1. bookTom 27 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (October 2016)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Otwarty dostęp

Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: The Evolution of Methods and Devices for Generation, Exposure and Collection

Data publikacji: 21 Oct 2016
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 27 (2016) - Zeszyt 4 (October 2016)
Zakres stron: 137 - 274
Otrzymano: 01 Apr 2016
Przyjęty: 01 Sep 2016
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

1. Zeise, W.C.: Untersuchung der Producte von der trockenen Destillation des Tabaks und über die chemische Beschaffenheit des Tabakrauchs [Investigation of the Products Generated by Dry Distillation of Tobacco and on the Chemical Nature of Tobacco Smoke]; Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 47 (1843) 212–225.Search in Google Scholar

2. Melsens, M.: Note sur la Nicotine [Note Concerning Nicotine]; Ann. Chim. Phys. 3 (1843) 465–472.Search in Google Scholar

3. Zebrowski, E.v.: Zur Frage vom Einfluß des Tabakrauches auf Tiere [On the Effects of Tobacco Smoke on Animals]; Centralbl. Allg. Pathol. Pathol. Anat. 19 (1908) 609–617.Search in Google Scholar

4. Bradford, J.A., W.R. Harlan, and H.R. Hanmer: Nature of Cigaret Smoke. Technic of Experimental Smoking; Ind. Eng. Chem. 28 (1936) 836–839.Search in Google Scholar

5. Campbell, A. J.: Carcinogenic Agents Present in the Atmosphere and Incidence of Primary Lung Tumours in Mice; Brit. J. Exp. Path. 20 (1939) 122–132.Search in Google Scholar

6. Wartman Jr, W.B., E.C. Cogbill, and E.S. Harlow: Determination of Particulate Matter in Concentrated Aerosols. Application to Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 31 (1959) 1705–1709.Search in Google Scholar

7. Clark, P.C. and F.G. Bock: Experience with the Large Scale Production of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Using the Process and Instruments Automatic Smoking Machine; presented at the 13th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Lexington, KY, USA, Abstract 7, 1959.Search in Google Scholar

8. Wiley, R.M. and J.A. Ferri: The Design of an Automated Syringe-Type Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 140–143 and Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 59–64. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-016810.2478/cttr-2013-0168Search in Google Scholar

9. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes – Testing for Tar and Nicotine Content; Federal Register 32 (1967) 11178.Search in Google Scholar

10. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:1977 – Tobacco and Tobacco Products -- Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions, Standard Conditions and Auxiliary Equipment; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

11. Task Force on the Review of Smoking Methods: CORESTA Report 1991-1. The Determination of Repeatability [r] and Reproducibility [R] for the Measurement of Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM), Nicotine, Water Using CORESTA Recommended Methods 7, 8, 21, 22, 23 and 25; CORESTA, 1991. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-repeatability-and-reproducibility-measurement-nicotine-free-dry-particulate-matterSearch in Google Scholar

12. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:1991 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 3rd edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991.Search in Google Scholar

13. Massey, E., M. Aufderheide, W. Koch, H. Lodding, G. Pohlmann, H. Windt, P. Jarck, and J.W. Knebel: Micronucleus Induction in V79 Cells after Direct Exposure to Whole Cigarette Smoke; Mutagenesis 13 (1998) 145–149.Search in Google Scholar

14. UCSF Library: Truth Tobacco Industry Documents. Available at https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/Search in Google Scholar

15. Johnson, S.W.: Experiments in Growing Tobacco with Different Fertilizers; in: Annual Report of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for 1892, State of Connecticut, New Haven, CT, USA, 1893, pp. 1–24.Search in Google Scholar

16. Habermann, J.: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cigarrenrauches [Contributions to the Knowledge of Cigar Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 33 (1901) 55–125.Search in Google Scholar

17. Pfyl, B., R. Kölliker, B. Dwilling, and M. Obermiller: Zur Bestimmung des Nicotins im Tabakrauch. II. Normung des künstlichen Verrauchens der Tabakerzeugnisse [Contribution to the Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke. II. Standardization of the Artificial Smoking of Tobacco Products]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 66 (1933) 501–510.Search in Google Scholar

18. Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie: Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch [Standardized Regulations for the Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 31–34. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-000510.2478/cttr-2013-0005Search in Google Scholar

19. Pillsbury, H.C., C.C. Bright, K.J. O’Connor, and F.W. Irish: Tar and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 52 (1969) 458–462.Search in Google Scholar

20. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Tobacco Disclosure Act: Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Products: Reports of Added Constituents and Nicotine Ratings; General Laws of Massachusetts, Chapter 94, Section 307B 105 CMR 660.000, 1997.Search in Google Scholar

21. Texas Department of Health: Texas Register 22, No. 79, December 5, 1997, pp. 11939–11941. Available at: http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth176720/m1/Search in Google Scholar

22. Government of Canada, Minister of Justice: Tobacco Reporting Regulations SOR/2000-273 of June 26, 2000, current to June 17, 2015. Available at: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/SOR-2000-273.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

23. Theoi Greek Mythology: Ariadne. Available at: http://www.theoi.com/Georgikos/Ariadne.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

24. Pinner, A.: Ueber Nicotin – II. Mitteilung [On Nicotine – Second Communication]; Arch. Pharm. 233 (1895) 572–612.Search in Google Scholar

25. Kißling, R.: Der Gehalt des Cigarrenrauches an Nikotin unter gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der giftig wirkenden Verbrennungsproducte des Tabakes [On the Nicotine Content of Cigar Smoke with Concurrent Regard to the Toxic Combustion Products of Tobacco]; Dingler’s Polytechn. J. 244 (1882) 64–71 and 234–246.Search in Google Scholar

26. Thoms, H.: Über die Rauchprodukte des Tabaks [On Smoke Products of Tobacco]; Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 10 (1900) 19–31.Search in Google Scholar

27. Pontag, J.J.: Untersuchungen des russischen Rauchtabaks und des Cigarettenrauches [Investigation on the Russian Smoking Tobacco and on Cigarette Smoke]; Z. Untersuch. Nahrung Genussm. 6 (1903) 673–691.Search in Google Scholar

28. Kißling, R.: Kurzgefasstes Handbuch der Tabakkunde [Short Compendium on Tobacco Knowledge]; Parey Verlag, Berlin, 1893.Search in Google Scholar

29. Habermann, J.: Ueber den Blausäuregehalt des Cigarrenrauches [On the Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Cigar Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 37 (1902–03) 1–17.10.1515/bchm2.1903.37.1.1Search in Google Scholar

30. Habermann, J.: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Zigaretten- und des Pfeifenrauches [Contributions to the Knowledge of Cigarette Smoke and Pipe Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 40 (1903–04) 148–161.10.1515/bchm2.1904.40.1-2.148Search in Google Scholar

31. Garner, W.W.: Methods for Testing the Burning Quality of Cigar Tobacco; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 100, Part. IV (1906) 5–14.Search in Google Scholar

32. Garner, W.W.: The Relation of Nicotine to the Quality of Tobacco; U.S. Dept. Agric., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 141 (1909) 5–16.Search in Google Scholar

33. Preissecker, K., H. Brezina, and A. Wenusch: Tabakstreckung und Tabakersatz [Thinning of Tobacco and Tobacco Substitution]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 18 (1918) 1–13.Search in Google Scholar

34. German Empire: Bekanntmachung über tabakähnliche Waren [Announcement Concerning Products Similar to Tobacco]; Berlin, 27. Oktober 1917, Reichsgesetzblatt (1917) 974.Search in Google Scholar

35. Austrian – Hungarian Department of Finances: Kundmachung des Finanzministeriums vom 1. Mai 1918, betreffend die Erklärung der Tabakersatz- und -zusatzmittel als Gegenstände des Tabakmonopols [Announcement of the Department of Finances of May 1, 1918, Concerning Tobacco Substitutes and Tobacco Additives as a Matter of the Tobacco Monopoly]; Reichsgesetzblatt Nr. 167, 8. Mai 1918.Search in Google Scholar

36. German Empire: Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen (Lebensmittelgesetz) vom 5. Juli 1927 [Law Concerning Food-Stuffs and Consumer Goods (Food-Law), July 5, 1927]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil 1, Nr. 26 vom 8. Juli 1927.Search in Google Scholar

37. Frank, L.: Nikotinarme Tabakfabrikate und das neue Lebensmittelgesetz [Tobacco Products, Low in Nicotine, and the New Food Law]; Med. Welt 31 (1928) 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

38. Pfyl, B. and O. Schmitt: Zur Bestimmung von Nicotin in Tabak und Tabakrauch [The Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 54 (1927) 60–78.Search in Google Scholar

39. Winterstein, A. and E. Aronson: Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Tabakgenusses; II. Mitteilung. Über den Verbleib des Nicotins beim Tabakrauchen [Contributions to the Understanding of Tobacco Consumption; Part 2 - On the Fate of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoking]; Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 108 (1928) 530–553.Search in Google Scholar

40. Fühner, H.: Die quantitative Bestimmung des Nicotins auf biologischem Wege [The Quantification of Nicotine Using a Biological Method]; Biochem. Z. 92 (1918) 355–363.Search in Google Scholar

41. Wenusch, A.: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Nikotins in Rauchgasen [Contribution to Nicotine Determination in Smoke Gases]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1931) 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

42. Wenusch, A.: Der Tabakrauch [Tobacco Smoke]; Arthur Geist Verlag, Bremen, Germany, 1939, pp. 23–26.Search in Google Scholar

43. Wenusch, A.: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Nikotins in Rauchgasen. II. Teil [Contribution to Nicotine Determination in Smoke Gases. Part 2]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 2 (1931) 1–3.Search in Google Scholar

44. Neurath, G., B. Pirmann, W. Lüttich, and H. Wichern: Zur Frage der N-Nitroso-Verbindungen im Tabakrauch II [On N-Nitroso Compounds in Tobacco Smoke II]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 251–262. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-011710.2478/cttr-2013-0117Search in Google Scholar

45. Kallianos, A.G., R.E. Means, and J.D. Mold: Effect of Nitrates in Tobacco on the Catechol Yield in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 125–129.Search in Google Scholar

46. Schönherr, H., H.J. Klimisch, and H.P. Harke: Alterung von Cigarettenrauchkondensat: Quantitative Untersuchungen der Artefaktbildung durch Gas- und Partikelphasenreaktionen [Altering of Cigarette Smoke Condensate: Quantitative Determination of the Formation of Artifact Produced by Gas-Phase and Particulate Phase Reaction]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 18–23. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-030410.2478/cttr-2013-0304Search in Google Scholar

47. Wenusch, A.: Über den Nicotingehalt des Hauptstromrauches von dicken und dünnen Zigaretten [On the Nicotine Content of Mainstream Smoke of Thick and Thin Cigarettes]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 72 (1936) 213–218.Search in Google Scholar

48. German Empire: Erlaß des Reichsministers des Inneren – II A 1780/8.4. – betr.nicotinarme und nicotinfreie Tabakfabrikate, vom 23. April 1929 [Decree of the German Secretary of the Interior Concerning Low-Nicotine and Nicotine-Free Tobacco Products, of April 23, 1929] Z. Unters. Lebensm. Suppl. (1929) 104–105.Search in Google Scholar

49. Petri, J.W.: Zur Beurteilung des Nicotingehaltes von Tabaken [Criteria for Evaluation the Nicotine Content of Tobaccos]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 62 (1931) 126–137.Search in Google Scholar

50. Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie: Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch [Standardized Regulations for the Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 307–314. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-003810.2478/cttr-2013-0038Search in Google Scholar

51. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 10: Machine Smoking of Cigarettes, Determination of Crude and Dry Condensate; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

52. German Empire: Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen (Lebensmittelgesetz) in der Fassung vom 17. Januar 1936 [Law Concerning Food-Stuffs and Consumer Goods (Food-Law) in its Form of January 17, 1936]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil 1, 1926, pp. 18–22.Search in Google Scholar

53. German Empire: Verordnung über nikotinarmen und nikotinfreien Tabak vom 12. Mai 1939 [Ordinance Concerning Tobacco with Low or No Nicotine]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I (1939) 912.Search in Google Scholar

54. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Gesetz zur Neuordnung und Bereinigung des Rechts im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln, Tabakerzeugnissen, kosmetischen Mitteln und sonstigen Bedarfsgegenständen (Gesetz zur Gesamtreform des Lebensmittelrechts) [Act Concerning the Rearrangement of the Law Concerning Food, Tobacco Products, Cosmetics, and Other Products (Act Concerning the Total Reform of Foodstuff Regulations)]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1974) 1945–1966. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl174095.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

55. Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bundesminister der Justiz: Verordnung über Tabakerzeugnisse (Tabakverordnung) vom 20. Dezember 1977 [Federal Republic of Germany: Ordinance on Tobacco Products (Tobacco Ordinance) of Dec. 20, 1977]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1977) 2831–2837. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl177089.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

56. Wenusch, A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 189–191.Search in Google Scholar

57. Preiß, W.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 331–333.Search in Google Scholar

58. Wenusch, A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl ]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 578–581.Search in Google Scholar

59. Preiß, W.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 581–582.Search in Google Scholar

60. Wenusch, A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 703–706.Search in Google Scholar

61. Wahl, R. and O. Heil: Die Entwicklung einer neuen Rauchapparatur unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Strömungsverhältnisse [The Development of a New Smoking Device with Special Consideration to Flow Conditions]; Tabak-Forschung, Sonderheft (1953) 16–20.Search in Google Scholar

62. Marek, J.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit der Abrauchapparatur von A. Wenusch und der Apparatur von Wahl und O. Hell [Comparative Studies of the Smoking Device of A. Wenusch and the Device of Wahl and O. Hell]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1954) 16–18.Search in Google Scholar

63. Staub, M. and H. Furrer: Die Nikotin- und Teerbestimmung im Tabakrauch [Determination of Nicotine and Tar in Tobacco Smoke]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 44 (1953) 371–377.Search in Google Scholar

64. Staub, M. and H. Furrer: Die Prüfung von Nikotinfiltern [Testing of Nicotine Filters]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 44 (1953) 472–474.Search in Google Scholar

65. Staub, M. and H. Furrer: Kritische Untersuchungen über die Nikotinbestimmungsmethoden in Tabak [Critical Investigation of the Methods for Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 43 (1952) 490–498.Search in Google Scholar

66. Cuzin, I.L.: The Smoking Machines at the Research Laboratories of S.E.I.T.A.; Deuxième Congres Scientifique International du Tabac, Brussels, Belgium, June 1958, 513–520.Search in Google Scholar

67. Waltz, P., M. Häusermann, and E. Nyari: Untersuchungen zur Rauchmethodik [Studies on Smoking Methodology]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 50 (1959) 166–185.Search in Google Scholar

68. Waltz, P. and M. Häusermann: Untersuchungen zur Rauchmethodik II – Beschreibung der eigenen Methode und Uebersicht der zur Zeit üblichen Methodik der Zigarettenvorbereitung und des künstlichen Abrauchens [Studies on Smoking Methodology II. Description of Proprietary Method and Review of Currently Used Methodology of Cigarette Preparation and Artificial Smoking]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 51 (1960) 303–320.Search in Google Scholar

69. Jensen, C.O. and D.E. Haley: Studies on the Nicotine Content of Cigarette Smoke; J. Agric. Res. 51 (1935) 267–276.Search in Google Scholar

70. Doll, R. and A.B. Hill: Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung. Preliminary Report; Brit. Med. J. 2 (1950) 739–748.Search in Google Scholar

71. Wynder, E.L. and E.A. Graham: Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 143 (1950) 329–336.Search in Google Scholar

72. Wynder, E.L., E.A. Graham, and A.B. Croninger: Experimental Production of Carcinoma with Cigarette Tar; Cancer Res. 13 (1953) 855–864.Search in Google Scholar

73. Wynder, E.L. and J.A. Mann: A Study of Tobacco Carcinogenesis III. Filtered Cigarettes; Cancer 10 (1957) 1201–1205.Search in Google Scholar

74. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General: Smoking and Health – Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service; Public Health Service Publication No. 1103, 1964.Search in Google Scholar

75. Cigarette Components Ltd.: Simple Smoking Machine; Sept. 1955. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nywh0197Search in Google Scholar

76. Cigarette Components Ltd.: Bulletin Ethel Mk. VI Smoking Machine; Cigarette Components, London, UK, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

77. Mumpower II, R.C., J.E. Kiefer, and G.P. Touey: Effect of the Duration of a Constant-Volume Puff on the Efficiency of Cigarette Filters; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 31–35.Search in Google Scholar

78. Johnson, J.C.: Development of Machine Smoking Parameters for Measurement of Cigarette Tar Yield in the United Kingdom; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 69 (1986) 598–600.Search in Google Scholar

79. Baker, R.R.: Temperature Variation Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; High Temp. Sci. 7 (1975) 236–247.Search in Google Scholar

80. Baker, R.R.: Variation of the Gas Formation Regions Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1981) 1–17. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-049110.2478/cttr-2013-0491Search in Google Scholar

81. Seehofer, F. and D. Wennberg: Einfluß verschiedener Zugvolumenprofile auf die Ausbeute und Zusammensetzung des Rauches beim maschinellen Abrauchen von Cigaretten [The Effect of Puff Profiles on Yield and Composition of Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes Smoked on a Smoking Machine]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1971) 7–11. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-025910.2478/cttr-2013-0259Search in Google Scholar

82. Klus, H. and H. Kuhn: Verteilung verschiedener Tabakrauchbestandteile auf Haupt- und Nebenstromrauch. Eine Übersicht [Distribution of Various Tobacco Smoke Components Among Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke. A Survey]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1982) 229–267. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-051710.2478/cttr-2013-0517Search in Google Scholar

83. Procter, C.J., C. Martin, J.L. Beven, and H.F. Dymond: Evaluation of an Apparatus Designed for Collection of Sidestream Smoke; Analyst, 113 (1988) 1509–1513.Search in Google Scholar

84. Keith, C.H. and J.R. Newsome: Quantitative Studies on Cigarette Smoke. I. An Automatic Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 51–57.Search in Google Scholar

85. O’Keeffe, A.E. and R.C. Lieser: An Improved Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 2 (1958) 73–76.Search in Google Scholar

86. DeBardeleben, M.Z., J.E. Wickham, and W.F. Kuhn: The Determination of Tar and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke from an Historical Perspective; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 17 (1991) 115–148.Search in Google Scholar

87. Staub, M. and H. Furrer: Tabakuntersuchungen IV – Eine neue automatische Abrauchapparatur [Studies on Tobacco IV. A New Smoking Apparatus]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 45 (1954) 473–476.Search in Google Scholar

88. Staub, M. and H. Furrer: Tabakuntersuchungen V – Die Reproduzierbarkeit der Rauchuntersuchungen [Studies on Tobacco V. The Reproducibility of Smoke Studies]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 48 (1957) 94–116.Search in Google Scholar

89. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): About Us – History. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/history-29294.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

90. Iles, W.G. and C.F. Sharman: A Versatile Automatic Smoking Machine; J. Appl. Chem. 7 (1957) 384–387.Search in Google Scholar

91. Baumberger, J.P.: The Amount of Smoke Produced from Tobacco and its Absorption in Smoking as Deter mined by Electrical Precipitation; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 21 (1923) 47–57.Search in Google Scholar

92. Bentley, H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Polynuclear Hydrocarbons in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke; Analyst 83 (1958) 442–447.Search in Google Scholar

93. Roe, F.J.C., M.H. Salaman, and J. Cohen: Incomplete Carcinogens in Cigarette Smoke Condensate: Tumour-Promotion by a Phenolic Fraction. With an appendix by J.G. Burgan; Brit. J. Cancer, 13 (1959) 623–633.Search in Google Scholar

94. Williamson, J.T. and P.J. Clark: Eine neue automatische Rauchmaschine zur Einstellung auf die verschiedensten Abrauchbedingungen [A New Automated Smoking Machine Allowing to Examine Various Smoking Conditions]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 187–191. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-002910.2478/cttr-2013-0029Search in Google Scholar

95. Filtrona Instruments: Filtrona Smoking Machine Model 100; Publication ALP. 170, Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd., Milton Keynes, UK.Search in Google Scholar

96. British Standards Institution: UK Report on a Comparison of the Performance of the Phipps & Bird, CSM 10, CSM 12 and Borgwaldt RM 20 Smoking Machines (1970); Implementation of Draft Resolution 15 of the Meeting of ISO/TC126, The Hague, Netherlands, September 1969.10.1016/S0042-207X(70)80321-9Search in Google Scholar

97. Rothwell, K. and C.A. Grant (Eds.): Standard Methods for the Analysis of Tobacco Smoke; Tobacco Research Council, London, UK, Research Paper 11, 1972, 2nd edition was published in 1974 and 3rd edition was published in 1986.Search in Google Scholar

98. Cumming, E.M.: A Smoking Machine Attachment for the Analysis of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide in the Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 153–157. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-037310.2478/cttr-2013-0373Search in Google Scholar

99. Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd: Filtrona SM400 Twenty Channel Harmonised Smoking Machine; Data Sheet, 1992. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/rxgv0016Search in Google Scholar

100. Cigarette Components, Ltd. - Data Sheet: Filtrona Model 302 Smoking Machine (1974), Bates No. 650333020-650333025. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bdu08c00/pdfSearch in Google Scholar

101. Cigarette Components, Ltd.: Automated Carbon Monoxide Measurements; Filtrona Facets, April 1980, Bates No. 105158818-105158851. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kqq25a99/pdfSearch in Google Scholar

102. Dymond, H.F.D. and A.E. Yallup: Gas Detection; United States Patent, 4,257,777, British American Tobacco Company Ltd., London, UK, March 24, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

103. Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd: Filtrona SM342 Eight Channel Harmonised Smoking Machine; Data Sheet, 1992. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/fnjc0054Search in Google Scholar

104. Molins plc: Our History (2016). Available at: http://www.molins.com/about-us/our-historySearch in Google Scholar

105. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:2012 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 5th edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

106. Cerulean: Smoking Machines (2016). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/product-services/tobacco/smoking-machinesSearch in Google Scholar

107. Cerulean: Comparing Air Flow Stability Between the Cerulean SM450 and the New Generation SM450i (2015). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/media/412760/Comparison-air-flow-SM450-and-SM450i.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

108. Borgwaldt KC: Instruments (2016). Available at: http://borgwaldt.hauni.com/en/instruments/smoking-machines.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

109. Lorton, N. and E.M. Cumming: A Multi-Purpose, Programmable Smoking Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1987) 45–51. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-058410.2478/cttr-2013-0584Search in Google Scholar

110. Decker, C., A. Girardet, P. Golaz, and R. Regamy: Appareil automatique multiple pour le dosage de la nicotine et des goudrons dans la fumée des cigarettes [Multiple Automatic Apparatus for the Determination of Nicotine and Tars in the Smoke of Cigarettes]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 46 (1955) 178–182.Search in Google Scholar

111. Waltz, P., M. Häusermann, E. Nyári, and G. Montandon: Eine neue Maschine zum gleichzeitigen Abrauchen mehrerer Cigaretten [A New Smoking Machine for Simultaneous Smoking of Several Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 1–10. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-000110.2478/cttr-2013-0001Search in Google Scholar

112. Waltz, P., M. Häusermann, and E. Nyári: Erfahrungen mit einer Maschine zum gleichzeitigen Abrauchen mehrerer Cigaretten [Experiences with an Equipment for Simultaneous Smoking of Several Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 83–91. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-001310.2478/cttr-2013-0013Search in Google Scholar

113. Seehofer, F.: Abrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [Smoking Machine for Serial Analyses]; Tabak-Forschung 13 (1959) 100.Search in Google Scholar

114. Seehofer, F., H. Barkemeyer, and H. Borowski: Automatische Abrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [An Automatic Smoking Machine for Serial Analyses]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 11–14. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-000210.2478/cttr-2013-0002Search in Google Scholar

115. Seehofer, F.: Rauchmaschinen für analytische Bestimmungen sowie für chemische und biologische Untersuchungen des Tabakrauches [Smoking Machines for Analytical Determinations and for Chemical and Biological Investigations of Tobacco Smoke]; Technisch-wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe der Staatlich Anerkannten lngenieurschule Hamburg-Bergedorf, Nr. 69 (Oktober 1968) 1–13.Search in Google Scholar

116. Seehofer, F., J.E. Miller, and H. Elmenhorst: Eine automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen und für die präparative Gewinnung von Rauchkondensaten [An Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses and the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Teil 1: Seehofer, F. and J.E. Miller: Automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 75–78. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-009810.2478/cttr-2013-0098Search in Google Scholar

117. Lipp, G.: Vergleich der Rauchausbeuten von drei verschiedenen Rauchmaschinen I [Comparison of the Smoke Condensate and Nicotine Yields Obtained from Three Different Smoking Machines I]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 39–42. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-021410.2478/cttr-2013-0214Search in Google Scholar

118. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Draft Report of the Second Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 126 – Tobacco and Tobacco Products: Resolution 15; The Hague, Netherlands, September 1969.Search in Google Scholar

119. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Tabak und Tabakerzeugnisse-Untersuchung – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten; Bestimmung des feuchten und trockenen Rauchkondensats [Tobacco and Tobacco Products-Analysis – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of Moist and Dry Smoke Condensate]; DIN, Berlin 1969.Search in Google Scholar

120. Lorenz, H.-W., H. Kirchner, and F. Seehofer: Die RM 20 – eine Rauchmaschine für analytische Untersuchungen [RM 20 – A Smoking Machine for Analytical Investigations]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1972) 199–204. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-029310.2478/cttr-2013-0293Search in Google Scholar

121. Seehofer, F. and W. Schulz: Zur Kenntnis des Glimmstromes von Cigaretten [On Smoulder Stream from Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 151–156. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-010710.2478/cttr-2013-0107Search in Google Scholar

122. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 - Teil 1. Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Anforderungen an eine analytische Rauchmaschine [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Specifications of an Analytical Smoking Machine]; DIN, Berlin, Germany, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

123. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Abrauchverfahren. Teil 2. [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Smoking Method. Part 2]; DIN, Berlin, Germany, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

124. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Bestimmung des Rohkondensats und des nikotinfreien, trockenen Rauchkondensats. Teil 3 [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Determination of the Raw Condensate and of the Nicotine Free, Dry Smoke Condensate. Part 3]; DIN, Berlin, Germany, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

125. British Standards Institution (BSI): BS 5668-1:1987. Routine Analytical Cigarette Smoking Machine. Part 1. Specification and Standard Conditions; BSI, London, UK, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

126. Schulz, W. and F. Seehofer: Über den Einfluß von Abrauchparametern auf die Rauchausbeuten [The Influences of Different Smoking Conditions on Smoke Yields]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 105–110. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-031710.2478/cttr-2013-0317Search in Google Scholar

127. Ayres, C.I. and M.G. Ivinson: “Free” and “Restricted” Smoking; Paper No. 17, presented at the 18th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Raleigh, NC, USA, 1964.Search in Google Scholar

128. Heinrich Borgwaldt GmbH & Co: Smoking Machine RM 20 CS; Hamburg, Germany, 1977. Bates No. 103508128-103508146. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug13a99/pdfSearch in Google Scholar

129. Rose, N.: Development of Rotary Smoking Machines in the Mirror of Regulatory Requirements; Paper, presented at the 67th Tobacco Science Research Conference, September 15–18, 2013, Williamsburg, VA, USA.Search in Google Scholar

130. Health Canada: Official Method T-109 – Determination of Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Se in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

131. Borgerding, M. and H. Klus: Analysis of Complex Mixtures – Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) Suppl. 1, 43–73.Search in Google Scholar

132. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): News Release – Letters to Each of the Nation's Major Cigarette Manufacturers; FTC Office of Information, Washington D.C. USA, March 25, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

133. Ogg, C.L.: Determination of Particulate Matter and Alkaloids (As Nicotine) in Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 47 (1964) 356–362.Search in Google Scholar

134. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes and Related Matters. Methods to be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content; Notice of Public Hearing; Federal Register 31, No. 215 (November 4, 1966) p. 14278.Search in Google Scholar

135. The American Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Philip Morris Incorporated, and RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Cigarettes and Related Matters – Methods to be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content; written presentation before the Federal Trade Commission, November 28, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

136. The American Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Philip Morris Incorporated, and RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Determination and Reporting of Total Particulate Matter, Water in Total Particulate Matter, and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke – Technical Data and Recommendations; Joint technical memorandum before the Federal Trade Commission, November 28, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

137. Hetsko, C.F., A. Yeaman, F.P. Haas, P.D. Smith, and H.H. Ramm: Cigarettes and Related Matters: Methods to Be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content. Supplementary Observations Following November 30, 1966 Hearing Before the Federal Trade Commission, Dec. 20, 1966. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nmmk0172Search in Google Scholar

138. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): News Release – FTC to Begin Cigarette Testing; FTC Office of Information, Washington DC, USA; August 1, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

139. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes and Related Matters – Carbon Monoxide, “Tar” and Nicotine Content of Cigarette Smoke; Description of New Machine and Methods to be Used in Testing; Federal Register 45 (1980) 46483–46487.Search in Google Scholar

140. Merfeld, G.L. and H.C. Pillsbury: A 20-Port Sequential Smoking Machine for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke; Presentation at the 32nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, November 1978, Montreal, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

141. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): “Tar”, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide of the Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998 (report issued 2000); FTC, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

142. Peeler, C.L.: Cigarette Testing and the Federal Trade Commission: A Historical Overview; in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health Publication No. 96-4028: The FTC Cigarette Test Method for Determining Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide Yields of U.S. Cigarettes – Report of the NCI Expert Committee; Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 7 (1996) pp. 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

143. Pillsbury, Jr, H.C.: Review of the Federal Trade Commission Method for Determining Cigarette Tar and Nicotine Yield; in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health Publication No. 96-4028: The FTC Cigarette Test Method for Determining Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide Yields of U.S. Cigarettes – Report of the NCI Expert Committee; Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 7 (1996) pp. 9–11.Search in Google Scholar

144. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): FTC Rescinds Guidance from 1966 on Statements Concerning Tar and Nicotine Yields; Press Release, November 28, 2008. Available at: http://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2008/11/ftc-rescinds-guidance-1966-statements-concerning-tar-nicotineSearch in Google Scholar

145. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Tobacco Products – Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs); last updated September 2015. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/ProductsIngredientsComponents/ucm20035927.htmSearch in Google Scholar

146. Kuhn, H.: The CORESTA Smoke Study Group – A Historical Review of its Activities; CORESTA 1956–1981. CORESTA Inform. Bull., Suppl. 1 (1982) 68–86.Search in Google Scholar

147. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 1: Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of Moist and Anhydrous Smoke Condensate; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

148. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 2: Determination of Total Alkaloids as Nicotine in Tobacco; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

149. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 3: Determination of Total Alkaloids as Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke Condensates; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

150. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 4: Determination of Nicotine Alkaloid Retention by Cigarette Filters; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

151. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 12: Determination of Alkaloids in Cigarette Smoke Condensates; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

152. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 13: Determination of Alkaloid Retention by Cigarette Filters; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

153. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 20: Determination of Alkaloids in Manufactured Tobacco; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

154. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3400:1976. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloids in Cigarette Smoke Condensates – Spectrophotometric Method; 1st edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

155. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3401:1977. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloid Retention by Filters of Cigarettes; 1st edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

156. International Organization for Standardization ISO: International Standard ISO 2881:1977. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloids in Tobacco – Spectrophotometric Method; 1st edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

157. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Zusätzliche Bedingungen für kanalspezifisch ventilierte Zigaretten. Teil 4 [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Additional Requirements for Channel-Ventilated Cigarettes. Part 4]; DIN, Berlin, Germany, 1985.Search in Google Scholar

158. CORESTA: Minutes of the Meeting of the Scientific Commission in Paris on May 18–19, 1972.Search in Google Scholar

159. N.N.: Reference Products Used in Tobacco and Smoke Analyses; Tob. J. Int. (2013) 150–154. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/sites/default/files/pages/tji0213-p150-154-refproducts.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

160. Morgareidge, K.: Evaluation of Variables in Cigarette Smoke Collection and Analysis; I. The Use of a Monitor Sample; 13th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, October 1959, Lexington KY, USA, Paper No. 21.Search in Google Scholar

161. Diana, J.N. and A. Vaught: The Reference Cigarette; Tobacco and Health Research Institute, The University of Kentucky Printing Services, Lexington, KY, USA,1990.Search in Google Scholar

162. Benner, J.F.: Tentative Summary of Leaf and Smoke Analysis of the University of Kentucky Reference and Alkaloid Series Cigarettes; Proceedings of the Tobacco and Health Conference, University of Kentucky Tobacco and Health Research Institute, Lexington, KY, USA, February 24–25, 1970. Conference Report 2 (1970) 30–34.Search in Google Scholar

163. Chambers, O., H. Ji, and J. Geary: Information on the Cooperative Agreement Between the Center for Tobacco Products and the University of Kentucky to Develop a “Cigarette Tobacco Reference Products Program”; Presentation at the CORESTA Congress of the Smoke Science/Product Technology Groups, October 2014, Québec City, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

164. University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Reference Cigarette Program: The Reference Cigarette. Available at: http://www.ca.uky.edu/refcig/1R5F%20Brochure%20New.pdf (accessed August 2015).Search in Google Scholar

165. University of Kentucky, Kentucky Tobacco Research & Development Center: 3R4F Preliminary Analysis. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.eduSearch in Google Scholar

166. Shelton, B.J., S.J.P. Cañete, and O.D. Chambers: Certificate of Analysis – 1R6F Certified Reference Cigarette; University of Kentucky Center for Tobacco Reference Products, Lexington, KY, USA, 2016. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.eduSearch in Google Scholar

167. University of Kentucky Center for Tobacco Reference Products: Product Category Proficiency Studies. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.eduSearch in Google Scholar

168. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Board: Minutes of the Meeting in Madrid, Spain, 20 January 1994. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/ntyv0079Search in Google Scholar

169. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 16055:2003. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Monitor Test Piece – Requirements and Use; 1st edition, February 1, 2003, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

170. CORESTA Guide No. 8 – CORESTA Monitor Test Piece Production and Evaluation Requirements (April 2009). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/coresta-monitor-test-piece-production-and-evaluation-requirements-29477.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

171. CORESTA Routine Analytical Chemistry Sub-Group: Technical Report, 2013 Collaborative Study of CORESTA Monitor =7 (CM7) for the Determination of Test Piece Weight, TPM, Water, Nicotine, NFDPM, Carbon Monoxide and Puff Count Obtained Under Mainstream ‘ISO’ and ‘Intense’ Smoking Regimes; February 2015. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/2012-collaborative-study-coresta-monitor-7-cm7-determination-test-piece-weight-tpm-water-nicotineSearch in Google Scholar

172. CORESTA Routine Analytical Chemistry Sub-Group: Technical Report - 2014–2015 Collaborative Study of CORESTA Monitor Test Pieces CM 7 and CM 8 for the Determination of Test Piece Weight, TPM, Water, Nicotine, NFDPM, Carbon Monoxide and Puff Count Obtained under Mainstream ‘ISO’ Smoking Regime (August 2015). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/2014-2015-collaborative-study-coresta-monitor-test-pieces-cm-7-and-cm-8-determination-test-pieceSearch in Google Scholar

173. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 4387:1987 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Glass Fibre Filter Smoke Trap Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

174. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 8453:1987 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine. Electrostatic Smoke Trap Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

175. Baker, R.R.: The Development and Significance of Standards for Smoking-Machine Methodology; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 23–41. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-072810.2478/cttr-2013-0728Search in Google Scholar

176. Council of the European Union: Council Directive 90/239 EEC 17 May 1990 on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Maximum Tar Yield of Cigarettes; Off. J. L 137 (1990) 36–37.Search in Google Scholar

177. European Parliament, Council of the European Union: Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2001 on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture, Presentation and Sale of Tobacco Products - Commission Statement; Off. J. L194 (2001) 26–35.Search in Google Scholar

178. Bourlas, M.C. and H.F.D. Dymond: Report of the Chairmen of the Review of Methods Task Force to the Smoke Study Group; CORESTA Symposium, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7–11, 1990.Search in Google Scholar

179. Thomsen, H.V.: International Reference Method for the Smoking of Cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 18 (1992) 69–94.Search in Google Scholar

180. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 70 – Determination of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by GC-MS (July 2014); CORESTA, Paris, France, 2014. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-selected-volatile-organic-compounds-mainstream-smoke-cigarettes-gas-chromatographySearch in Google Scholar

181. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 74 – Determination of Selected Carbonyls in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by HPLC) (July 2014); CORESTA, Paris, France, 2014. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-selected-carbonyls-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-high-performance-liquid-chromatographySearch in Google Scholar

182. Brunnemann, K.D., L. Yu., and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XVII. Assessment of Carcinogenic Volatile N-Nitrosamines in Tobacco and in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke from Cigarettes; Cancer Res. 37 (1977) 3218–3222.Search in Google Scholar

183. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Technology Moves On – What About ISO Standards?. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/faqs/faqs_standards.htmSearch in Google Scholar

184. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:2000 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 4th edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

185. Cahours, X., T. Verron, and R. Julien: Collaborative Studies – Definitions, Concepts & Outcomes; presented at the CORESTA Congress in Québec City, Canada, October 12–16, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

186. Verron, T., M. Czechowicz, W.D. Heller, X. Cahours, and S.W. Purkis: Aspects of the Design Protocol and the Statistical Methods for Analysis of Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Yields in Cigarette Smoke That Can Affect the Measurement Variability within Collaborative Studies; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 67 (2013) 252–265.Search in Google Scholar

187. Sakaki, T.: The Twenty Years Activities of Asia Collaborative Study; presented at the CORESTA Congress, Sapporo, Japan, September 2012.Search in Google Scholar

188. Intorp, M., S. Purkis, and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Selected Volatiles in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2009 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2011) 243–251. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0904Search in Google Scholar

189. Intorp, M., S. Purkis, and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2010 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 361–374. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0915Search in Google Scholar

190. Intorp, M., S. Purkis, and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: The CORESTA 2011 Collaborative Study; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 507–519. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0926Search in Google Scholar

191. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 75: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by LC-MS/MS; CORESTA, Paris, France. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-lc-msms-29198.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

192. CORESTA Task Force Alterative Smoking Regimes: Final Report (July 12, 2006). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/task-force-alternative-smoking-regimes-29284.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

193. Mariner, D., W.-D. Heller, J. Sarabia, S.W. Purkis, M. Meger, H.J. Eberhardt, and M. Czechowicz: The 2010 ISO TC 126 Working Group 10 Collaborative Study on Intense Machine Smoking; CORESTA Joint Study Group Meeting, Presentation ST 05, Graz, Austria, 2011, CORESTA 2011 Abstracts (2001) 30.Search in Google Scholar

194. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health: Global Collaborative Study – Method Validation of TNCO in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke, Intense Smoking Regime; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

195. Parrish, M.E. and C.N. Harward: Measurement of Formaldehyde in a Single Puff of Cigarette Smoke Using Tunable Diode Laser Infrared Spectroscopy; Appl. Spectrosc. 54 (2000) 1665–1677.Search in Google Scholar

196. Li, S., J.L. Banyasz, M.E. Parrish, J. Lyons-Hart, and K.H. Shafer: Formaldehyde in the Gas Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 65 (2002) 137–145.Search in Google Scholar

197. Li, S., J.L. Banyasz, R.M. Olegario, C.B. Huang, E.A. Lambert, and K.H. Shafer: Brief Communication: The Flame Effect on Benzo[a]pyrene in Cigarette Smoke; Combust. Flame 128 (2002) 314–319.Search in Google Scholar

198. Li, S., R.M. Olegario, J.L. Banyasz, and K.H. Shafer: Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Single Puff of Cigarette Smoke; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 66 (2003) 155–163.Search in Google Scholar

199. Adam, T., R.R. Baker, and R. Zimmermann: Investigation, by Single Photon Ionization (SPI)-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS), of the Effect of Different Cigarette-Lighting Devices on the Chemical Composition of the First Cigarette Puff; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387 (2007) 575–584.Search in Google Scholar

200. World Health Organization (WHO): WHO TobLabNet Official Method SOP 01: Standard Operating Procedure for Intense Smoking of Cigarettes; WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

201. Tindall, I., L. Crumpler, and P. Jordan: Air Flow, Turbulences and Smoke Yields. The Unexpected Consequences of Machine Design; Paper, presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting, Sept. 29 – Oct. 3, 2013, Seville, Spain.Search in Google Scholar

202. Darrall, K.G.: Smoking Machine Parameters and Cigarette Smoke Yields; Sci Total Environ. 74 (1988) 263–278.Search in Google Scholar

203. Scherer, G., J. Engl, M. Urban, G. Gilch, D. Janket, and K. Riedel: Relationship Between Machine-Derived Smoke Yields and Biomarkers in Cigarette Smokers in Germany; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 47 (2007) 171–183.Search in Google Scholar

204. The State of Texas: Disclosure of Ingredients in Cigarettes and Tobacco Products; Texas 75th Legislature - Regular Session, Chapter 1216, House Bill 119, Section 1, Chapter 161, Health and Safety Code, Subchapter N, 1997, Bates-No. 471323781–3. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=nnxm0054Search in Google Scholar

205. Rickert, W.S.: Smoking Under Realistic Conditions: Develpoment of Minimum and Maximum Values for Toxic Costituents in Tobacco Smoke; Labstat Inc. Tobacco Characterization Program, Project Report DSS File No 35SS.H4078-5-C105, September 30, 1996. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/pllx0091Search in Google Scholar

206. Province of British Columbia: Tobacco Testing and Disclosure Regulation; Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council, B.C. Reg. 282/98, Section 1 to 6, 1998. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/stxv0063Search in Google Scholar

207. Province of British Columbia: Tobacco Testing and Disclosure Regulation; Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council No. 423 of April 2, 2001, amending B.C. Reg. 282/98, 2001. Available at: http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/content/oic/arc_oic/2000___2009/oic2001/2001_0400___0499/?xsl=/templates/browse.xslSearch in Google Scholar

208. Health Canada: Proposed Tobacco (Reporting) Regulations; Health Protection Branch, Information Letter No. 819, 1998, Bates-No. TA67945-70. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=syxx0149Search in Google Scholar

209. Health Canada: Official Method T-115 – Determination of “Tar”, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

210. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 4387:1991. Cigarettes – Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine; Second Edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991.Search in Google Scholar

211. Word Health Organization (WHO): WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg). Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_interaction/tobreg/en/Search in Google Scholar

212. WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg): Recommendation 1: Guiding Principles for the Development of Tobacco Product Research and Testing Capacity and Proposed Protocols for the Initiation of Tobacco Product Testing; WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

213. Pickworth, W., P. Houlgate, M. Schorp, M. Dixon, M. Borgerding, and G. Zaatari: Report of the ad hoc WG9 Smoking Behaviour Review Team to ISO/TC 126 WG9: A Review of Human Smoking Behaviour Data and Recommendations for a New ISO Standard for the Machine Smoking of Cigarettes (2005). Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=kkgm0006 This document was subsequently released as: International Organization for Standardardization (ISO): ISO/TR 17219:2013 – Review of Human Smoking Behaviour and Recommendations for a New ISO Standard for the Machine Smoking of Cigarettes; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

214. Purkis, S.W., V. Troude, G. Duputié, and C. Tessier: Limitations in the Characterisation of Cigarette Products Using Different Machine Smoking Regimes; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 58 (2010) 501–515.Search in Google Scholar

215. Dixon, M. and M.F. Borgerding: Recent Advances in the Application and Understanding of Alternative Smoking Regimes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 32 (2006) 3–83.Search in Google Scholar

216. Purkis, S.W.: Issues, Paradigms and Paradoxes That Need to Be Addressed by Both Manufacturers and Regulators in the Measurement and Interpretation of Cigarette Smoke Yields of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHPCs); Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 39 (2013) 3–58.Search in Google Scholar

217. Purkis; S.W., X. Cahours, M. Rey, B. Teillet, V. Troude, and T. Verron: Some Consequences of Using Cigarette Machine Smoking Regimes with Different Intensities on Smoke Yields and Their Variability; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 59 (2011) 293–309.Search in Google Scholar

218. Counts, M.E., M.J. Morton, S.W. Laffon, R.H. Cox, and P.J. Lipowicz: Smoke Composition and Predicting Relationships for Internal Commercial Cigarettes Smoked with Three Machine-Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 41 (2005) 185–227.Search in Google Scholar

219. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 4387:2000/Amd.1:2008 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine; 3rd edition, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

220. Blackley, R.L., J.L. Nelson, R.A. Vernon, W.D. Brown, D.W. Bowman, J.M. Gwyn, and D.D. Henry: Development of a Holder Designed to Block 50% of Cigarette Filter Ventilation; ACD Test Memorandum, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

221. Rickert, W.S.: A New More “Intense” ISO Smoking Regime: Observations and Implications; Paper presented at the 13th Asian Collaborative Study (ACS) Meeting, Taipei, Taiwan, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

222. Marian, C., R.J. O'Connor, M.V. Djordjevic, V.W. Rees, D.K. Hatsukami, and P.G. Shields: Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3305–3320.Search in Google Scholar

223. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 58: Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by GC-MS (July 2014); CORESTA, Paris, France. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-benzoapyrene-cigarette--mainstream-smoke-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-29181Search in Google Scholar

224. Purkis, S.W., M. Intorp, and A. Hauleithner: Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried out Under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2013) 700–707. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-094610.2478/cttr-2013-0946Search in Google Scholar

225. Tindall, I.F., L.P. Crumpler, and T.J.P. Mason: Smoking Machine Design and Yield Errors under Intense Smoke Regimes. Part 1: The Influence of Dead Volume on Yield; presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting, Sapporo, Japan 2012, Abstract SSPT06.Search in Google Scholar

226. Tindall, I.: The Impact of Smoking Machine Design on Yield During Canadian Intense Smoking; Presentation at ISO/TC 126, WG 10, Ad hoc Group Meeting, London, UK, April, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

227. Tindall, I.F., L.P. Crumpler, and T.J.P. Mason: Smoking Machine Design and Yield Errors under Intense Smoke Regimes. Part 2: The Influence of Puff Volume on Desorption of Volatile Smoke Components; Paper presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting Sapporo, Japan 2012, Abstract SSPT07.Search in Google Scholar

228. Tindall, I.F., A. Cole, and L. Crumpler: Dead Volume and Impinger Capture: Will Machine Design Change Puffing Conditions?; Paper presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Meeting, 4–8 October 2015, Jeju, Korea; Abstract ST 39.Search in Google Scholar

229. Purkis, S: A Caution Note: Reference to ISO Standards is Not a Sufficient Means of Providing Validation for Non ISO Methods; Poster STPOST 05 presented at the CORESTA Congress, 12–16 October 2014, Quebec, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

230. Herdt, D.: The Influence of Smoke Path Geometry on TNCO Results Using Smoking Machines Complying with ISO 3308; Poster STPOST 04 presented at the CORESTA Congress, 12–16 October 2014, Quebec, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

231. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN ISO 4387:2011-01 – Zigaretten – Bestimmung des Rohkondensats und des nikotinfreien Trockenkondensats unter Verwendung einer Zigaretten-Abrauchmaschine für Routineanalysen (ISO 4387:2000 + Amd.1:2008) [DIN ISO 4387:2011-01 – Cigarettes – Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine (ISO 4387:2000 + Amd.1:2008)]; DIN, Berlin, Germany, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

232. European Parliament, Council of the European Union: Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3rd April 2014 on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture, Presentation and Sale of Tobacco and Related Products and Repealing Directive 2001/37/EC; Official Journal European Union L127 (2014) 1–38.Search in Google Scholar

233. Brosch, A.: Theoretische und Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Pathogenesis und Histogenesis der malignen Geschwülste [Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on Pathogenesis and Histogenesis of Malignant Tumors]; Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med.162 (1900) 32–84.Search in Google Scholar

234. Tillmanns, H.: Ueber Theer-, Russ- und Tabakkrebs [On Cancer Caused by “Tar”, Soot and Tobacco]; Dtsch. Z. Chir. 13 (1880) 519–535.Search in Google Scholar

235. Ludwig, E.: Ueber einige Bestandtheile des Tabakrauches [On Several Components of Tobacco Smoke]; Arch. Klin. Chir. 20 (1876).Search in Google Scholar

236. Wacker, L. and A. Schmincke: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur kausalen Genese atypischer Epithelwucherungen [Experimental Investigations on the Causal Generation of Atypic Epithelial Tumours]; Münch. Med. Wochenschr. 58 (1911) 1607–1613 and 1680–1682.Search in Google Scholar

237. Hoffmann, E., H.T. Schreus, and E. Zurhelle: Beobachtungen zur experimentellen Geschwulsterzeugung durch Teer verschiedener Herkunft und Paraffin [Observations on the Experimental Formation of Tumors by Tars of Different Origins and Paraffin]; Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 49 (1923) 633–634.Search in Google Scholar

238. Helwig, F.C.: The Growth-Producing Effects of Extracts of Tobacco on Mice; J.A.M.A. 91 (1928) 150–151.Search in Google Scholar

239. Roffo, A.H.: Desarrollo de un carcinoma en el conejo por el tabaco [Tobacco-Induced Carcinoma in Rabbits]; Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental para el Estudio y Tratamiento del Cancer, Buenos Aires, University Press 7 (1930) 501–538.Search in Google Scholar

240. Roffo, A.H.: Durch Tabak beim Kaninchen entwickeltes Carcinom [Carcinoma Initiated by Tobacco in Rabbits]; Z. Krebsforsch. 33 (1931) 321–332.Search in Google Scholar

241. Roffo, A.H.: Der Tabak als krebserzeugendes Agens [Tobacco as Carcinogenic Agent]; Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 63 (1937) 1267–1271.Search in Google Scholar

242. Roffo, A.H.: Carcinome développé chez un lapin après trois ans, par l’effet du tabac [Carcinoma Developed in a Rabbit After Three Years by the Action of Tobacco]; Les Neoplasmes 11 (1932) 77–89.Search in Google Scholar

243. Roffo, A.H.: Krebserzeugendes Benzpyren, gewonnen aus Tabakteer [Cancer Causing Benzpyrene Obtained from Tobacco Tar]; Z. Krebsforsch. 49 (1939) 588–597.Search in Google Scholar

244. Kosak, A.I.: The Composition of Tobacco Smoke; Experientia 10 (1954) 69–71.Search in Google Scholar

245. Lü-Fu-hua: Über die Erzeugung von Krebs durch Tabakteerpinselung beim Kaninchen [On the Production of Carcinomas by Skin Painting Rabbits with Tobacco Tar]; Frankf. Z. Pathol. 46 (1934) 513–522.Search in Google Scholar

246. Sugiura, K.: Observations on Animals Painted with Tobacco Tars; Am. J. Cancer 38 (1940) 41–49.Search in Google Scholar

247. Flory, C.M.: The Production of Tumors by Tobacco Tars; Cancer Res. 1 (1941) 252–276.Search in Google Scholar

248. Wynder, E.L. and G. Wright: A Study of Tobacco Carcinogenesis. I. The Primary Fractions; Cancer 10 (1957) 255–271.Search in Google Scholar

249. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. Studies in Experimental Carcinogenesis; Academic Press, New York, USA, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

250. Kosak, A.I., J.S. Swinehart, and D. Taber: The Components of Cigarette Smoke. I. Preliminary Studies; J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 17 (1956) 375–389.Search in Google Scholar

251. Engelbreth-Holm, J. and J. Ahlmann: Production of Carcinoma in ST/Eh Mice with Cigarette Tar; Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 41 (1957) 267–272.Search in Google Scholar

252. Schur, M.O. and J.C. Rickards: Design and Operation of a Multiple Cigarette Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 13–20.Search in Google Scholar

253. Haag, H.B. and P.S. Larson: Some Basic Facts of Medical Interest Concerning Cigarettes and Their Smoke; Interne 14 (1948) 110–112 and 119.Search in Google Scholar

254. Wolman, W.: A Study of Cigarettes, Cigarette Smoke, and Filters. 4. Regular Cigarettes, King-Size Cigarettes, and Additional Filter-Tip Cigarettes; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 157 (1955) 1309–1312.Search in Google Scholar

255. Consumers Union of U.S. Inc.: Cigarettes. What CU’s Tests Showed. The Industry and its Advertising … and: How Harmful Are They?; Consumer Reports 18 (1953) 58–74.Search in Google Scholar

256. Waser, E. and M. Stähli: Untersuchungen am Tabakrauch. I. [Investigations on Tobacco Smoke. I.]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 64 (1932) 470–485.Search in Google Scholar

257. Pyriki, C.: Untersuchungen über den Rauch von Zigaretten [Investigations on the Smoke from Cigarettes]; Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 88 (1948) 254–269.10.1007/BF0127052218890964Search in Google Scholar

258. Hackney, E.J., W.R. Weidlich, and J.B. Williams: A Large Capacity Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 112–115.Search in Google Scholar

259. Bock, F.G. and G.E. Moore: Carcinogenic Activity of Cigarette-Smoke Condensate. I. Effect of Trauma and X Irradiation; J. Nat.Cancer Inst. 22 (1959) 401–411.Search in Google Scholar

260. Bock, F.G., G.E. Moore, J.E. Dowd, and P.C. Clark: Carcinogenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate. Biological Activity of Refined Tar from Certain Brands of Cigarettes; JAMA 181 (1962) 668–673.Search in Google Scholar

261. Lang, R.E. and R.J. Moshy: An Improved Automatic Smoking Machine for the Large Scale Collection of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; presented at the 19th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Lexington, KY, USA, 1965.Search in Google Scholar

262. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 1 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The First Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Publication No. (NIH) 76–905, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

263. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 2 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Second Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Publication No. (NIH) 76–1111, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

264. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 3 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Third Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Publication No. (NIH) 77–1280, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

265. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 4 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Fourth Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1980.Search in Google Scholar

266. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 5 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. Summary: Four Skin Painting Bioassays Using Condensate from Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1980.Search in Google Scholar

267. Bombick, D.W., P.H. Ayres, and D.J. Doolittle: Cytotoxicity Assessment of Whole Smoke and Vapor Phase of Mainstream and Sidestream Cigarette Smoke from Three Kentucky Reference Cigarettes; Toxicol. Methods 7 (1997) 177–190.Search in Google Scholar

268. Seehofer, F, J.E. Miller, and H. Elmenhorst.: Eine automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen und für die präparative Gewinnung von Rauchkondensaten [An Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses and the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Teil 2: Elmenhorst, H.: Automatische Schnellrauchmaschine zur präparativen Gewinnung von Tabakrauchkondensaten [Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 78–82. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-009810.2478/cttr-2013-0098Search in Google Scholar

269. Barkemeyer, H. and F. Seehofer: Über eine neue Methode zur Niederschlagung von Tabakrauch in Flüssigkeiten [A New Method for the Collection of the Particle Phase of Tobacco Smoke in Liquids]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 93–96. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-001410.2478/cttr-2013-0014Search in Google Scholar

270. Elmenhorst, H.: Eine neue Kältefalle zur Gewinnung großer Mengen von Tabakrauchkondensat [A New Cold Trap for the Collection of Large Amounts of Tobacco Smoke Condensate]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 101–107. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-010310.2478/cttr-2013-0103Search in Google Scholar

271. Elmenhorst, H.: Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine für die Herstellung großer Mengen von Cigarettenrauch Kondensat [An Automatic Smoking Machine for the Collection of Large Quantities of Cigarette Smoke Condensate]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 545–553. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-015210.2478/cttr-2013-0152Search in Google Scholar

272. Elmenhorst, H. and W. Hennig: Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine. II. Mitteilung: Automatische Kontrolle der Stummellänge und ihre Verwendung als Steuerprinzip [An Automatic Smoking Machine. 2nd Report: The Automatic Control of Butt Lengths and its Use as Control Device]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 25–27. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-021110.2478/cttr-2013-0211Search in Google Scholar

273. Dontenwill, W., H. Elmenhorst, H.-P. Harke, G. Reckzeh, and K.H. Weber: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die tumorenerzeugende Wirkung von Zigarettenrauch-Kondensaten an der Mäusehaut. I. Mitteilung: Gesamtversuch [Experimental Studies on Tumorigenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensates on the Skin of Mice. 1st Communication: Total Experiment]; Z. Krebsforsch. 73 (1970) 265–284.Search in Google Scholar

274. Neurath, G. and R. Kröger: Druckverrauchen – Eine neue Abrauchmethode und Möglichkeiten ihrer Anwendung [Mechanical Smoking Using a Pressure Procedure - A New Smoking Procedure and its Application Conditions]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1963) 81–88. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-005810.2478/cttr-2013-0058Search in Google Scholar

275. Food Protection Committee, Food and Nutrition Board: Problems in the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Hazard from Use of Food Additives; U.S. Natl. Acad. Sci., Natl. Res. Council Publ. 749, Washington, DC, USA, 1959.Search in Google Scholar

276. Neurath, G. and H. Ehmke: Apparatur zur Untersuchung des Nebenstromrauches [An Apparatus for Sidestream Studies]; Beitr. Tabakforschung 2 (1964) 117–121. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-006410.2478/cttr-2013-0064Search in Google Scholar

277. Brunnemann, K.D. and D. Hoffmann: The pH of Tobacco Smoke; Food Cosmetics Toxicol. 12 (1974) 115–124.10.1016/0015-6264(74)90327-7Search in Google Scholar

278. Brunnemann, K.D., L. Yu, and D. Hoffmann: Assessment of Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke from Cigarettes; Cancer Res. 37 (1977) 3218–3222.Search in Google Scholar

279. Brunnemann, K.D., J.D. Adams, D.P.S. Ho, and D. Hoffmann: The Influence of Tobacco Smoke on Indoor Atmospheres II. Volatile and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Main- and Sidestream Smoke and Their Contribution to Indoor Pollution; Proceed. 4th Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, 1977, pp. 876–880, published by the Am. Chem. Soc., Washington D.C., USA, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

280. Adams J.D., K.D. Brunnemann, and D. Hoffmann: Determination of Nitric Oxide in Unaged Smoke by GSC-TEA; Paper presented at the 32nd Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, 1978, Montreal, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

281. Brunnemann, K.D., H. Lee, and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XLVII. On the Quantitative Analysis of Catechols and Their Reduction; Anal. Letters 9 (1976) 934–955.Search in Google Scholar

282. Brunnemann, K.D., S. Stanke, and D. Hoffmannn: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke LXI. Volatile Pyridines: Quantitative Analysis in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke of Cigarettes and Cigars; Anal. Letters A11 (1978) 545–560.Search in Google Scholar

283. Brunnemann, K.D. and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XXXIV. Gaschromatographic Determination of Ammonia in Cigarette and Cigar Smoke; J Chrom. Sci. 13 (1975) 159–163.Search in Google Scholar

284. Morrell, F.A. and C. Varsel: A Total Combustion Product Cigarette Smoking Machine – Analyses of Radioactive Labeled Cigarette Paper; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 45–50.Search in Google Scholar

285. O’Keefe, A.E. and G.T. Smith: A Proximity Cigarette Lighter; Paper presented at the 13th Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, October 1959, Lexington, KY, USA.Search in Google Scholar

286. Jenkins, R.W. Jr, M.K. Chavis, R.H. Newman, and F.A. Morrell: The Quantitative Recovery of Smoke from Radioactively Labeled Cigarettes; Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes, 22 (1971) 691–697.Search in Google Scholar

287. Jenkins Jr, R.W., C. Goldey, and T.G. Williamson: Neutron Activation Analysis in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke Studies: 2R1 Cigarette Composition, Smoke Transference and Butt Filtration; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 13 (1985) 59–65. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-055610.2478/cttr-2013-0556Search in Google Scholar

288. Seehofer, F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse, eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 1. Mitteilung [The Capillary Press, a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 1st Report]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1964) 303–310. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-008310.2478/cttr-2013-0083Search in Google Scholar

289. Seehofer, F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse, eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 2. Mitteilung; Die automatische Kapillarpresse [The Capillary Press, a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 2nd report. The Automatic Capillary Press]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 291–300. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-012110.2478/cttr-2013-0121Search in Google Scholar

290. Seehofer, F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse, eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 3. Mitteilung. Die automatische Kapillarpresse mit einem Rauchkopf für offenes und geschlossenes Abrauchen [The Capillary Press, a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 3rd Report. An Automatic Smoking Machine Equipped with a Supplementary Appliance for Free and Restricted Smoking]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 358–370. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-012810.2478/cttr-2013-0128Search in Google Scholar

291. Mathewson, H.D.: The Direct Preparation of Cigarette Smoke Condensate by High Velocity Impaction; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 430–437. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-013710.2478/cttr-2013-0137Search in Google Scholar

292. Walaszek Z., M. Hanausek, and T.J. Slaga: The Role of Skin Painting in Predicting Lung Cancer; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 345–351.Search in Google Scholar

293. Lickint, F.: Tabak und Tabakrauch als ätiologischer Faktor des Carcinoms [Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke as Etiologic Factor of Carcinoma]; Z. Krebsforsch. 30 (1929) 349–365.Search in Google Scholar

294. Mertens, V.E.: Zigarettenrauch eine Ursache des Lungenkrebses? (Eine Anregung.) [Cigarette Smoke a Cause of Lung Cancer? (A Suggestion)]; Z. Krebsforsch. 32 (1930) 82–91.Search in Google Scholar

295. Mertens, V.E.: Noch einmal Zigarettenrauch und Lungenkrebs [Once More: Cigarette Smoke and Lung Cancer]; Z. Krebsforsch. 51 (1941) 183–192.Search in Google Scholar

296. Campbell, J.A.: The Effect of Exhaust Gases from Internal Combustion Engines and Tobacco Smoke Upon Mice with Special Reference to Incidence of Tumours of the Lung; Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 17 (1936) 146–158.Search in Google Scholar

297. Lorenz, E., H.L. Stewart, J.H. Daniel, and C.V. Nelson: The Effects of Breathing Tobacco Smoke on Strain A Mice; Cancer Res. 3 (1943) 123.Search in Google Scholar

298. Essenberg, J.M.: Cigarette Smoke and the Incidence of Primary Neoplasm of the Lung in the Albino Mouse; Science 116 (1952) 561–562.Search in Google Scholar

299. Leuchtenberger, C., R. Leuchtenberger, P.F. Doolin, and P. Shaffer: A Correlated Histological, Cytological, and Cytochemical Study of the Tracheobronchial Tree and Lungs of Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke. I. Bronchitis with Atypical Epithelial Changes in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke; Cancer 11 (1958) 490–506.Search in Google Scholar

300. Leuchtenberger, C., R. Leuchtenberger, F. Ruch, K. Tanaka, and T. Tanaka: Cytological and Cytochemical Alterations in the Respiratory Tract of Mice after Exposure to Cigarette Smoke, Influence Virus, and Both; Cancer Res. 23 (1963) 555–565.Search in Google Scholar

301. Leuchtenberger, C., R. Leuchtenberger, and S. Weiss: Increase of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Blood of Mice Exposed to Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 6 (1965) 39.Search in Google Scholar

302. Leuchtenberger, C. and R. Leuchtenberger: Einfluss von frischem Zigarettenrauch auf die Entwicklung von Lungentumoren und auf Lungenkulturen bei der Snell-Maus [Influence of Fresh Cigarette Smoke on the Development of Lung Tumors and on Lung Explant Cultures Using the Snell Mouse]; Schweiz. med. Wschr. 101 (1971) 1374–1381.Search in Google Scholar

303. Holland, R.H., R.H. Wilson, D. Morris, M.S. McCall, and H. Lanz: The Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Respiratory System of the Rabbit - A Preliminary Report; Cancer 11 (1958) 709–712.Search in Google Scholar

304. Holland, R.H., E.J. Kozlowski, and L. Booker: The Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Respiratory System of the Rabbit – A Final Report; Cancer 16 (1963) 612–615.Search in Google Scholar

305. Haag, H.B., P.S. Larson, and J.H. Weatherby: The Effect on Rats of Chronic Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 90 (1960) 227–238.Search in Google Scholar

306. Otto, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Mäusen mit passiver Zigarettenrauchbeatmung [Experimental Studies of Passive Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by Mice]; Frankfurter Z. Patholog. 73 (1963) 10–23.Search in Google Scholar

307. Wynder, E.L., K.T. Taguchi, V. Baden, and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco Carcinogenesis. IX. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Respiratory Tract of Mice after Passive Inhalation; Cancer 21 (1968) 134–153.Search in Google Scholar

308. Dontenwill, W. and U. Mohr: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Problem der Carcinomentstehung im Respirationstrakt. II. Die Wirkung von Tabakrauchkondensaten und Zigarettenrauch auf die Lunge des Goldhamsters [Experimental Investigation to the Problem of the Generation of Carcinomas in the Respiatory Tract. II. The Effect of Tobacco Smoke Condensates and Cigarette Smoke in the Lung of Golden Hamsters]; Z. Krebsforsch. 65 (1962) 62–68.Search in Google Scholar

309. Dontenwill, W.: Inhalationsversuche mit Tabakrauch [Inhalation Experiments With Tobacco Smoke]; in: Alkylierend wirkende Verbindungen, Tagungsbericht zur 1. Konferenz über N-Nitroso-Verbindungen und Lactone [Alkylating Compounds, Report of the 1st Conference on N-Nitroso Compounds and Lactones], Hamburg, Sept. 1963, Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie, 1964, pp. 133–137.Search in Google Scholar

310. Dontenwill, W. and B. Wiebecke: Tracheal and Pulmonary Alterations Following the Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by the Golden Hamster; in: Lung Tumours in Animals - Proceedings of the Third Quadrennial Conference on Cancer, University of Perugia, June 24-29, 1965, edited by L. Severi, Perugia, Division of Cancer Research, 1966, pp. 519–526.Search in Google Scholar

311. Dontenwill, W., G. Reckzeh, and L. Stadler: Inhalationsexperimente mit Cigarettenrauch [Inhalation Experiments with Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 438–448. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-013810.2478/cttr-2013-0138Search in Google Scholar

312. Harris, R.J.C. and G. Negroni: Cigarette Smoking and the Induction of Lung Cancer in Mice; in: Lung Tumours in Animals - Proceedings of the Third Quadrennial Conference on Cancer, University of Perugia, June 24-29, 1965, edited by L. Severi, Perugia, Division of Cancer Research, 1966, pp. 497–512.Search in Google Scholar

313. Harris, R.J.C. and G. Negroni: Production of Lung Carcinomas in C57BL Mice Exposed to a Cigarette Smoke and Air Mixture; Brit. Med. J. 4 (1967) 637–641.Search in Google Scholar

314. Dontenwill, W., G. Reckzeh, and L. Stadler: Berauchungsapparatur für Laboratoriumstiere [An Inhalation Apparatus Designed for Laboratory Animals]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 45–49. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-016610.2478/cttr-2013-0166Search in Google Scholar

315. Heinr. Borgwaldt GmbH: Smoking Machines – Inhalation Apparatus Type “Hamburg II”; Bulletin, Borgwaldt, Hamburg, Germany. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=hmmm0075Search in Google Scholar

316. Rücker, K. and W. Dontenwill: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen über die Beeinflussung der Atmung während der Inhalation von Cigarettenrauch [Animal Experiments on the Influence of Cigarette Smoke Inhalation on the Respiratory Frequency]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 40–44. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-016510.2478/cttr-2013-0165Search in Google Scholar

317. Reckzeh, G., K. Rücker, H.-P. Harke, and W. Dontenwill: Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der akuten und chronischen Toxizität von Cigarettenrauch bei passiver Berauchung von Versuchstieren [Studies to Determine the Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke in Experimental Animals after Passive Smoking]; Arzneimittelforschung 19 (1969) 237–241.Search in Google Scholar

318. Dontenwill, W.: Experimental Investigations on the Effect of Cigarette Smoke Inhalation on Small Laboratory Animals; Inhalation Carcinogenesis, U.S. AEC Symposium Series 18 (1970) 389–412.Search in Google Scholar

319. Houseman, T.H. and E. Heneage: Studies of Cigarette Smoke Transfer Using Radioisotopically Labelled Tobacco Constituents; Part I: The Preparation of Radioisotopically Labelled Cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 138–141. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-032110.2478/cttr-2013-0321Search in Google Scholar

320. Reznik, G., N. Kmoch, and U. Mohr: Inhalation Experiments with 14C-Labelled Cigarette Smoke. I. Determination of the Effectiveness of Two Different Smoking Systems with Labelled Cigarettes; Toxicology 4 (1975) 363–371.Search in Google Scholar

321. Reznik, G. and U. Mohr: A Modified Method for Locating Labeled Smoke Particles in Organs of Syrian Golden and European Hamsters; in: Experimental Lung Cancer; edited by E. Karbe and J.F. Park, Springer, Berlin, Germany (1974) 300–308.Search in Google Scholar

322. Carruthers, W. and R.A.W. Johnston: Composition of a Paraffin Wax Fraction from Tobacco Leaf and Tobacco Smoke; Nature 184 (1959) 1131–1132.Search in Google Scholar

323. Carugno, N.: Determination of Paraffin Waxes of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke by Gas-Liquid Chormatography; Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph 9 (1962) 171–178.Search in Google Scholar

324. Davis, B.R., T.H. Houseman, and H.R. Roderick: Studies of Cigarette Smoke Transfer Using Radioisotopically Labelled Tobacco Constituents; Part III: The Use of Dotriacontane-16, 17-14C as a Marker for the Deposition of Cigarette Smoke in the Respiratory System of Experimental Animals; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973)148–153. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-032310.2478/cttr-2013-0323Search in Google Scholar

325. Kmoch, N., G. Reznik, and U. Mohr: Inhalation Experiments with 14C-Labelled Cigarette Smoke; II. The Distribution of Cigarette Smoke Particles in the Hamster Respiratory Tract after Exposure in Two Different Smoking Systems; Toxicology 4 (1975) 373–381.Search in Google Scholar

326. Dontenwill, W.P., H.J. Chevalier, H.P. Harke, U. Lafrenz, G. Reckzeh, and B. Schneider: Investigations on the Effects of Chronic Cigarette-Smoke Inhalation in Syrian Golden Hamsters; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51 (1973) 1781–1832.Search in Google Scholar

327. Wehner, A.P., R.H. Busch, R.J. Olson, and D.K. Craig: Chronic Inhalation of Asbestos and Cigarette Smoke by Hamsters; Environ. Res. 10 (1975) 368–383.Search in Google Scholar

328. Davis, B.R., E.R. Harris, and E. Heneage: A New Device for Exposing Experimental Animals to Cigarette Smoke; Bates-No. 105439902-9919 Available at: http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/mmdb0208 (accessed February 2015).Search in Google Scholar

329. Bättig, K. and V. Hrubes: The Effect of Filtrate Fractions of Tobacco Smoke on Swimming Endurance in the Rat; Z. Präventivmed. 16 (1971) 205–210.Search in Google Scholar

330. Driscoll, P. and K. Bättig: The Effect of Filtrate Fractions of Tobacco Smoke on the Avoidance Behavior of Rats Under Extinction Procedure; Z. Präventivmed. 16 (1971) 197–203.Search in Google Scholar

331. Walton, R.R.: Smoking Machine; U.S. Patent 3,476,119, Nov. 4, 1969.Search in Google Scholar

332. Morrissey, C.A.: Cigarette Smoking Machine; U.S. Patent 3,528,435, Sept. 15, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

333. Stokely, J.R., J.H. Moneyhun, M.R. Guerin, L. Florant, and J. Greenspan: Description and Characteristics of the Walton Horizontal Inhalation Exposure Smoking Machine; in: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry, edited by M.R. Guerin, J.R. Stokely, C.E. Higgins, and G.W. Griffith, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 1979, pp. 1–17.Search in Google Scholar

334. Guerin, M.R., J.R. Stokely, C.E. Higgins, J.H. Moneyhun, and R.W. Holmberg: Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry - Walton Horizontal Smoking Machine for Inhalation Exposure of Rodents to Cigarette Smoke; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63 (1979) 441–448.Search in Google Scholar

335. Chen, B.T., J. Namenyi, H.C. Yeh, J.L. Mauderly, and R.G. Cuddihy: Physical Characterization of Cigarette Smoke Aerosol Generated from a Walton Smoke Machine; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12 (1990) 364–375.Search in Google Scholar

336. Maddox, W.L., W.E. Dalbey, M.R. Guerin, J.R. Stokely, D.A. Creasia, and J. Kendrick: A Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Exposure Device for Rodents; Arch. Environm. Health 33 (1978) 64–71.Search in Google Scholar

337. Moneyhun, J.H., J.R. Stokely, and L. Florant: Process and Instruments Corporation Automatic Smoke Exposure Machine - SEM II; in: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry, edited by M.R. Guerin, J.R. Stokely, C.E. Higgins, and G.W. Griffith, Report ORNL-5424, pp. 19–33, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA 1979.Search in Google Scholar

338. Henry, C.J., J.E. Caton, J.R. Stokely, M.R. Guerin, A. Lopez, M.D. Avery, D.R. Dansie, G.M. Henderson, T. Gayle, C.E. Whitmire, and R.E. Kouri: Deposition and Distribution of the Total Particulate Matter of Cigarette Smoke in Mice Using a Large-Capacity Smoke Exposure System; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 58 (1981) 399–409.Search in Google Scholar

339. Henry, C.J., C.E. Whitmire, A. Lopez, D.R. Dansie. M.D. Avery, J.E. Caton, J.R. Stokely, R.W. Holmberg, M.R. Guerin, and R.E. Kouri: The Dosimetry and Distribution of Whole Cigarette Smoke Particulates in Inbred Strains of Mice: Comparison of a Large Smoke Exposure Machine (SEM) with a Small-Capacity Smoke-Exposure Machine (Walton); Pulonary Toxicology of Respirable Particles; edited by G.E. Dage and J.A. Mahafley, U.S. Technical Information Center, Department of Energy, 1980, pp. 177–192.Search in Google Scholar

340. Henry, C.J., D.R. Dansie, K.K. Kanagalingam, R.E. Kouri, T. Gayle, M. Guerin, R. Holmberg, L. Florant, and J. Greenspan: Chronic Inhalation Studies in Mice. I. Facilities and Equipment for “Nose-Only” Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 13 (1985) 37–53. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-055410.2478/cttr-2013-0554Search in Google Scholar

341. Henry, C.J. and R.E. Kouri: Chronic Inhaltation Studies in Mice. II. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 2R1 Cigarette Smoke on (C57BL/Cum x C3H/AnfCum)F1 Mice; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77 (1986) 203–212.Search in Google Scholar

342. Gori, G.B., (ed.): Proceedings of the Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Workshop on Experimental Methods in Smoking and Health Research; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 75-906, Washington, D.C., U.S. Gov. Print. Office, 1975.Search in Google Scholar

343. Guerin, M., W.L. Maddox, and J.R. Stokely: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Exposure: Concepts and Devices; in: Proceedings of the Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Workshop on Experimental Methods in Smoking and Health Research, edited by G.B. Gori, Bethesda, ML, USA, June 19–21, 1974, DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 75-906, 1975, pp. 31–48.Search in Google Scholar

344. Schultz, F.J. and J.R. Wagner: A Thirty-Port Smoking Machine for Continuous Smoke Generation; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 53–59. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-035510.2478/cttr-2013-0355Search in Google Scholar

345. Beven, J.L.: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. I. A Versatile Exposure System for Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 6 (1976) 189–196.Search in Google Scholar

346. Binns, R., J.L. Beven, L.V. Wilton, and W.G.D. Lugton: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. II. Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Dosimetry Studies on Small Laboratory Animals; Toxicology 6 (1976) 197–206.Search in Google Scholar

347. Binns, R., J.L. Beven, L.V. Wilton, and W.G.D. Lugton: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. III. Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Dosimetry Study on Rats; Toxicology 6 (1976) 207–217.Search in Google Scholar

348. Bilimoria, M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: Responses of Rodent Hepatic, Renal and Pulmonary Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Following Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 15 (1980) 83–89.Search in Google Scholar

349. Bilimoria, M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: The Induction of Rat Lung Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase by Diluted Smoke from Commercial Cigarettes; Toxicology 22 (1981) 205–210.Search in Google Scholar

350. Bilimoria, M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: Protective Antioxidant Mechanisms in Rat and Guinea Pig Tissues Challenged by Acute Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 72 (1992) 131–144.Search in Google Scholar

351. Celanese Fibers Marketing Company: CytrelTM Smoking Material Manual; Charlotte, NC, USA, 1969.Search in Google Scholar

352. Baumgartner, H. and C.R.E. Coggins: Description of a Continuous-Smoking Inhalation Machine for Exposing Small Animals to Tobacco Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 169–174. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-048710.2478/cttr-2013-0487Search in Google Scholar

353. Coggins, C.R.E., R. Lam, and K.T. Morgan: Chronic Inhalation Study in Rats, Using Cigarettes Containing Different Amounts of Cytrel Tobacco Supplement; Toxicology 22 (1982) 287–296.Search in Google Scholar

354. Coggins, C.R.E., X.L.M. Fouillet, R. Lam, and K.T. Morgan: Cigarette Smoke Induced Pathology of the Rat Respiratory Tract: A Comparison of the Effects of the Particulate and Vapour Phases; Toxicology 16 (1980) 83–101.Search in Google Scholar

355. Chen, B.T., W.E. Bechtold, E.B. Barr, Y.-S. Cheng, J.L. Mauderly, and R.G. Cuddihy: Comparison of Cigarette Exposure Atmospheres in Different Exposure and Puffing Modes; Inhal. Toxicol. 1 (1989) 331–347.Search in Google Scholar

356. Chen, B.T., W.E. Bechtold, and J.L. Mauderly: Description and Evaluation of a Cigarette Smoke Generation System for Inhalation Studies; J. Aerosol Med. 5 (1992) 19–30.Search in Google Scholar

357. Briggs, C.D., J. McCready, and A. Schweitzer: The Chemical Evaluation of a Continuous-smoking Inhalation Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 175–184. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-048810.2478/cttr-2013-0488Search in Google Scholar

358. New Smoking Materials Ltd.: An Introduction to NSM Tobacco Substitute; NSM Ltd., Wilmslow, UK, 1977. Bates-No. 500538417-500538423. Available at: https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=ghlf0099Search in Google Scholar

359. Coggins, C.R.E., R.K. Haroz, R. Lam, and K.T. Morgan: The Tumourigenicity of Smoke Condensates From Cigarettes Containing Different Amounts of Cytrel, as Assessed by Mouse Skin Painting; Toxicology 23 (1982) 177–185.Search in Google Scholar

360. Ayres, P.H., A.T. Mosberg, and C.R.E. Coggins: Modernization of Nose-Only Smoking Machines for Use in Animal Inhalation Studies; J. Am. College Toxicol. 9 (1990) 441–446.Search in Google Scholar

361. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.: Chemical and Biological Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1988, Bates No. 533436276-533436657. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/brt81b00Search in Google Scholar

362. CH Technologies (USA): Catalog 2015. Available at: http://chtechusa.com (accessed May 2016)Search in Google Scholar

363. Reininghaus, W. and U. Hackenberg: Anlage zur Langzeit-Inhalation mit Zigarettenrauch für kleine Labortiere [System for Long-Term Inhalation with Cigarette Smoke by Small Laboratory Animals]; Med. Technik 97 (1977) 5–6.Search in Google Scholar

364. Vanscheeuwijck, P.M., A. Teredesai, P.M. Terpstra, J. Verbeeck, P. Kuhl, B. Gerstenberg, S. Gebel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 4: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 113–131.Search in Google Scholar

365. Haussmann, H.J., E. Anskeit, D. Becker, P. Kuhl, W. Stinn, A. Teredesai, P. Voncken, and R.A. Walk: Comparison of Fresh and Room-Aged Cigarette Sidestream Smoke in a Chronic Inhalation Study on Rats; Toxicol. Sci. 41 (1998) 100–116.Search in Google Scholar

366. INBIFO Institut für biologische Forschung GmbH: Description and Design of the 30-Port INBIFO Smoking Machine (SM-85), August 1999. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/gyfc0062Search in Google Scholar

367. Carmines, E.L., C.L. Gaworski, A.S. Faqi, and N. Rajendran: In Utero Exposure to 1R4F Reference Cigarette Smoke: Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity; Toxicol. Sci. 75 (2003) 134–147.Search in Google Scholar

368. Gavorski, C.L., E.L. Carmines, A.S. Faqi, and N. Rajendran: In Utero and Lactation Exposure of Rats to 1R4F Reference Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: Effect on Prenatal and Postnatal Development; Toxicol. Sci. 79 (2004) 157–169.Search in Google Scholar

369. Appleton, S., G.R. Krautter, J.H. Lauterbach, and N. Rajendran: Validation of a New Smoking Machine for Rodent Inhalation Studies; Paper presented at the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Greensboro, NC, USA, 2001, Abstract 66.Search in Google Scholar

370. Appleton, S., G.R. Krautter, J.H. Lauterbach, R. Morrissey, and N. Rajendran: Validation of a Nose-Only Rodent Inhalation Smoking Protocol; Paper presented a the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Greensboro, NC, USA, 2001, Abstract 67.Search in Google Scholar

371. Adams, S.M., S. Appleton, J.H. Lauterbach, and N.E. Takenaka.: Design and Performance of a New Reference Cigarette for Biological Studies on Cigarette Smoke; Paper presented at the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Greensboro, NC, USA, 2001, Abstract 65.Search in Google Scholar

372. Obot, C.J., K.M. Lee, A.F. Fuciarelli, R.A. Renne, and W.J. McKinney: Characterization of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke-Induced Biomarker Responses in ICR and C57Bl/6 Mice; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 701–719.Search in Google Scholar

373. Coggins, C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Rats and Mice; Toxicol. Pathol. 26 (1998) 307–314.Search in Google Scholar

374. Coggins, C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke, in Hamsters, Dogs, and Nonhuman Primates; Toxicol. Pathol. 29 (2001) 550–557.Search in Google Scholar

375. Coggins, C.R.E.: An Updated Review of Inhalation Studies with Cigarette Smoke in Laboratory Animals; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 331–338.Search in Google Scholar

376. Coggins, C.R.E.: Letter to the Editor; Toxicol. Pathol. 28 (2000) 754.Search in Google Scholar

377. Hahn, F.F., A.P. Gigliotti, J.A. Hutt, T.H. March, and J.L. Mauderly: A Review of the Histopathology of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Cancer in Rats and Mice; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 307–313.Search in Google Scholar

378. Mauderly, J.L., A.P. Gigliotti, E.B. Barr, W.E. Bechtold, S.A. Belinsky, F.F. Hahn, C.A. Hobbs, T.H. March, S.K. Seilkop, and G.L. Finch: Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Increases Lung and Nasal Tumor Incidence in Rats; Toxicol. Sci. 81 (2004) 280–292.Search in Google Scholar

379. Hutt, J.A., B.R. Vuillemenot, E.B. Barr, M.J. Grimes, F.F. Hahn, C.H. Hobbs, T.H. March, A.P. Gigliotti, S.K. Seilkop, G.L. Finch, J.L. Mauderly, and S.A. Belinsky: Life-Span Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Induces Lung Cancer in B6C3F1 Mice Through Genetic and Epigenetic Pathways; Carcinogenesis 26 (2005) 1999–2009Search in Google Scholar

380. Teague, S.V., K.E. Pinkerton, M. Goldsmith, A. Gebremichael, and S. Chang: Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Generation and Exposure System for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Studies; Inhal. Toxicol. 6 (1994) 79–93.Search in Google Scholar

381. Sun, W., R. Wu, and J.A. Last: Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke on a Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cell Line; Toxicology 100 (1995) 163–174.Search in Google Scholar

382. Aufderheide, M., D. Ritter, J.W. Knebel, and G. Scherer: A Method for In Vitro Analysis of the Biological Activity of Complex Mixtures Such as Sidestream Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxic. Pathol. 53 (2001) 141–152.Search in Google Scholar

383. Wolz, L., G. Krause, G. Scherer, M. Aufderheide, and U. Mohr: In Vitro Genotoxic Assay of Sidestream Smoke Using a Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Line; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 845–850.Search in Google Scholar

384. Bair, W.J., N.S. Porter, D.P. Brown, and A.P. Wehner: Apparatus for Direct Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by Dogs; J. Appl. Physiol. 26 (1969) 847–850.Search in Google Scholar

385. Cross, F.T., R.F. Palmer, R.E. Filipy, G.E. Dagle, and B.O. Stuart: Carcinogenic Effects of Radon Daughters, Uranium Ore Dust, and Cigarette Smoke in Beagle Dogs; Health Phys. 42 (1982) 33–52.Search in Google Scholar

386. Park, S.S., Y. Kikkawa, Y. Goldring, M.M. Daly, M. Zeiefsky, C. Shim, M. Spierer, and T. Morita: An Animal Model of Cigarette Smoking in Beagle Dogs. Correlative Evaluation of the Effects on Pulmonary Function, Defense and Morphology; Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 115 (1977) 971–979.Search in Google Scholar

387. Cahan, W.G. and D. Kirman: An Effective System and Procedure for Cigarette Smoking by Dogs; J. Surg. Res. 8 (1968) 567–575.Search in Google Scholar

388. Hammond, E.C., O. Auerbach, D. Kirman, and L. Garfinkel: Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Dogs. I. Design of Experiment, Mortality, and Findings in Lung Parenchyma; Arch. Environm. Health 21 (1970) 740–753.Search in Google Scholar

389. Auerbach, O., E.C. Hammond, D. Kirman, and L. Garfinkel: Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Dogs. II. Pulmonary Neoplasms; Arch. Environm. Health 21 (1970) 754–768.Search in Google Scholar

390. Battista, S.P., M.R. Guerin, G.B. Gori, and C.J. Kensler: A New System for Quantitatively Exposing Laboratory Animals by Direct Inhalation; Arch. Environm. Health 27 (1973) 376–382.Search in Google Scholar

391. Hazleton Laboratories America Inc.: Inhalation Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke in Dogs. Effects of Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide on Atherogenesis; Report submitted to the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention, Smoking and Health Program, 1981, Vienna, VA, USA, pp. 1–291.Search in Google Scholar

392. Piccirillo, V.J.: Inhalation Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke in Dogs: Nicotine and PMO effects; Report submitted to the National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program, Borriston Laboratories, Temple Hills, MD, USA, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

393. Brazell, R.S., A.C. Stiff, G.M. Henderson, R.A. Jenkins, P.L. Röming, and O. Auerbach: Plasma Nicotine and Cotinine in Tobacco Smoke Exposed Beagle Dogs; Toxicol. Appl. Pharamcol. 73 (1984) 152–158.Search in Google Scholar

394. Darwin, C.: The Descent of Man; John Murray, London, 1871, Vol. 1, Chapter 1, p. 12.Search in Google Scholar

395. Jarvik, M.E.: Tobacco Smoking in Monkeys; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 142 (1967) Art. 1, 280–294.Search in Google Scholar

396. Ando, K. and T. Yanagita: Cigarette Smoking in Rhesus Monkeys; Psychopharmacology 72 (1981) 117–127.Search in Google Scholar

397. McGill, H.C. Jr, W.R. Rogers, R.L. Wilbur, and D.E. Johnson: Cigarette Smoking Baboon Model: Demonstration of Feasibility; Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 157 (1978) 672–676.Search in Google Scholar

398. Rogers, W.R., R.L. Bass 3rd, D.E. Johnson, A.W. Kruski, C.A. McMahan, M.M. Montiel, G.E. Mott, R.L. Wilbur, and H.C. McGill, Jr: Atherosclerosis-Related Responses to Cigarette Smoking in the Baboon; Circulation 61 (1980) 1188–1193.Search in Google Scholar

399. Rogers, W.R., K.D. Carey, C.A. McMahan, M.M. Montiel, G.E. Mott, H.S. Wigodsky, and H.C. McGill: Cigarette Smoking, Dietary Hyperlipidemia, and Experimental Atherosclerosis in the Baboon; Exp. Mol. Pathol. 48 (1988) 135–141.Search in Google Scholar

400. Rogers, W.R., B. McCullough, and J.E. Caton: Cigarette Smoking by Baboons: In Vivo Assessment of Particulate Inhalation Using Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Recover [14C]Dotriacontane; Toxicology 20 (1981) 309–321.Search in Google Scholar

401. Raymond, T.L., A.J. Delucia, and L.R. Bryant: Failure of Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure to Alter Plasma Lipoproteins of Stumptailed Macaques (Macaca arcoides); Atherosclerosis 41 (1982) 27–33.Search in Google Scholar

402. Sopori, M.L., C.C. Gairola, A.J. Delucia, L.R. Bryant, and S. Cherian: Immune Responsiveness of Monkeys Exposed Chronically to Cigarette Smoke; Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 36 (1985) 338–344.Search in Google Scholar

403. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Tierschutzgesetz in der Neufassung vom 25. Mai 1998 [Animal Protection Law, Revised Version of 25 May 1998]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1998) 1105–1120. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl198030.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

404. Peta Deutschland: Tierversuche für die Tabakindustrie [Animal Experiments in the Tobacco Industry]; Stuttgart, Germany. Available at: http://www.peta.de/tierversuche-fuer-die-tabakindustrie=.V8mDG6UkprRSearch in Google Scholar

405. European Parliament, Council of the European Union: Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 Concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), Establishing a European Chemicals Agency; Off. J. L 396 (2006) 1–849.Search in Google Scholar

406. FRAME - Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. Available at: http://www.frame.org.uk/Search in Google Scholar

407. BéruBé, K., M. Aufderheide, D. Breheny, R. Clothier, R. Combes, R. Duffin, B. Forbes, M. Gaça, A. Gray, I. Hall, M. Kelly, M. Lethem, M. Liebsch, L. Merolla, J.-P. Morin, J.C. Seagrave, M.A. Swartz, T.D. Tetley, and M. Umachandran: In Vitro Models of Inhalation Toxicity and Disease - The Report of a FRAME Workshop; Altern. Lab. Anim. 37 (2009) 89–141.Search in Google Scholar

408. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4: Health Effects. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-guidelines-for-the-testing-of-chemicals-section-4-health-effects_20745788Search in Google Scholar

409. Putnam, K.P., D.W. Bombick, and D.J. Doolittle: Evaluation of Eight In Vitro Assays for Assessing the Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; Toxicol. In Vitro 16 (2002) 599–607.Search in Google Scholar

410. Borenfreund, E. and J.A. Puerner: A Simple Quantitative Procedure Using Monolayer Cultures for Cytotoxicity Assays (HTD/NR-90); J. Tissue Cult. Methods 9 (1984) 7–9.Search in Google Scholar

411. Babich, H. and E. Borenfreund: Applications of the Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay to In Vitro Toxicology; ATLA 18 (1990) 129–144.Search in Google Scholar

412. Repetto, G., A. del Peso, and J. L. Zurita: Neutral Red Uptake Assay for the Estimation of Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity; Nat. Protoc. 3 (2008) 1125–1131.Search in Google Scholar

413. Ames, B.N., F.D. Lee, and W.E. Durston: An Improved Bacterial Test System for the Detection and Classification of Mutagens and Carcinogens; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70 (1973) 782–786.Search in Google Scholar

414. Ames, B.N., W.E. Durston, E. Yamasaki, and F.D. Lee: Carcinogens are Mutagens: A Simple Test System Combining Liver Homogenates for Activation and Bacteria for Detection; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70 (1973) 2281–2285.Search in Google Scholar

415. Mortelmans, K. and E. Zeiger: The Ames Salmonella/Microsome Mutagenicity Assay; Mutat. Res. 455 (2000) 29–60.Search in Google Scholar

416. Crooks, I., D.M. Dillon, J.K. Scott, M. Ballantyne, and C. Meredith: The Effect of Long Term Storage on Tobacco Smoke Particulate Matter in In Vitro Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Assays; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 65 (2013) 196–200.Search in Google Scholar

417. Rickert, W.S., A.H. Trivedi, R.A. Momin, W.G. Wright, and J.H. Lauterbach: Effect of Smoking Conditions and Methods of Collection on the Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Toxicol. Sci. 96 (2007) 285–293.Search in Google Scholar

418. Mumpower, R.C. and G.P. Touey: Selective Removal of Phenol from Cigarette Smoke with Filters; Technical Report, January1967, Tennessee Eastman Company (now Tennessee Eastman Division of Eastman Chemical Company). Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/qhxl0207Search in Google Scholar

419. Hopkin, J.M., V.S. Tomlinson, and R.M. Jenkins: Variation in Response to Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke; Brit. Med. J. 283 (1981) 1209–1211.Search in Google Scholar

420. Kaltenbach J.P., M.H. Kaltenbach, and W.B. Lyons: Nigrosin as a Dye for Differentiating Live and Dead Ascites Cells; Exp. Cell. Res. 15 (1958) 112–7.Search in Google Scholar

421. Bombick, D.W. and D.J. Doolittle: The Role of Chemical Structure and Cell Type in the Cytotoxicity of Low-Molecular-Weight Aldehydes and Pyridines; In Vitro Toxicol. 8 (1995) 349–356.Search in Google Scholar

422. Kier, L., E. Yamasaki, and B.N. Ames: Detection of Mutagenic Activity in Cigarette Smoke Condensates; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71 (1974) 4159–4163.10.1073/pnas.71.10.41594343494610572Search in Google Scholar

423. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Experimental Tobacco Carcinogenesis; Science 162 (1968) 862–871.Search in Google Scholar

424. Hutton, J. and C. Hackney: Metabolism of Cigarette Smoke Condensates by Human and Rat Homogenates to Form Mutagens Detectable by Salmonella Typhimurium TA1538; Cancer Res. 35 (1975) 2461–2468.Search in Google Scholar

425. De Raat, W.K.: Comparison of the Induction by Cigarette Smoke Condensates of Sister-Chromatid Exchanges in Chinese Hamster Cells and of Mutations in Salmonella Typhimurium; Mutat. Res. 66 (1979) 253–259.Search in Google Scholar

426. Hopkin, J.M. and H.J. Evans: Cigarette Smoke Condensates Damage DNA in Human Lymphocytes; Nature 279 (1979) 241–242.Search in Google Scholar

427. Hopkin, J.M. and H.J. Evans: Cigarette Smoke-Induced DNA Damage and Lung Cancer Risks; Nature 283 (1980) 388–390.Search in Google Scholar

428. Andreoli, C., D. Gigante, and A. Nunziata: A Review of In Vitro Methods to Assess the Biological Activity of Tobacco Smoke with the Aim of Reducing the Toxicity of Smoke; Toxicol. in Vitro 17 (2003) 587–594.Search in Google Scholar

429. ICH – International Council for Harmonization. Available at: http://www.ich.org/home.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

430. Johnson, M.D., J. Schilz, M.V. Djordjevic, J.R. Rice, and P.G. Shields: Evaluation of In Vitro Assays for Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 12 (2009) 3263–3304.Search in Google Scholar

431. CORESTA In Vitro Toxicology Task Force: The Rationale and Strategy for Conducting In Vitro Toxicology Testing of Tobacco Smoke (May 2004). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/rationale-and-strategy-conducting-vitro-toxicology-testing-tobacco-smoke-29237.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

432. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): Toxikologische Bewertung von Zusatzstoffen für Tabakprodukte – Ein Leitfaden [Toxicological Assessment of Additives for Tobacco Products – A Guidance]; DIN SPEC 10133:2014-09; DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin, Germany, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

433. European Parliament, Council of the European Union: Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3rd April 2014 on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture, Presentation and Sale of Tobacco and Related Products and Repealing Directive 2001/37/EC; Official Journal European Union L127 (2014) 1–38. AUCH 232Search in Google Scholar

434. Voisin, C., C. Aerts, A.B. Tonnel, J.-L. Houdret, and P. Ramon: Mise en survie en phase gazeuse et reconstitution “in vitro” du microenvironnement naturel des macrophages alvéolaires [Survival in Gaseous Phase and Reconstitution “In Vitro” of the Natural Micro-Enviroment of Alveolar Macrophages]; Path. Biol. 23 (1975) 453–459.Search in Google Scholar

435. Voisin, C., C. Aerts, E. Jakubczak, and A.B. Tonnel: La culture cellulaire en phase gazeuse – Un nouveau modèle expérimental d'étude in vitro des activités des macrophages alvéolaires [Cell Culture in the Gas Phase – A New Experimental Model for the In Vitro Study of Alveolar Macrophages]; Bull. Europ. Physiopath. Resp. 13 (1977) 69–82.Search in Google Scholar

436. Voisin, C., C. Aerts, E. Jakubczak, J.L. Houdret, and A.B. Tonnel: Effects du bioxyde d’azote sur les macrophages alvéolaires en survie en phase gazeuse – Un nouveau modèle expérimental pour l'étude in vitro de la cytotoxicité des gaz nocifs [Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Alveolar Macrophages Surviving in the Gas Phase – A New Experimental Model for the Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Toxic Gases]; Bull. Europ. Physiopath. Resp. 13 (1977) 137–144.Search in Google Scholar

437. Tarkington B.K., R. Wu, W.-M. Sun, K.J. Nikula, D.W. Wilson, and J.A. Last: In Vitro Exposure of Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells and of Tracheal Explants to Ozone; Toxicology 88 (1994) 51–68.Search in Google Scholar

438. Aufderheide, M. and U. Mohr: CULTEX – A New System and Technique for the Cultivation and Exposure of Cells at the Air/Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 51 (1999) 489–490.Search in Google Scholar

439. Mohr, U. and M. Aufderheide: Kulturvorrichtung und Verfahren zur Kultivierung von Zellen oder Gewebekomponenten; German Patent DE 19801763 C2, publication date: July 22, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

440. Aufderheide, M. and U. Mohr: CULTEX –An Alternative Technique or Cultivation and Exposure of Cells of the Respiratory Tract to Airborne Pollutants at the Air/Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 52 (2000) 265–270.Search in Google Scholar

441. Ritter, D., J.W. Knebel, and M. Aufderheide: In Vitro Exposure of Isolated Cells to Native Gaseous Compounds – Development and Validation of an Optimized System for Human Lung Cells; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 53 (2001) 373–386.Search in Google Scholar

442. Aufderheide, M., J.W. Knebel, and D. Ritter: A Method for the In Vitro Exposure of Human Cells to Environmental and Complex Gaseous Mixtures: Application to Various Types of Atmosphere; ATLA 30 (2002) 433–441.Search in Google Scholar

443. Aufderheide, M., J.W. Knebel, and D. Ritter: Novel Approaches for Studying Pulmonary Toxicity In Vitro; Toxicol. Lett. 140–141 (2003) 205–211.Search in Google Scholar

444. Ritter, D., J.W. Knebel, and M. Aufderheide: Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Inhalable Substances: A Novel Test Strategy Involving Clean Air Exposure Periods Using Whole Diluted Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Inhal. Toxicol. 15 (2003) 67–84.Search in Google Scholar

445. Aufderheide, M., J.W. Knebel, and D. Ritter: An Improved In Vitro model for Testing the Pulmonary Toxicity of Complex Mixtures Such as Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2003) 51–57.Search in Google Scholar

446. Ritter, D., J.W. Knebel, and M. Aufderheide: Comparative Assessment of Toxicities of Mainstream Smoke from Commercial Cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 691–700.Search in Google Scholar

447. CORESTA In vitro Toxicology Task Force: In Vitro Exposure of Cells to Smoke at the Air Liquid Interface (2007). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/vitro-exposure-cells-smoke-air-liquid-interface-29235.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

448. Aufderheide, M.: Direct Exposure Methods for Testing Native Atmospheres; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) 213–226.Search in Google Scholar

449. Aufderheide M.: An Efficient Approach to Study the Toxicological Effects of Complex Mixtures; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 60 (2008) 163–180.Search in Google Scholar

450. VITROCELL® Systems GmbH: Advanced In Vitro Exposure Systems – VITROCELL® VC 10® SMOKING ROBOT; Catalogue, edition 03/2016, pp. 70–77.Search in Google Scholar

451. Okuwa, K., M. Tanaka, Y. Fukano, H. Nara, Y. Nishijima, and T. Nishino: In Vitro Micronucleus Assay for Cigarette Smoke Using a Whole Smoke Exposure System: A Comparison of Smoking Regimens; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 62 (2010) 433–440.Search in Google Scholar

452. Nara, H., Y. Fukano, T. Nishino, and M. Aufderheide: Detection of the Cytotoxicity of Water-Insoluble Fraction of Cigarette Smoke by Direct Exposure to Cultured Cells at an Air-Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 65 (2013) 683–688.Search in Google Scholar

453. Aufderheide, M. and U. Mohr: A Modified CULTEX® System for the Direct Exposure of Bacteria to Inhalable Substances; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2004) 451–454.Search in Google Scholar

454. Aufderheide, M. and H. Gressmann: A Modified Ames Assay Reveals the Mutagenicity of Native Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and its Gas Vapour Phase; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 58 (2007) 383–392.Search in Google Scholar

455. Aufderheide, M. and H. Gressmann: Mutagenicity of Native Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and its Gas/Vapour Phase by Use of Different Tester Strains and Cigarettes in a Modified Ames Assay; Mut. Res. 656 (2008) 82–87.Search in Google Scholar

456. Paur, H.R., F.R. Cassee, J. Teeguarden, H. Fissan, S. Diabate, M. Aufderheide, W.G. Kreyling, O. Hänninen, G. Kasper, M. Riediker, B. Rothen-Rutishauser, and O. Schmid: In-Vitro Cell Exposure Studies for the Assessment of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Lung - A Dialog Between Aerosol Science and Biology; J. Aerosol Sci. 42 (2011) 668–692.Search in Google Scholar

457. Bakand, S. and A. Hayes: Troubleshooting Methods for Toxicity Testing of Airborne Chemicals In Vitro; J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 61 (2010) 76–85.Search in Google Scholar

458. Aufderheide, M., S. Scheffler, N. Möhle, B. Halter, and D. Hochrainer: Analytical In Vitro Approach for Studying Cyto- and Genotoxic Effects of Particular Airborne Material; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401 (2011) 3213–3220.Search in Google Scholar

459. Aufderheide, M., B. Halter, N. Möhle, and D. Hochrainer: The CULTEX RFS: A Comprehensive Technical Approach for the In Vitro Exposure of Airway Cells to Particulate Matter at the Air-Liquid Interface; BioMed Res. Int. (2013) 734137. DOI: 10.1155/2013/73413710.1155/2013/734137358113323509768Search in Google Scholar

460. Rach, J., J. Budde, N. Möhle, and M. Aufderheide: Direct Exposure at the Air-Liquid Interface: Evaluation of an In Vitro Approach for Simulating Inhalation of Airborne Substances; J. Appl. Toxicol. 34 (2014) 506–515.Search in Google Scholar

461. Ishikawa, S., T. Suzuki, and Y. Nagata: Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 20–29. DOI: 10.1515/cttr-2016-000410.1515/cttr-2016-0004Search in Google Scholar

462. Steinritz, D., N. Möhle, C. Pohl, M. Papritz, B. Stenger, A. Schmidt, C.J. Kirkpatrick, H. Thiermann, R. Vogel, S. Hoffmann, and M. Aufderheide: Use of the CULTEX® Radial Flow System as an In Vitro Exposure Method to Assess Acute Pulmonary Toxicity of Fine Dusts and Nanoparticles with Special Focus on the Intra- and Inter-Laboratory Reproducibility; Chem. Biol. Interact. 206 (2013) 479–490.Search in Google Scholar

463. Hartung T., S. Bremer, S. Casati, S. Coecke, R. Corvi, S. Fortaner, L. Gribaldo, M. Halder, S. Hoffmann, A. Janusch Roi, P. Prieto, E. Sabbioni, L. Scott, A. Worth, and V. Zuang: A Modular Approach to the ECVAM Principles on Test Validity; ATLA 32 (2004) 467–472.Search in Google Scholar

464. European Commisson - Joint Research Centre: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM). Available at: https://eurl-ecvam.jrc.ec.europa.eu/Search in Google Scholar

465. Aufderheide, M., S. Scheffler, S. Ito, S. Ishikawa, and M. Emura: Ciliatoxicity in Human Primary Bronchiolar Epithelial Cells after Repeated Exposure at the Air-Liquid Interface with Native Mainstream Smoke of K3R4F Cigarettes With and Without Charcoal Filter; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 67 (2015) 407–411.Search in Google Scholar

466. Walker, T.R. and J.E. Kiefer: Ciliastatic Components in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Science 15 (1966) 1248–1250.Search in Google Scholar

467. Scheffler, S., H. Dieken, O. Krischenowsk, C. Förster, D. Branscheid, and M. Aufderheide: Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke After Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12 (2015) 3915–3925. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph12040391510.3390/ijerph120403915441022425856554Search in Google Scholar

468. Scheffler, S., H. Dieken, N. Moehle, M. Aufderheide, and T. Schmidt: A New In Vitro Testing Module for the Cytotoxic Evaluation of E-Cigarette Vapor; Poster presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Meeting, 4–8 October 2015, Jeju, Korea, Poster STPOST 10.Search in Google Scholar

469. Aufderheide, M., C. Förster, M. Beschay, D. Branscheid, and M. Emura: A New Computer-Controlled Air-Liquid Interface Cultivation System for the Generation of Differentiated Cell Cultures of the Airway Epithelium; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2015.10.001.10.1016/j.etp.2015.10.00126507834Search in Google Scholar

470. Phillips, J., J. Williamson, and E.D. Massey: A Method to Expose Mammalian Cells In Vitro to Whole Smoke at the Air-Liquid Interface; Mutagenesis 17 (2002) 566.Search in Google Scholar

471. Massey, E.D., J. Williamson, and J.F.N. Phillips: An Exposure Device; International Patent, WO 03/100417 A1 (publication date: December 4, 2003).Search in Google Scholar

472. Phillips, J., B. Kluss, A. Richter, and E.D. Massey: Exposure of Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Whole Cigarette Smoke: Assessment of Cellular Responses; Altern. Lab. Anim. 33 (2005) 239–248.Search in Google Scholar

473. Maunders, H., S. Patwardhan, J. Phillips, A. Clack, and A. Richter: Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Transcriptome: Gene Expression Changes Following Acute Exposure to Whole Cigarette Smoke In Vitro; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 292 (2007) L1248–L1256.Search in Google Scholar

474. Adamson, J., D. Azzopardi, G. Errington, C. Dickens, J. McAughey, and M.D. Gaça: Assessment of an In Vitro Whole Cigarette Smoke Exposure System: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-Syringe Smoking Machine; Chem. Cent. J. 5 (2011) 50.Search in Google Scholar

475. Adamson, J., S. Hughes, D. Azzopardi, J. McAughey, and M.D. Gaça: Real-Time Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro; Chem. Cent. J. 6:98 (2012). Available at: https://ccj.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/1752-153X-6-98Search in Google Scholar

476. Adamson J., D. Thorne, J. McAughey, D. Dillon, and C. Meredith: Quantification of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro Using a Triplicate Quartz Crystal Microbalance Exposure Chamber; BioMed Res. Int. (2013) 685074. DOI:10.1155/2013/68507410.1155/2013/685074359114323484139Search in Google Scholar

477. Garcia-Canton, C., G. Errington, A. Anadon, and C. Meredith: Characterisation of an Aerosol Exposure System to Evaluate the Genotoxicity of Whole Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using the In Vitro γH2AX Assay by High Content Screening; BMC Pharmacol. Toxicol. 15 (2014) 41. DOI: 10.1186/2050-6511-15-4110.1186/2050-6511-15-41412204925056295Search in Google Scholar

478. Kaur, N., M. Lacasse, J.-P. Roy, J.-L. Cabral, J. Adamson, G. Errington, K.C. Waldron, M. Gaça, and A. Morin: Evaluation of Precision and Accuracy of the Borgwaldt RM20S® Smoking Machine Designed for In Vitro Exposure; J. Inhal. Toxicol. 22 (2010) 1174–1183.Search in Google Scholar

479. Thorne, D., J. Wilson, T.S. Kumaravel, E.D. Massey, and M. McEwan: Measurement of Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Cultured NCI-H292 Human Pulmonary Carcinoma Cells; Mutat. Res. 673 (2009) 3–8.Search in Google Scholar

480. McAughey, J., T. Adam, C. McGrath, C. Mocker, and R. Zimmermann: Simultaneous On-Line Size and Chemical Analysis of Gas Phase and Particulate Phase of Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; J. Physics: Conference Series 151 (2009) 012017. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/151/1/01201710.1088/1742-6596/151/1/012017Search in Google Scholar

481. Sauerbrey, G.: Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wägung dünner Schichten und zur Mikrowägung [The Use of Oscillator Quartz Crystals for Weight Determination of Thin Layers and for Micro-weighing]; Z. Physik 155 (1959) 206–22.Search in Google Scholar

482. Thorne, D. and J. Adamson: A Review of In Vitro Cigarette Smoking Systems; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 65 (2013) 1183–1193.Search in Google Scholar

483. St-Laurent, J., L.-I. Proulx, L.-P. Boulet, and E. Bissonnette: Comparison of Two In Vitro Models of Cigarette Smoke Exposure; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 1148–1153.Search in Google Scholar

484. Gualerzi, A., M. Sciarabba, G. Tartaglia, C. Sforza, and E. Donetti: Acute Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Three-Dimensional Cultures of Normal Human Oral Mucosa; Inhal. Toxicol. 24 (2012) 382–389.Search in Google Scholar

485. Garcia-Canton, C., A. Anadon, and C. Meredith: γH2AX as a Novel Endpoint to Detect DNA Damage: Application of the Assessment of the In Vitro Genotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke; Toxicol. In Vitro 26 (2012) 1075–1086.Search in Google Scholar

486. Garcia-Canton C., A. Anadon, and C. Meredith: Assessment of the In Vitro γH2AX Assay by High Content Screening as a Novel Genotoxicity Test; Mutat. Res. 757 (2013) 158–166.Search in Google Scholar

487. World Health Organization - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–113; last update: June 26, 2015. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/Search in Google Scholar

488. Li, X., C. Nie, P. Shang, F. Xie, H. Liu, and J. Xie: Evaluation Method for the Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke by In Vitro Whole Smoke Exposure; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 66 (2014) 27–33.Search in Google Scholar

489. Fields, W.R., K.W. Fowler, K.H. Hargreaves, L.D. Walker, and B.D. Bombick: Validation of the Vitro Cell VT 10 Smoke Exposure System for in Vitro Assays; Poster, presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Study Groups Meeting, Sept. 29 – Oct. 3, 2013, Seville, Spain.Search in Google Scholar

490. Thorne, D., J. Kilford, R. Payne, J. Adamson, K. Scott, A. Dalrymple, C. Meredith, and D. Dillon: Characterisation of a Vitrocell® VC 10 In Vitro Smoke Exposure System Using Dose Tools and Biological Analysis; Chem. Cent. J. 7 (2013) 146–155.Search in Google Scholar

491. Thorne, D., J. Kilford, R. Payne, L. Haswell, A. Dalrymple, C. Meredith, and D. Dillon: Development of a BALB/c 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Cytotoxicity Test Using a Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Exposure System; BMC Research Notes 7 (2014) 367.Search in Google Scholar

492. Adamson, J., D. Thorne, A. Dalrymple, D. Dillon, and C. Meredith: Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition Within the Vitrocell® Exposure Module Using Quartz Crystal Microbalances; Chem. Cent. J. 7 (2013) 50.Search in Google Scholar

493. Adamson, J., D. Thorne, G. Errington, W. Fields, X. Li, R. Payne, T. Krebs, A. Dalrymple, K. Fowler, D. Dillon, F. Xie, and C. Meredith: An Inter-Machine Comparison of Tobacco Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro from Six Independent Smoke Exposure Systems; Toxicol. In Vitro 28 (2014) 1320–1328Search in Google Scholar

494. Kilford J., D. Thorne, R. Payne, A. Dalrymple, J. Clements, C. Meredith, and D. Dillon: A Method for Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Mainstream Cigarette-Smoke by Use of the Bacterial Reverse-Mutation Assay and an Aerosol-Based Exposure System; Mutat. Res. 769 (2014) 20–28.Search in Google Scholar

495. Thorne, D., J. Kilford, M. Hollings, A. Dalrymple, M. Ballantyne, C. Meredith, and D. Dillon: The Mutagenic Assessment of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using the Ames Assay: A Multi-Strain Approach; Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.03.00610.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.03.00625868126Search in Google Scholar

496. Breheny, D., F. Cunningham, J. Kilford, R. Payne, D. Dillon, and C. Meredith: Application of a Modified Gaseous Exposure System to the In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Tobacco Smoke Toxicants; Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55 (2014) 662–672.Search in Google Scholar

497. Binder H. and W. Lindner: Bestimmung von Äthylenoxid im Rauch garantiert unbegaster Zigaretten [The Determination of Ethylene Oxide in the Smoke of Definitely Unfumigated Cigarettes]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 13 (1972) 215–220.Search in Google Scholar

498. Bach, B., H. Kuhn, and F. Kuffner: Über die Verminderung des Nicotingehalts von Tabaken mittels Äthylenoxides [On the Reduction of the Nicotine Content of Tobaccos with Ethylene Oxide]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 4 (1963) 53–60.Search in Google Scholar

499. Pailer, M. and W. Hübsch: Über die Umsetzung von Äthylenoxid mit Tabakinhaltsstoffen, ausgenommen Nikotin, bei extremen Begasungsverhältnissen [On the Reaction of Ethylene Oxide with Tobacco Components – Except Nicotine – by Intensive Fumigation]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 8 (1967) 140–142.Search in Google Scholar

500. Gross, P.M. and L.F. Dixon: Method of Reducing the Nicotine Content of Tobacco; United States Patent 1,962,145, June 12, 1934.Search in Google Scholar

501. Samfield, M.M., E.E. Locklair, and B.A. Brock: Reducing the Nicotine Content of Tobacco Smoke; United States Patent 2,760,495, August 28, 1956.Search in Google Scholar

502. Weber S., M. Hebestreit, T. Wilms, L.L. Conroy, and G. Rodrigo: Comet Assay and Air–Liquid Interface Exposure System: A New Combination to Evaluate Genotoxic Effects of Cigarette Whole Smoke in Human Lung Cell Lines; Toxicol. in Vitro 27 (2013) 1987–1991.Search in Google Scholar

503. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® Dilution Systems; Edition 03/2014, p. 68.Search in Google Scholar

504. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® 24/24 Cultivation and Exposure Module; Edition 03/2014, pp. 30–31.Search in Google Scholar

505. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® 24/48 Cultivation and Exposure Module; Edition 03/2014, pp. 32–34.Search in Google Scholar

506. Majeed S., S. Frentzel, S. Wagner, D. Kuehn, P. Leroy, P.A. Guy, A. Knorr, J. Hoeng, and M.C. Peitsch: Characterization of the Vitrocell® 24/48 In Vitro Aerosol Exposure System Using Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Chem. Cent. J. 8 (2014) 62–72.Search in Google Scholar

507. Burghart Messtechnik GmbH: Instructions – Automated Smoking Machine SM2000 – 8589, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

508. Karp, P.M., T.O. Moninger, S.P. Weber, T.S. Nesselhauf, J.L. Launspach, J. Zabner, and M.J. Welsch: An In Vitro Model of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia. Methods for Establishing Primary Cultures; Methods Mol. Biol. 188 (2002) 115–137.Search in Google Scholar

509. Baxter, A. and E. Minet: Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells (MucilAir™) Express Key Tobacco Toxicant Metabolizing Enzymes in Short Term Air Liquid Interface Cultures; Poster presented at the International Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, POS4-47, March 13–16, 2013, Boston, MA, USA.Search in Google Scholar

510. Mathis, C., C. Poussin, D. Weisensee, S. Gebel, A. Hengstermann, A. Sewer, V. Belcastro, Y. Xiang, S. Ansari, S. Wagner, J. Hoeng, and M.C. Peitsch: Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed In Vitro to Cigarette Smoke at the Air-Liquid Interface Resemble Bronchial Epithelium from Human Smokers; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 304 (2013) L489–L503.Search in Google Scholar

511. Pezzulo, A.A., T.D. Starner, T.E. Scheetz, G.L. Traver, A.E. Tilley, B.G. Harvey, R.G. Crystal, P.B. McCray Jr, and J. Zaber: The Air Liquid Interface and Use of Primary Cell Cultures Are Important to Recapitulate the Transcriptional Profile of In Vivo Airway Epithelia; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 300 (2011) L25–L31.Search in Google Scholar

512. Subramanian, A., P. Tamayo, V.K. Mootha, S. Mukherjee, B.L. Ebert, M.A. Gillette, A. Paulovich, S.L. Pomeroy, T.R. Golub, E.S. Lander, and J.P. Mesirov: Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: A Knowledge-Based Approach for Interpreting Genome-Wide Expression Profiles; PNAS 102 (2005) 15545–15550.Search in Google Scholar

513. Iskandar A.R., F. Martin, M. Talikka, W.K. Schlage, R. Kostadinova, C. Mathis, J. Hoeng, and M.C. Peitsch: Systems Approaches Evaluating the Perturbation of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Response to Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Nasal and Bronchial Tissues; Biomed Res. Int. (2013) 512086. DOI: 10.1155/2013/51208610.1155/2013/512086380871324224167Search in Google Scholar

514. Schlage, W.K., A.R. Iskandar, R. Kostadinova, Y. Xiang, A. Sewer, S. Majeed, D. Kuehn, S. Frentzel, M. Talikka, M. Geertz, C. Mathis, N. Ivanov, J. Hoeng, and M.C. Peitsch: In Vitro Systems Toxicology Approach to Investigate the Effects of Repeated Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Human Buccal and Gingival Organotypic Epithelial Tissue Cultures; Toxicol. Mech. Meth. 24 (2014) 470–487.Search in Google Scholar

515. Röper, W. and R. Wieczoreck: In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. Evaluation of Different Cell Exposure Methods, Including “Native” Smoke Aerosol Exposure; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress, 22–27 September 2002, New Orleans, LA, USA.Search in Google Scholar

516. Riss, T.L. and R.A. Moravec: Comparison of MTT, XTT, and a Novel Tetrazolium Compound MTS for In Vitro Proliferation and Chemosensitivity Assays; Mol. Biol. Cell. 3 (1992) Suppl. 184a.Search in Google Scholar

517. Wieczorek, R., W. Röper, and H. Burghart: Validation of a New Smoking Machine for the Exposure of 96 Well Cell Culture Plates to “Native” Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Aerosol. Course of Action and Some In Vitro Toxicological Data; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress, 4–8 September 2005, Stratford, U.K.Search in Google Scholar

518. Heinrich Burghart GmbH: Bedienungsanleitung und Technische Dokumentation für die MSB-01 Mimic Smoker Burghart [Operating Instructions and Technical Documentation for the MSB-01 Mimic Smoker Burghart]; Burghart, Hamburg, Germany, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

519. Scian, M.J., M.J. Oldham, D.B. Kane, J.S. Edmiston, and W.J. McKinney: Characterization of a Whole Smoke In Vitro Exposure System (Burghart Mimic Smoker – 01); Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 234–243.Search in Google Scholar

520. Berner, A. and J. Marek: Untersuchungen über die Verteilung einzelner Rauchinhaltsstoffe in Rauchpartikeln verschiedener Größe [Investigation on the Distribution of Individual Smoke Constituents in Smoke Particles of Different Size]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 7 (1967) 118–127.Search in Google Scholar

521. Jones, R.T., W.G.D. Lugton, S.R. Massey, and R.B. Richardson: The Distribution with Respect to Smoke Particle Size of Dotriacontane, Hexadecane, and Decachlorobiphenyl Added to Cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 89–82. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-036110.2478/cttr-2013-0361Search in Google Scholar

522. Morie, G.P. and M.S. Baggett: Observations on the Distribution of Certain Tobacco Smoke Components with Respect to Particle Size; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 9 (1977) 72–78. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-043010.2478/cttr-2013-0430Search in Google Scholar

523. Jenkins, R.W., R.W. Francis, H. Flachsbart, and W. Stöber: Chemical Variability of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke as a Function of Aerodynamic Particle Size; J. Aerosol Sci. 10 (1979) 355–362.Search in Google Scholar

524. Scian, M.J., M.J. Oldham, J.H. Miller, D.B. Kane, J.S. Edmiston, and W.J. McKinney: Chemical Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Particulate Generated in the MSB-01 In Vitro Whole Smoke Exposure System; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 1040–1052. DOI: 10.1080/0895837080271270510.1080/0895837080271270519772483Search in Google Scholar

525. The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc.: In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products; Conference on April 4–6, 2016, in Bethesda, MD, USA, Report 2016. Available at: http://www.w2ww.iivs.org/home/resources/documentsSearch in Google Scholar

526. Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd. Available at: https://www.sibata.co.jp/english/company-profileSearch in Google Scholar

527. Fukano, Y., M. Ogura, K. Eguchi, M. Shibagaki, and M. Suzuki: Modified Procedure of a Direct In Vitro Exposure System for Mammalian Cells to Whole Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2004) 317–323.Search in Google Scholar

528. Fukano, Y., H. Yoshimura, and T. Yoshida: Heme Oxigenase-1 Gene Expression in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells (A549) Following to Whole Cigarette Smoke in a Direct In Vitro Exposure System; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2006) 411–418.Search in Google Scholar

529. Kasagi, S., K. Seyama, H. Mori, S. Souma, T. Sato, T. Akiyoshi, H. Suganuma, and Y. Fukuchi: Tomato Juice Prevents Senescence-Accelerated Mouse P1 Strain from Developing Emphysema Induced by Chronic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 290 (2006) L396–L404. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00483.200410.1152/ajplung.00483.200416214812Search in Google Scholar

530. Hoshino, Y., T. Nakamura, M. Mishima, J. Yodoi, and H. Nakamura: Neurotropin Demonstrates Cytoprotective Effects in Lung Cells Through the Induction of Thioredoxin-1; Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 37 (2007) 438–446.Search in Google Scholar

531. Mori, H., N. Takashi, K. Ishitani, S. Kasagi, S. Souma, T. Akiyoshi, Y. Kodama, T. Mori, M. Kondo, S. Sasaki, A. Iwase, K. Takahashi, Y. Fukuchi, and K. Seyama: Phoshodiesterase 4 Inhibitior GPD-1116 Markedly Attenuates the Development of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Senescence-Accelerated Mice P1 Strain; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 294 (2008) L196–L204.Search in Google Scholar

532. Sato, A., Y. Hoshino, T. Hara, S. Muro, H. Nakamura, M. Mishima, and J. Yodoi: Thioredoxin-1 Ameliorates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation and Emphysema in Mice; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 325 (2008) 380–388.Search in Google Scholar

533. Nakajima, Y., Y. Nakamura, W. Shigeeda, M. Tomoyasu, H. Deguchi, T. Tanita, and K. Yamauchi: The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interferon-γ in Regulating Angiomotin-Like Protein 1 Expression in Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells; Allergol. Int. 62 (2013) 309–322.Search in Google Scholar

534. Benner, J.F. and C.K. Keene: Condensate Preparation and Fractionation; Proc. Univ. Kentucky Tobacco and Health Res. Inst. – Tobacco and Health Workshop Conference, Report 3 (1972) pp. 185–190.Search in Google Scholar

535. Dube, M.F. and C.R. Green: Methods of Collection of Smoke for Analytical Purposes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 8 (1982) 42–102.Search in Google Scholar

536. Rochus, W.: Grundsätzliche Überlegungen zur chemischen Zusammensetzung des Tabakrauches und seiner Abscheidungsprodukte [Fundamental Reflections on the Chemical Composition of Tobacco Smoke and its Deposition Products]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 155–164. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-002410.2478/cttr-2013-0024Search in Google Scholar

537. Day, T.D.: Carcinogenic Action of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Mouse Skin. An Attempt of a Quantitative Study; Brit. J. Cancer 21 (1967) 56–81.Search in Google Scholar

538. Schüller, D., C.J. Drews, and H.P. Harke: Analytische Untersuchungen am Gasphasenkondensat des Cigarettenrauches [Analytical Examination of Gas Phase Condensate of Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1971) 84–88. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-027210.2478/cttr-2013-0272Search in Google Scholar

539. Elmenhorst, H. and H.P. Harke: Die präparative Gewinnung eines Gasphasen-Kondensates [The Preparative Production of a Gas Phase Condensate]; Z. Naturforsch. 23b (1968) 1271–1272.Search in Google Scholar

540. Diels, O. and K. Alder: Synthesen in der hydroaromatischen Reihe. III Mitteilung. Synthese von Terpenen, Camphern, hydroaromatischen und heterocyclischen Systemen [Synthesis of Hydroaromatics. III Report. Synthesis of Terpenes, Camphor, Hydroaromatic and Heterocyclic Systems]; Ann. Chem. 470 (1929) 62.Search in Google Scholar

541. Harke, H.P., C.J. Drews, and D. Schüller: Über das Vorkommen von Norbornenderivaten in Tabakrauchkondensaten [About the Presence of Norbornene Derivatives in Tobacco Smoke Condensates]; Tetrahedron Lett. 43 (1970) 3789–3790.Search in Google Scholar

542. Einolf, W.N., R.N. Ferguson, J.F. Whidby, and J.F. DeBardeleben: Isolation and Indentification of 2,6-Dimethyl- and 2,2,6-Trimethyl-4-piperidone, Artifacts Produced by the Reaction of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Acetone; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1978) 208–213. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-044910.2478/cttr-2013-0449Search in Google Scholar

543. Nall, J.F.: Complexed Cyanide in Collected Cigarette Smoke; 20th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, November 1–3, 1966, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.Search in Google Scholar

544. Norman, V. and C.H. Keith: Nitrogen Oxides in Tobacco Smoke; Nature 205 (1965) 915–916.Search in Google Scholar

545. Barkemeyer, H. and F. Seehofer: Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampfphase des Cigarettenrauches: 2. Mitteilung. Zur Bestimmung des Stickstoffmonoxides (NO) aus der Gasphase des Cigarettenrauches [On the Gas-Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke: 2. Report. On the Determination of the Nitric Oxide Content in the Gaseous Phase of Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1968) 278–282. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-019710.2478/cttr-2013-0197Search in Google Scholar

546. Greig, J.O. and P.G. Hall: Thermal Oxidations of Nitric Oxide at Low Concentrations; Trans. Faraday Soc. 63 (1967) 655.Search in Google Scholar

547. Sloan, C.H. and J.E. Kiefer: Determination of NO and NO2 in Cigarette Smoke from Kinetic Data; Tob. Sci. 13 (1969) 180–182.Search in Google Scholar

548. Cooper, P.H. and R.B. Hege, Jr: The Oxidation of NO to NO2 in Cigarette Smoke; 32nd Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, Montreal, Canada, 30th October –1st November 1978.Search in Google Scholar

549. British American Tobacco Group Research & Development: Method – Determination of Nitric Oxide in Mainstream Smoke; edited March 31, 2008. Available at: http://www.bat-science.com/groupms/sites/bat_9gvjxs.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO7AXGCL/$FILE/medMD7DAEA9.pdf?openelementSearch in Google Scholar

550. Philippe, R.J. and E.J. Hackney: The Presence of Nitrous Oxide and Methyl Nitrite in Cigarette Smoke and Tobacco Pyrolysis Gases; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 139–143.Search in Google Scholar

551. Vilcins, G. and J.P. Lephardt: Ageing Processes of Cigarette Smoke: Formation of Methyl Nitrite; Chem. Ind. (London) 22 (1975) 974–975.Search in Google Scholar

552. Klus, H. and H. Kuhn: Die Bestimmung von Nitrophenolen im Tabakrauchkondensat (Vorläufige Ergebnisse) [The Determination of Nitrophenols in Tobacco Smoke Condensate (Preliminary Results)]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 15 (1974) 276–288.Search in Google Scholar

553. Neurath, G., B. Pirmann, and H. Wichern: Zur Frage der N-Nitrosoverbindungen im Tabakrauch [On the N-Nitroso Compounds in Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1964) 311–319. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-008410.2478/cttr-2013-0084Search in Google Scholar

554. Neurath, G., B. Pirmann, and M. Dünger: Identifizierung von N-Nitroso-Verbindungen and asymmetrischen Hydrazinen als 5-Nitro-2-Hydroxy-Benzal-Derivate and Anwendung im Mikromaßstab [Identification of N-Nitroso Compounds and Asymmetric Hydrazines as 5-Nitro-2-Hydroxy-Benzal Derivatives and Use on a Micro Scale]; Chem. Ber. 97 (1964) 1631–1638.Search in Google Scholar

555. Neurath G., M. Dünger, and F.G. Pein: Interaction of Nitrogen Oxides, Oxygen and Amines in Gaseous Mixtures; in: Environmental N-Nitroso Compounds Analysis and Formation, edited by E.A. Walker, P. Bogovskii, and L. Griciute, IARC Scientific Publ. No. 14, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 1976, pp. 215–225.Search in Google Scholar

556. Mirvish, S.S., L. Wellcave, M. Eagen, and P. Shubik: Ascorbate-Nitrite Reaction: Possible Means of Blocking the Formation of Carcinogenic N-Nitroso Compounds; Science 177 (1972) 65–68.Search in Google Scholar

557. Hoffmann, D., S.S. Hecht, I. Schmeltz, K.D. Brunnemann, and E.L. Wynder: New Separation Techniques for Classes of Smoke Compounds; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 1 (1976) 97–122.Search in Google Scholar

558. Grob, K.: Zur Gewinnung und Behandlung frischer Gasphase aus Cigarettenrauch [Isolation and Treatment of Fresh Gas Phase from Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 243–250. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-011610.2478/cttr-2013-0116Search in Google Scholar

559. Mori, G. and C.H. Sloan: The Use of Cryogenic Temperature Gas Chromatography for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1972) 178–181. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-028910.2478/cttr-2013-0289Search in Google Scholar

560. Newsome, J.R., V. Norman, and C.H. Keith: Vapor Phase Analysis of Tobacco Smoke; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 102–110.Search in Google Scholar

561. Norman, V., J.R. Newsome, and C.H. Keith: Smoking Machines for the Analysis of the Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 216–221.Search in Google Scholar

562. Koller, K.B., C.E. Thomas, M.E. Parrish, and D.E. Leyden: Puff by Puff Determination of Gas Phase Acetaldehyde, HCN, NO and CO Using FT-IR Spectroscopy; Philip Morris (1990). Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/yymf0131Search in Google Scholar

563. Thomas, C.E. and K.B. Koller: Puff-by-Puff Mainstream Smoke Analysis by Multiplex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 345–351. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-072210.2478/cttr-2013-0722Search in Google Scholar

564. Vilcins, G.: Determination of Ethylene and Isoprene in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke by Infrared Spectroscopy; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 181–185. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-037710.2478/cttr-2013-0377Search in Google Scholar

565. Collins, P.F. and J.F. Williams: An Automated Procedure for CO in Cigarette Smoke, Using a 20-Port Syringe Smoking Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 67–72 594). September 20, 2016. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-031110.2478/cttr-2013-0311Search in Google Scholar

566. Williams, T.B.: The Determination of Nitric Oxide in Gas Phase Cigarette Smoke by Non-Dispersive Infrared Analysis; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 91–99. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-047410.2478/cttr-2013-0474Search in Google Scholar

567. Sloan, C.H., J.S. Lewis, and G.P. Morie: Computerization of the Gas Phase Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 21 (1977) 57.Search in Google Scholar

568. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 5: Determination of Carbon Monoxide in the Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes by Non-Dispersive Infrared Analysis; CORESTA, Paris, France, 1993. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-carbon-monoxide-mainstream-smoke-cigarettes-non-dispersive-infrared-analysis-29139Search in Google Scholar

569. Bates, W.W., R.B. Griffith, E.S. Harlow, M. Senkus, and H. Wakeham: Determination and Reporting of Total Particulate Matter, Water in Total Particulate Matter, and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 192–196.Search in Google Scholar

570. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10362 – 1:2011. Cigarettes – Determination of Water in Smoke Condensates. Part 1. Gas Chromatographic Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. Available at: http:www.iso.orgSearch in Google Scholar

571. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10362-2:2011. Cigarettes – Determination of Water in Smoke Condensates. Part 2. Karl Fischer Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. Available at: http:www.iso.orgSearch in Google Scholar

572. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10315:2008. Cigarettes – Determination of Nicotine in Smoke Condensates – Gas-Chromtographic Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008. Available at: http:www.iso.orgSearch in Google Scholar

573. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 63: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke – GC-TEA Method; CORESTA, Paris, France, 2005. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-cigarette-mainstream-smoke-gc-tea-method-29186.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

574. Health Canada: Official Method T-103 – Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

575. McConnell, W.V., R.C. Mumpower II, and G.P. Touey: Evaluation of Cigarette Filter Efficiency by Photofluorometry; Tob. Sci. 4 (1960) 56–62.Search in Google Scholar

576. Burton, F.G., J.T. Veal, and D.W. Phelps: Quantitative Analysis of Cigarette Tars Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy; Paper presented at the American Chemical Society (ACS) Spring National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, March 20–25, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

577. Sloan, C.H. and J.G. Curran: Spectrophotometric Determination of Filtration Efficiency of Cigarette Filters; 33rd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference 1979, Lexington, KY, USA.Search in Google Scholar

578. Thomas, C.E.: Automated Method for FTC Tar for Low Delivery Cigarettes Based Upon Fluorescence of TPM Extracts; Tob. Sci. 24 (1980) 64–68.Search in Google Scholar

579. Borgerding, M.F., R.D. Hicks, J.E. Bodnar, D.M. Riggs, E.J. Nanni, G.W. Fulp, Jr, W.C. Hamling, Jr, and J.A. Giles: Cigarette Smoke Composition. Part 1. Limitations of FTC Method When Applied to Cigarettes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73 (1990) 605–609.Search in Google Scholar

580. Irby, R.M. Jr and E.S. Harlow: Cigarette Smoke I. Determination of Certain Vapor Phase Constituents; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 52–56.Search in Google Scholar

581. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 8454:2009. Cigarettes — Determination of Carbon Monoxide in the Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke — NDIR Method; ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009. Available at: http:www.iso.orgSearch in Google Scholar

582. Williamson, J.T., J.F. Graham, and D.R. Allman: The Modification of Cigarette Smoke by Filter Tips; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 233–242. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-011510.2478/cttr-2013-0115Search in Google Scholar

583. Grob, K.: Gas Chromatography of Cigarette Smoke. Part III. Separation of the Overlap Region of Gas and Particulate Phase by Capillary Columns; J. Gas Chrom. 3 (1965) 52–65.Search in Google Scholar

584. Grob, K.: Zur Gaschromatographie des Cigarettenrauches, 2. Teil: Verfeinerte Trennung mit Hilfe von Kapillarkolonnen [Gas Chromatography of Cigarette Smoke, Part II: Refined Separation Using Golay Columns]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 315–323. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-003910.2478/cttr-2013-0039Search in Google Scholar

585. Sakuma, H., M. Kusama, N. Shimojima, and S. Sugawara: Gas Chromatographic Analysis of the p-Nitrophenylhydrazones of Low Boiling Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 22 (1976) 156–158.Search in Google Scholar

586. Borgerding, M.F., L.A. Milhous, Jr, R.D. Hicks, and J.A. Giles: Cigarette Smoke Composition. Part 2. Method for Determining Major Components in Smoke of Cigarettes that Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73 (1990) 610–615.Search in Google Scholar

587. Côté, F., J. Verreault, and F.K. St.Charles: Accuracy of Tar Yield Determination and Intense Smoking Regimes; 63rd Tobacco Science Research Conference, 27–30 September 2009, Amelia Island, FL, USA.Search in Google Scholar

588. Côté, F. and J. Verreault: Overestimation of Tar Yields at Canadian Intense Smoking Regime: Factors Affecting the Accuracy; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress, 12–16 September 2010, Edinburgh, Scotland, Abstr. SSPT38.Search in Google Scholar

589. Ghosh, D. and C. Jeannet: An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 38–49. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2014-000810.2478/cttr-2014-0008Search in Google Scholar

590. Tolman, R.C., L.H. Reyerson, A.P. Brooks, and H.D. Smyth: An Electrical Precipitator for Analyzing Smokes; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41 (1919) 587–589.10.1021/ja01461a009Search in Google Scholar

591. Eschle, K.: Beitrag zur vergleichenden Analyse der Wirkung von Zigarettenfiltern [Analytical Contribution to the Comparison of Effects of Cigarette Filters]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 49 (1958) 275–289.Search in Google Scholar

592. Golaz, P., A. Girardet, and R. Regamey: Considérations sur la récupération des constituants de la fumée de cigarettes [Considerations on the Recovery of the Constituents of Cigarette Smoke]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 50 (1959) 18–39.Search in Google Scholar

593. Kuhn, H. and J. Marek: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Rauchkondensates von Filterzigaretten [Contribution to the Determination of Smoke Condensate of Filter Cigarettes]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1961), 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

594. Williamson, J.T. and D.R. Allman: The Distribution of Tobacco Smoke Constituents Between the Vapour and Particulate Phases; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 590–596. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-015810.2478/cttr-2013-0158Search in Google Scholar

595. Bentley, H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Cigarette Condensate: Preparation and Routine Laboratory Estimation; Tobacco Manufacturers’ Standing Comm., Research Paper No 4, 2nd ed., 1961.Search in Google Scholar

596. Verband der Cigarettenindustrie (VdC): Vergleichende Untersuchung der Rauchfallensysteme – Cambridge Filter (CF) = Glasfaserfilter und Elektrostatische Rauchfalle (EL) – für die analytische Erfassung der Tabakrauchdaten Kondensat und Rauchnikotin [Comparison of Two Smoke-Trapping Systems – Cambridge Filter (CF) = Glass-Fiber Filter and Electrostatic Smoke Trap (EL) – for the Analytical Determination of Two Tobacco Smoke Constituents, Condensate and Smoke Nicotine]; Internal Document, VdC, Hamburg, Germany, 1979. Bates-No. 104577784-104577845. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bar25a99Search in Google Scholar

597. Kalcher, K., A. Nitsch, R. Pietsch, and C. Jorde: Schwermetalle in Tabaken und Tabakrauch. I. Eine kompakte Laborrauchmaschine zum Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Zigarren [Heavy Metals in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. I. A Compact Laboratory Smoking Machine for Cigarettes and Cigars]; Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 332 (1988) 17–21.Search in Google Scholar

598. Rhoades, C.B., Jr and R.T. White Jr: Mainstream Smoke Collection by Electrostatic Precipitation for Acid Dissolution in a Microwave Digestion System Prior to Trace Metal Determination; J. AOAC Int. 80 (1997) 1320–1331.Search in Google Scholar

599. Perinelli, M.A. and N. Carugno: Determination of Trace Metals in Cigarette Smoke by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1978) 214–217. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-045010.2478/cttr-2013-0450Search in Google Scholar

600. Ivičić, N., L. Tomić, and V.I Simeon: Cadmium and Lead in Cigarettes and Smoke Condensate ; Arh. Hig. Rada. Toksikol. 36 (1985) 157–164.Search in Google Scholar

601. Schneider, G. and V. Krivan: Multi-Element Analysis of Tobacco Smoke Condensate by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 53 (1993) 87–100.Search in Google Scholar

602. Krivan, V., G. Schneider, H. Baumann, and U. Reus: Multi-Element Characterization of Tobacco Smoke Condensate; Fres. J. Anal. Chem. 348 (1994) 218–225.Search in Google Scholar

603. Pailer, M. and H. Kuhn: Kurzer Bericht über das Vorkommen von Nickel im Zigarettenrauch [Short Report on the Presence of Nickel in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 4 (1963) 61–63.Search in Google Scholar

604. McDaniel, R.L., K.M. Torrence, D.A. Self, and M.J. Chang: Determination of Mercury in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by Conventional and Amalgamation Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 267–276. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-071310.2478/cttr-2013-0713Search in Google Scholar

605. Sneddon, J.: Electrostatic Precipitation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Appl. Spectrosc. 44 (1990) 1562–1565.Search in Google Scholar

606. Sneddon, J.: Direct and Near-Real-Time Determination of Lead, Manganese and Mercury in Laboratory Air by Electrostatic Precipitation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Anal. Chim. Acta 245 (1991) 203–206.Search in Google Scholar

607. Mathewson, H.D.: The Jet Impaction Trap. Some Applications in the Collection and Fractionation of Tobacco Smoke Aerosols; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 41–49.Search in Google Scholar

608. Osborne, J., S.S. Adamek, and M.E. Hobbs: Some Components of Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 28 (1956) 211–215.Search in Google Scholar

609. Philippe, R.J. and M.E. Hobbs: Some Components of Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 28 (1956) 2002–2006.Search in Google Scholar

610. Philippe, R.J., H. Moore, G. Honeycutt, and J.M. Ruth: Some Hydrocarbons of the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 36 (1964) 859–865.Search in Google Scholar

611. Le Roy, D.J.: An Apparatus for the Low Temperature Fractionation of Small Gas Samples; Can. J. Research 28R (1950) 492–499.Search in Google Scholar

612. Laurene, A.H., L.A. Lyerly, and G.W. Young: Direct Vapor Chromatographic Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, and Acetone in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 8 (1964) 150–153.Search in Google Scholar

613. Laurene, A.H. and B.A. Harbin: Improved Gas Chromatographic Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, and Acetone in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 37.Search in Google Scholar

614. Horton, A.D. and M.R. Guerin: Determination of Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke Using Cryothermal Gas Chromatography; Tob. Sci. 18 (1974) 19–22.Search in Google Scholar

615. Grob, K.: Zur Gaschromatographie des Cigarettenrauches. 4. Teil Identifikation mit Hilfe des Massenspektrometers [Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Cigarette Smoke. Part 4 Mass Spectrometric Analysis]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 403–408. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-013310.2478/cttr-2013-0133Search in Google Scholar

616. Völlmin, J.A., I. Omura, J. Seibl, K. Grob, and W. Simon: Einsatz gas-chromatographischer Kolonnen hoher Trennleistung in direkter Kombination mit Massenspektrometer [Use of Gaschromatographic Columns with High Separation Efficiency in Direct Combination with Mass Spectrometer]; Helv. Chim. Acta 49 (1966) 1768–1778.Search in Google Scholar

617. Dorsey, J.A., R.H. Hunt, and M.J. O’Neal: Rapid-Scanning Mass Spectrometry – Continuous Analysis of Fractions From Capillary Gas Chromatography; Anal. Chem. 35 (1963) 511–515.Search in Google Scholar

618. Ryhage, R., S. Wikstrom, and G.R. Waller: Mass Spectrometer Used as Detector and Analyzer for Effluent Emerging from Capillary Gas Liquid Chromatography Column; Anal. Chem. 37 (1965) 435–436.Search in Google Scholar

619. De Souza, J.F. and M. Scherbak: The Effect of Glycerol Added to Tobacco on the Constituents of Cigarette Smoke; Analyst 89 (1964) 735–739.Search in Google Scholar

620. Newman, R.H., W.L. Jones, and R.W. Jenkins: Automated Device for the Evaluation of Total Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 41 (1969) 543–545.Search in Google Scholar

621. Tobacco Advisory Council (U.K.): Standard Methods for the Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Research Paper 11, 3rd edition, 1986. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/hnjx0113Search in Google Scholar

622. Pailer, M., W.J. Hübsch, and H. Kuhn: Untersuchungen der aliphatischen und aromatischen primären und sekundären Amine des Zigarettenrauches mit Hilfe der Gaschromatographie und Massenspektrometrie [Investigation of the Aliphatic and Aromatic Primary and Secondary Amines of Cigarette Smoke by Means of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie, 7 (1967) 109–118.Search in Google Scholar

623. Health Canada: Official Method T-101 – Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada,1999.Search in Google Scholar

624. Health Canada: Official Method T-108 – Determination of Mercury in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada,1999.Search in Google Scholar

625. Health Canada: Official Method T-104 – Determination of Selected Carbonyls in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

626. Health Canada: Official Method T-116 – Determination of 1,3-Butadiene, Isoprene, Acrylonitrile, Benzene und Toluene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

627. Health Canada: Official Method T-112 – Determination of Pyridine, Quinoline and Styrene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada,1999.Search in Google Scholar

628. Rochus, W.: Eine neue maschinelle Abrauch- und Rauchabscheidungsapparatur zur Gewinnung von “nativem” Tabakteer [A New Smoking Machine and Smoke Collection Device for Production of “Native” Tobacco-Tar]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 165–169. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-002510.2478/cttr-2013-0025Search in Google Scholar

629. Pailer, M., W. Hübsch, and H. Kuhn: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Benzo[a]pyrens in Tabakrauchkondensaten [Contribution to the Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Tobacco Smoke Condensates]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie, Sonderheft, 1965, 1–10.Search in Google Scholar

630. Barkemeyer, H.: Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampf-Phase des Cigarettenrauches. 1. Mitteilung: Der Rotationsabscheider, ein Gerät zur Absorption von Aerosolen, Dämpfen und Gasen in Flüssigkeiten [Investigation of the Gas/Vapor-Phase of Cigarette Smoke. 1st Report: The Rotation Separator, an Apparatus for the Collection of Aerosols, Vapors and Gases in Liquids]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 91–93. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-010110.2478/cttr-2013-0101Search in Google Scholar

631. Grob, K. and J.A. Völlmin: Analyse der „Semi-Volatiles“ aus Cigarettenrauch mit Hilfe einer Kombination von hochauflösender Gaschromatographie mit Massenspektrometrie [Analysis of the Semi-Volatiles with the Aid of Combination High Resolution Gaschromatography and Mass Spectrometry]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 52–57. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-021610.2478/cttr-2013-0216Search in Google Scholar

632. Collins, P.F., N.M. Sarji, and J.F. Williams: An Automated Method for Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 14 (1970) 12–15.Search in Google Scholar

633. Kuhn, H. and C. Braun: Beitrag zur Blausäurebestimmung im Zigarettenrauch [Contribution to the Analysis of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 11 (1970) 175–180.Search in Google Scholar

634. Mattina, C.F.: A Potentiometric Method for the Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 16 (1972) 113–114.Search in Google Scholar

635. Vickroy, D.G., and G.L. Gaunt, Jr: Determination of Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke by a Cyanide Ion-Selective Electrode; Tob. Sci. 16 (1972) 22–25.Search in Google Scholar

636. Reif, H.: Die Verwendung der ionenselektiven Elektrode zur Cyanidbestimmung im Zigarettenrauch [The Use of the Ion-Selective Electrode for Cyanide Determination in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 13 (1972) 220–224.Search in Google Scholar

637. Zeldes, S.G. and A.D. Horton: Trapping and Determination of Labile Compounds in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 50 (1978) 779–782.Search in Google Scholar

638. Higgins, C.E., W.H. Griest, and G. Olerich: Application of Tenax Trapping to Analysis of Gas Phase Organic Compounds in Ultra-Low Tar Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 66 (1983) 1074–1083.Search in Google Scholar

639. Behrsing, H., H. Raabe, J. Manuppello, B. Bombick, R. Curren, K. Sullivan, S. Sethi, R. Phipps, Y. Tesfaigzi, S. Yan, C. D’Ruiz, R. Tarran, S. Constant, G. Phillips, M. Gaça, P. Hayden, X. Cao, C. Mathis, J. Hoeng, A. Braun, and E. Hill: Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science: Workshop Proceedings, Conclusions and Paths Forward for In Vitro Model Use; ATLA 44 (2016) 129–166.Search in Google Scholar

640. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Tobacco Products: Research Priorities (January 2012). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/tobaccoproducts/newsevents/ucm293998.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

641. Kamber, M.: Comparison of 4 Cytotoxicity Assays Performed Sequentially on the Same Cell Sample; Poster presented at the 37th Annual meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society, September 9–13, 2007, Basel, Switzerland.Search in Google Scholar

642. Adamson J., L.E Haswell, G. Phillips, and M.D. Gaça: In Vitro Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); in: Bronchitis, edited by Ignacio Martin-Loeches, InTech (2011) pp. 41–66. Available at: http://www.intechopen.com/books/bronchitis10.5772/18247Search in Google Scholar

643. Cerulean Data Sheet: Electrostatic Precipitation Traps ETS 100/101/102 (2014). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/product-services/tobacco/smoking-machines/smoking-accessories/ets100101102Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo