of cigarette smoke condensate; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1977) 79K101; Multi-alkylated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of tobacco smoke: separation and identification; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1978) 222K247.Search in Google Scholar

16. Bonnet, J. and S. Neukomm: Rćsultats actuels des recherches chimiques sur la composition de la fumće dutabac; Oncologia 10 (1957) 124K129; Lyons, M.J. and H. Johnston: Chemical analysis of the neutral fraction of cigarette smoke tar; Brit. J. Cancer 11 (1957) 554K562; Wynder, E.L. and G.F Wright: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. I. The primary fractions; Cancer 10 (1957) 255K271; Lyons, M.J.: Pres-ence of 1,2,3,4-dibenzpyrene in cigarette smoke; Naturę 182 (1958) 178; Pyriki, C: Polycyclische und aliphatische Kohlenwasserstoffe des Tabakrauches; German Chem. Soc, Ann. Mtg, Leipzig DDR (1962); Polycyclische und aliphatische Kohlenwasserstoffe des Tabakrauches; Die Nahrung 7 (1963) 439K448.Search in Google Scholar

17. Lavit-Lamy, D. and N.P. Buu-Hoi: The true naturę of PdibenzoMpyreneQ and its known derivatives; Chem. Comm. 4 (1966) 92K94.Search in Google Scholar

18. Hoffmann, D. and E.L. Wynder: Selective reduction of the tumorigenicity of tobacco smoke. Experimen-tal approaches; in: Toward a less harmful cigarette, edited by E.L. Wynder and D. Hoffmann, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph 28 (1968) 151K172.Search in Google Scholar

19. Snook, M.E, R.F. Severson, R.F. Arrendale, H.C. Higman, and O.T. Chortyk: The identification of high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a biologically active fraction of cigarette smoke condensate; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1977) 79K101.Search in Google Scholar

20. Rodgman, A.: Discussion of ROFFONs results with RJRT colleagues, June and July 1954: Solvent extraction of tobacco and its possible effect on the levels of PAHs in cigarette MSS were discussed between June 24 and July 9, 1954. During several informal meetings, these topics were discussed by Rodgman and Drs. M. Senkus and J. Gilbert Ashburn. From knowledge gained in PAH carcinogenesis research at the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Rodgman cited the report by ROFFO (21) on ethanol extraction of to-bacco and the reduction of specific tumorigenicity (rabbit skin painting) and PAH content of the Pde-structive distillateQ from the extracted tobacco vs the Pdestructive distillateQ from control tobacco. Rodg-man noted that ROFFO had postulated that ethanol extraction removed phytosterols, possible PAH pre-cursors, from the tobacco. Subsequently, ASHBURN authored a Conception of Invention Memorandum [Ashburn, J.G.: The production of a sterol-free ciga-rette; CIM, 1954, No. 17, July 9 (INT-502476757 -6758)] based on information he obtained during the Rodgman-Senkus-Ashburn meeting.Search in Google Scholar

21. Roffo, A.H.; El alquitran de tabaco extraido y la disminución de cancerización [The tar from ex-tracted tobacco and the reduction of carcinogenic-ity]; Inst. Med. Exptl. Estud. Cancer 19 (1942) 431K502, seeChem. Abstr. 37 (1943) 63358.Search in Google Scholar

22. Rodgman, A. and L.C. Cook: The analysis of ciga-rette smoke condensate. V. The polycyclic hydrocar-bon precursors in tobacco; RDR, 1958, No. 18, De-cember 1 (INT-501008387-8441).Search in Google Scholar

23. Severson, R.F, W.S. Schlotzhauer, O.T. Chortyk, R.F. Arrendale, and M.E. Snook: Precursors of poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke; in: 3rd International Symposium on Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis, edited by P.W. Jones and P. Leber, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor MI, 1979, 277K298.Search in Google Scholar

24. Rowland, R.L, P.H. Latimer, and J.A. Giles: Flue-cured tobacco. I. Isolation of solanesol, an unsatu-rated alcohol; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78 (1957) 4680K4685; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 86K90.Search in Google Scholar

25. Lam, J.: 3,4-Benzopyrene as a product of the pyroly-sis of aliphatic hydrocarbons; Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 37 (1955) 421K428; Isolation and identification of 3,4-benzopyrene, chrysene, and a number of other aromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis products of dicetyl; Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 39 (1956) 198K206; Determination of 3,4-benzopyrene and other aromatic hydrocarbons formed by pyrolysis of aliphatic tobacco hydrocarbons; Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 39 (1956) 207K210.Search in Google Scholar

26. Schumacher, J.N., F.W. Best, and CR. Green: Smoke composition: A detailed investigation of the water-soluble portion of cigarette smoke; RDR, 1974, No. 7, September 5 (INT-501003488 -3512); Schumacher, J.N., C.R. Green, and F.W. Best: The composition of the water-soluble portion of cigarette smoke particulate phase; 29th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Ab-stracts, Vol. 29, Paper No. 38, 1975, p. 27; Schumacher, J.N., C.R. Green, F.W. Best, and M.P. Newell: Smoke composition. An extensive investigation of the water-soluble portion of cigarette smoke; J. Agr. Food Chem. 25 (1977) 310K320.Search in Google Scholar

27. Newell, M.P., R.A. Heckman, R.F. Moates, C.R. Green, F.W. Best, and J.N. Schumacher: The composition of the ether-soluble portion of the particulate phase of cigarette smoke; 29th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 29, Paper No. 39, 1975, p. 28; Isolation and identification of new components of the ether-soluble portion of cigarette smoke condensate; Tob. Sci. 22 (1978) 6K11.Search in Google Scholar

28. Heckman, R.A. and F.W. Best: An investigation of the lipophilic bases of cigarette smoke condensate; RDR, 1978, No. 3, March 7 (INT-501005358 -5395); 32nd Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 32, Paper No. 47, 1978, p. 25; Tob. Sci. 25 (1981) 33K39.Search in Google Scholar

29. Lloyd, R.A, C.W. Miller, D.L. Roberts, J.A. Giles, J.P. Dickerson, N.H. Nelson, CE. Rix, and P.H. Ayers: Flue-cured tobacco flavor. I. Essence and es-sential oil components; CORESTA 1974 Symposium, Montreux, Switzerland; Tob. Sci. 20 (1976) 40K50; Miller C.W., D.L. Roberts, R.A. Lloyd, J.P. Dickerson, CE. Rix, P.H. Ayers, and N.H. Nelson: Composition of flue-cured tobacco; RDR, 1973, No. 10, October 25 (INT-501003209 -3306).Search in Google Scholar

30. Doull, J., J.P. Frawley, W.J. George, T.A. Loomis, R.A. Squire, and S.L. Taylor: Cigarette ingredients: A complete list and background; Covington and Burling, Washington DC, April 12, 1994 (INT-517941576-1601).Search in Google Scholar

31. Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. II. The pretreatment of Camel blend tobacco; RDR, 1956, No. 12, November 1 (INT-501008294 -8336); The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. III. Flue-cured tobacco; RDR, 1957, No. 4, March 14 (INT-501008337 -8377); The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. VI. The influence of solvent pretreatment of tobacco and other factors on the polycyclic hydrocarbon content of smoke condensate; RDR, 1959, No. 1, January 29 (INT-501008529 -8591); The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XXXV. A summary of an eight-year study; RDR, 1964, No. 10, February 12 (INT-501008855 -8928).Search in Google Scholar

32. Ashburn, J.G.: Study of tobacco pretreatments; RDR, 1958, No. 20, December 10 (INT-501008442 -8528).Search in Google Scholar

33. Bradford, J.A, W.R. Harlan, and H.R. Hanmer: Naturę of cigaret smoke: Technic of experimental smoking; Ind. Eng. Chem. 28 (1936) 836K839.Search in Google Scholar

34. Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XIX. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; RDR, 1961, No. 1, January 6(INT-500935976-5996).Search in Google Scholar

35. Rodgman, A. and L.C. Cook: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XXXI. a-l,5-Dimethyl-12-isopropyl-9-methylene-5,8-oxido-3,13-cyclotetradeca-dien-1-ol and a-12-isopropyl-5,9-oxido-l,5,9-trimethyl-3,9,13-cyclotetradecatrien-l-ol from Turk-ish tobacco smoke; RDR, 1963, No. 24, March 25 (INT-500961449-1470).Search in Google Scholar

36. Rowland, R.L, A. Rodgman, J.N. Schumacher, D.L. Roberts, L.C. Cook, and W.E. Walker, Jr.: Macro-cyclic diterpenes. Hydroxyethers from tobacco and tobacco smoke; 17th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 17, Paper No. 16, 1963, p. 13; Macrocyclic diterpene hydroxyethers from tobacco and cigarette smoke; J. Org. Chem. 29 (1964) 16K21; Rodgman, A. and L.C. Cook: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XXXI.a-l,5-Dimethyl-12-isopropyl-9-methylene-5,8-oxido-3,13-cyclotetradecadien-l-ol and a-12-isopropyl-5,9-oxido-l,5,9-trimethyl-3,9,13-cyclotetra-decatrien-1-ol from Turkish tobacco smoke; RDR, 1963, No. 24, March 25 (INT-500961449 -1470).Search in Google Scholar

37. Campbell, J.M. and AJ. Lindsey: Polycyclic hydro-carbons extracted from tobacco: The effect upon total quantities found in smoke; Brit. J. Cancer 10 (1956) 649K652.Search in Google Scholar

38. Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. VI. The influence of solvent pretreat-ment of tobacco and other factors on the polycyclic hydrocarbon content of smoke condensate; RDR, 1959, No. 1, January 29 (INT-501008529 -8591); The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XXXV. A summary of an eight-year study; RDR, 1964, No. 10, February 12 (INT-501008855 -8928).Search in Google Scholar

39. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and tobacco smoke: Studies in experimental carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York, N.Y, 1967, 517K518.Search in Google Scholar

40. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (Ashburn, J.G. and A. Rodgman): Procedimento per ii trattamento di tabacco [Procedurę for the treatment of tobacco]; Italian Patent No. 593,317 (March 5, 1959); Ashburn, J.G. and A. Rodgman: Procedć de traitement du tabac [Procedurę for the treatment of tobacco]; French Patent No. 1,206,210 (February 8, 1960).Search in Google Scholar

41. Rodgman, A.: The analysis of cigarette smoke condensate. XXXV. A summary of an eight-year study; RDR, 1964, No. 10, February 12 (INT-501008855 -8928).Search in Google Scholar

42. United States Public Health Service: Smoking and health. Report of the advisory committee to the surgeon generał of the public health service; DHEW Publ. No. (PHS) 1103, Chapter 6, Chemical and physical characteristics of tobacco and tobacco smoke, 1964, pp. 47K65.Search in Google Scholar

43. Philip Morris Inc.: Chemical constituents in tobacco and smoke. A compilation of published information; Philip Morris Inc., Richmond VA, 1963, pp. 47 (INT-501013285 -3339; www.pmdocs.com 1005136992/7049; 2024948517/8518).Search in Google Scholar

44. Rodgman, A. and L.C. Cook: The composition of cigarette smoke; Unpublished data, 1955K1964. Pre-sented in part at Sigma Xi Meeting, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C., 17 March, 1965 (INT-501521599 -2606), American Chemical Society Section Meeting, Columbus, GA, 2 May, 1968 (INT-501521608 -1625), and Central North Carolina Section Meeting, American Chemical Society, Greensboro, N.C., 14 October, 1969 (INT-501521658 -1700).Search in Google Scholar

45. P. Lorillard Company Research Laboratory: Selective filtration of phenol by Kent's improved Micro-nite filter; P. Lorillard Co., Greensboro NC: 1K4 (1962); Hoffmann, D. and E.L. Wynder: Die Filtration von Phenolen aus Cigarettenrauch; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1963) 51K66; Filtration of phenols from cigarette smoke; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 30 (1963) 67K84; Laurene, A.H.: Adsorption of phenol by un-treated Estron®; RDM, 1963, No. 5, January 8 (INT-500612340 -2343. 4); Evaluation of Triacetate B as a cigarette filter materiał; RDM, 1963, No. 6, January 8 (INT-500612344 -2346); Laurene, A.H., G.W. Young, and L.A. Lyerly: Factors which affect the phenol content of cigarette smoke; RDR, 1963, No. 58, November 13 (INT-500962130 -2163); Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and tobacco smoke: Studies in experimental carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York NY, 1967, see p. 626; Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Experimental tobacco carcinogenesis; Science 162 (1968) 862K871; Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. X. Tumor promoting activity; Cancer 24 (1969) 289K301.Search in Google Scholar

46. Van Duuren, B.L., A. Sivak, C. Katz, and S. Melchionne: Cigarette smoke carcinogenesis: Importance of tumor promoters; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47 (1971) 235K240.Search in Google Scholar

47. Rodgman, A, S.S. Mims, and L.C. Cook: Some comments on ciliary inhibition; RDM, 1964, No. 45, April 28 (INT-500602286 -2294) 48. Dalhamn, T, M.L. Edfors, and R. Rylander: Mouth absorption of various compounds in cigarette smoke; Arch. Environ. Hlth. 16 (1968) 831K835; Retention of cigarette smoke components in human lungs; Arch. Environ. Hlth. 17 (1968) 746K748.Search in Google Scholar

49. Rodgman, A.: 7V-Nitrosamines were predicted as cigarette MSS components during a 1960 meeting with Dr. Murray Senkus and others; subsequently, the 7V-nitrosamines in tobacco smoke were predicted by others, e.g., Druckrey, H. and R. Preussmann: Zur Entstehung carcinogener Nitrosamine am Bei-spiel des Tabakrauchs; Naturwissenschaften 49 (1962) 498K499.Search in Google Scholar

50. Wynder. E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Biological and chemical studies of tobacco smoke condensate; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 3 (3) (1961) 280; Presem status of laboratory studies on tobacco carcinogenesis; Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 52 (1961) 119-132; Studies with the gaseous and particulate phase of tobacco smoke; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 3 (4) (1962) 373.Search in Google Scholar

51. Rodgman, A.: Environmental tobacco smoke; Reguł. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 16 (1992) 223K244.Search in Google Scholar

52. Wynder, E.L, G.F Wright, and J. Lam: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. V. The role of pyrolysis; Cancer 11 (1958) 1140K1148; A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. VI. The role of precursors; Cancer 12 (1959) 1073K1078.Search in Google Scholar

53. Wynder. E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Studies in tobacco carcinogenesis; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 3 (2) (1960) 164.Search in Google Scholar

54. Wynder, E.L and S.S. Hecht (Editors): Lung cancer; UICC Tech. Rept. Series 25 (1976) 138.Search in Google Scholar

55. United States Public Health Service: Smoking and health. A report of the surgeon generał. DHEW Publ. No. (PHS) 79-50066 (1979), 14,114 (Table 26).Search in Google Scholar

56. Ashburn, J.G.: Magnesium nitrate as a tobacco additive; CIM, 1957, No. 19, September 30 (INT-504175222 -5223; 503132383 -2385).Search in Google Scholar

57. Bentley, H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Polynuclear hydro-carbons in tobacco and tobacco smoke. III. The inhi-bition of the formation of 3,4-benzopyrene in ciga-rette smoke; Analyst 85 (1960) 727K730.Search in Google Scholar

58. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Biological and chemical studies of tobacco smoke condensate; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 3(3) (1961) 280; Ein experi-menteller Beitrag zur Tabakrauchkanzerogenese; Deut. Med. Wchnschr. 88 (1963) 623K628; Experi-mental tobacco carcinogenesis; Adv. Cancer Res. 8 (1964) 249K453; Tobacco and tobacco smoke: Studies in experimental carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York, NY, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

59. Hoffmann, D. and E.L. Wynder: The reduction of the tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate by addition of sodium nitrate to tobacco; Cancer Res. 27 (1967) 172K174.Search in Google Scholar

60. Bryant, H.G. Jr. and V. Norman: Tobacco composition; U.S. Patent No. 4,248,251, February 3, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

61. Kallianos, A.G., R.E. Means, and J.D. Mold: Effect of nitrates in tobacco on the catechol yield in cigarette smoke; 20th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Con-ference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 20, Paper No. 18, 1966, pp. 21K23; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 125K129.Search in Google Scholar

62. Gori, G.B. (Editor): Report No. 1. Toward less haz-ardous cigarettes. The first set of experimental ciga-rettes; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 76-905 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

63. Brunnemann, K.D, S.S. Hecht, and D. Hoffmann: 7V-Nitrosamines: Environmental occurrence, in vivo formation, and metabolism; J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxi-col. 1 (1982) 661K668; Brunnemann, K.D, J. Masa-ryk, and D. Hoffmann: Role of tobacco stems on the formation of 7V-nitrosamines in tobacco and cigarette mainstream and sidestream smoke; J. Agr. Food Chem. 31 (1983) 1221K1224.Search in Google Scholar

64. Adams, J.D, S.J. Lee, and D. Hoffmann: Carcino-genic agents in cigarette smoke and the influence of nitrate on their formation; Carcinogenesis 5 (1984) 221K223.Search in Google Scholar

65. Morie, G.P. and C.H. Sloan: Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine in the smoke of high nitrate tobacco cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 61K66.Search in Google Scholar

66. Rathkamp, G. and D. Hoffmann: Chemical studies on tobacco. XIII. The inhibition of the pyrosyn-thesis of several selective smoke components; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1970) 302K306; Rathkamp, G, D. Hoffmann, and E.L. Wynder: Experiments on the reduction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke. 20th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 20, Paper No. 19, 1966, p. 23.Search in Google Scholar

67. Hoffmann, D, C.H.B. Chen, and S.S. Hecht: Toxi-cological dimensions: The role of volatile and non-volatile 7V-nitrosamines in tobacco carcinogenesis; in: A safe cigarette? edited by G.B. Gori and F.G. Bock, Banbury Report 3, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor NY, 1980, pp. 113K127; Hoffmann, D, T.C. Tso, and G.B. Gori: The less harm-ful cigarette; Preventive Med. 9 (1980) 287K296.Search in Google Scholar

68. Hecht, S.S, R.M. Ornaf, and D. Hoffmann: N-Nitrosoalkaloids in tobacco; 28th Tobacco ChemistsN Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 28, Paper No. 36, 1974, p. 25.Search in Google Scholar

69. Tso, T.C, J.L. Sims, and D.E. Johnson: Some agronomie factors affecting 7V-dimethylnitrosamine con-tent in cigarette smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 34K38.Search in Google Scholar

70. Brunnemann, K.D. and D. Hoffmann: Pyrolytic origins of major gas phase constituents of cigarette smoke; Recent Adv. Tob. Sci. 8 (1982) 103K140.Search in Google Scholar

71. Dalhamn, T.: Some factors influencing the respiratory toxicity of cigarette smoke; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48 (1972) 1821K1824.Search in Google Scholar

72. Wynder, E.L, P. Kopf, and H. Ziegler: Dose re-sponse with cigarette tar; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 2 (3) (1957) 261; A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. II. Dose-response studies; Cancer 10 (1957) 1193K1200.Search in Google Scholar

73. Wynder, E.L.: Statement on lung cancer-cigarette smoking controversy: Chemical fractionation of cigarette smoke condensate; in: False and misleading advertising (Filter-tip cigarettes), Wynder reported on the studies of G. F Wright at the Hearing before Subcommittee on Government Operations (the Blat-nik Hearings on Filtered Cigarettes), July 1957, pp. 63K114.Search in Google Scholar

74. Weber, K.H.: Recent changes in tobacco products and their acceptance by the consumer; Proceedings 6th International Tobacco Scientific Congress, To-kyo, Japan (1976) 47K63; United States Public Health Service: Smoking and health. A report of the surgeon generał; DHEW Publ. No. (PHS) 79-50066 (1979), see Chapter 14, pp. 111K112.Search in Google Scholar

75. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: The role of higher polycyclic hydrocarbons in tobacco carcinogenesis; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 3 (1) (1959) 74; A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. VII. The role of higher polycyclic hydrocarbons; Cancer 12 (1959) 1079K1086.Search in Google Scholar

76. Wynder, E.L. and G.F Wright: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. I. The primary fractions; Cancer 10 (1957) 255K271.Search in Google Scholar

77. Lyons, M.J. and H. Johnston: Chemical analysis of the neutral fraction of cigarettes smoke tar; Brit. J. Cancer 11 (1957) 554K562.Search in Google Scholar

78. Lyons, M.J.: Presence of 1,2,3,4-dibenzpyrene in cigarette smoke; Naturę 182 (1958) 178.Search in Google Scholar

79. Wynder, E.L, G.F Wright, and J. Lam: A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. V. The role of pyrolysis; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 2 (4) (1958) 357K358.Search in Google Scholar

80. Pyriki, C: Polycyclische und aliphatische Kohlenwasserstoffe des Tabakrauches; German Chem. Soc, Ann. Mtg., Leipzig DDR (1962); Polycyclische und aliphatische Kohlenwasserstoffe des Tabakrauches; Die Nahrung 7 (1963) 439K448.Search in Google Scholar

81. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Some practical aspects of the smoking-cancer problem; New Eng. J. Med. 262 (1960) 540K545.Search in Google Scholar

82. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Experimental tobacco carcinogenesis; Adv. Cancer Res. 8 (1964) 249K453.10.1016/S0065-230X(08)60510-2Search in Google Scholar

83. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Reduction of tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke. An experimental approach; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 192 (1965) 88K94.Search in Google Scholar

84. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Current concepts of environmental cancer research; Med. Clin. N. America 50 (1966) 631K650.Search in Google Scholar

85. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and tobacco smoke: Studies in experimental carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York, N.Y, 1967, Chapter IX, p. 503.Search in Google Scholar

86. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Bioassays in tobacco carcinogenesis; Próg. Exp. Tumor Res. 11 (1969) 163K193.Search in Google Scholar

87. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and health: A societal challenge; New Eng. J. Med. 300 (1979) 894K903.Search in Google Scholar

88. Gori, G.B. (Editor): Report No. 1. Toward less haz-ardous cigarettes. The first set of experimental cigarettes; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 76-905 (1976); Report No. 2. Toward less hazardous cigarettes. The second set of experimental cigarettes; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 76-1111 (1976); Report No. 3. Toward less hazardous cigarettes. The third set of experimen-tal cigarettes; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 77-1280 (1977); Report No. 4. Toward less hazardous cigarettes. The fourth set of experimental cigarettes; DHEW Publ. (NIH) (March 1980); National Cancer Institute: Report No. 5. Toward less hazardous cigarettes. Summary: Four skin painting bioassays using condensate from experimental cigarettes; DHEW Publ. (NIH) (September 1980); Gori, G.B, S.P. Battista, P.S. Thayer, M.R. Guerin, and C.J. Lynch: Chemistry and in vitro bioassay of smoke from ex-perimental filter cigarettes; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 76-1076 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

89. Hoffmann, D, I. Schmeltz, S.S. Hecht, and E.L. Wynder: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco carcinogenesis; Chapter 3, in: Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer. Vol. 1, Chemistry, molecular biology and environment, edited by G. Gelboin and P.O. TsNo, Academic Press, New York, N.Y, 1978 85K117.10.1016/B978-0-12-279201-4.50011-6Search in Google Scholar

90. United States Public Health Service: Smoking and health. A report of the surgeon generał; DHEW Publ. No. (PHS) 79-50066 (1979), see Chapter 14, pp. 63-64.Search in Google Scholar

91. United States Public Health Service: The health consequences of smoking. The changing cigarette. A report of the surgeon generał; DHHS Publ. No. (PHS) 81-50156 (1981) 51K52.Search in Google Scholar

92. LaVoie, EJ, S.S. Hecht, D. Hoffmann, and E.L. Wynder: The less harmful cigarette and tobacco smoke flavors; in: A safe cigarette? Banbury report 3, edited by G.B. Gori and F.G. Bock, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y, 1980, pp. 251K260.Search in Google Scholar

93. Hoffmann, D. and E.L. Wynder: Chemical constitu-ents and bioactivity of tobacco smoke; in: Tobacco: A major health hazard, edited by D.G. Zaridze and R. Pęto, IARC, Lyon, France, IARC Sci. Publ. No. 74, 1986, pp. 145K165.Search in Google Scholar

94. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: The changing cigarette: 1950K1995; J. Toxicol. Environ. Hlth. 50 (1997) 307K364, see 345K346.Search in Google Scholar

95. Fredrickson, J.D.: Process for increasing the filling capacity of tobacco; U.S. Patent No. 3,542,451 (August 18, 1970); Moser, G.P. and G.M. Stewart: Process for increasing the filling value of tobacco; U. S. Patent No. 3,542,452 (August 18, 1970).Search in Google Scholar

96. United States Public Health Service: The health consequences of smoking. Cancer. A report of the surgeon generał; DHHS Publ. No. (PHS) 82-50179 (1982) 217K218.Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo