This article establishes the actual movement mathematical model of CNC machine tools for the precision processing of jewelry. Through analyzing the general geometric error analysis model of CNC machine tools with less than five axes and the method of solving precision CNC instructions, the operating principle of the CNC machine tools is studied. At the same time, we use a transformation matrix to express the relationship between the various moving bodies. The article abstracts the complex motion relationship between entities as the relationship between mathematical matrices. The experimental results show that the theoretical method proposed in this paper can increase the machining accuracy of the machine tool by more than 50%.