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Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in oil emulsions and control effectiveness on adult engorged ticks (Acari: Ixodida)


Although their control is based on chemical products, the infestations by ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) are causing great losses and damages in the livestock production worldwide. In this study, the survival of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Steinernema websteri in vegetal oil suspension at concentrations of 13% and 33% and their effectiveness to control ticks at concentrations of 50 ± 5 and 100 ± 10 nematodes in oil suspensions of Cymbopogon citratus, Pelargonium sp, Juniperus virginiana, Rosa sp, and Mentha piperita were evaluated in lab conditions. In field conditions, the Lethal Concentration (LC90) of S. websteri in oil suspensions of J. virginiana and C. citratus in dogs infested with ticks was evaluated. In the laboratory, it was found that an oil emulsion of C. citratus and J. virginiana at 13% maintained the survival of S. carpocapsae, H. bacteriophora, and S. websteri from 55% to 60% for a period of 96 hr. The combination of the S. websteri nematode with 50 or 100 nematodes in oil emulsions of J. virginiana at 33% presented a control effectiveness of 80–100% in adult ticks 24 hr post-application. In field, the LC90 of 119 juveniles of S. websteri in oil emulsions of J. virginiana at 33% on domestic dogs presented an accumulated and a control effectiveness of 89% after 96 hr post-application. The combined application of J. virginiana and S. websteri could be a good alternative for the control of ticks. It was observed that the time of contact and the type of vegetable oil were crucial factors to increase the effectiveness of control.

Częstotliwość wydawania:
Volume Open
Dziedziny czasopisma:
Life Sciences, other