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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2509-8934
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Feb 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 66 (2017): Edizione 1 (December 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2509-8934
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Feb 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Genetic conservation in Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) - what do we know?

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 1 - 8

Astratto

Abstract

The medicinal and food tree species Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is widespread in the Sudanian savannahs of sub-Saharan Africa, where it has a strong socio-cultural and economic importance. Populations of this species are highly threatened in large parts of its range due to overexploitation and environmental degradation. In the light of climatic changes, safeguarding the genetic diversity of the species is crucial to foster adaptation and to support its long-term survival. Genetic insight is also relevant to guide sustainable harvesting. This paper has the objective to review information on the species’ geographic distribution, reproductive biology, genetic characteristics and existing conservation practices, and to identify knowledge gaps to orientate future conservation and research focus. The literature review revealed that the species is mainly outcrossed and is pollinated by a diversity of vectors, including bats that allow long-pollen dispersal. When bats are absent, pollination is mainly carried out by honey bees and stingless bees and in such case pollen-mediated gene flow is relatively restricted. Data of a large-scale genetic study based on allozyme markers showing a moderate genetic differentiation among populations were reanalyzed using an inverse distance weighted interpolation function. Three distinctive regions of diversity based on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were identified. Finally, we discuss future challenges for genetic conservation by emphasizing the need to use both neutral and adaptive markers in future research.

Parole chiave

  • Parkia biglobosa
  • conservation
  • distribution
  • repro­ductive biology
  • sub-Saharan Africa
Accesso libero

Expected genetic gain and genotype by environment interaction in almond (Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Rec. and Mell) in Costa Rica

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 9 - 13

Astratto

Abstract

Almendro (Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell.) is one of the native tree species with higher wood density planted in Latin American tropical region, which has given it a reputation and international acceptance in the wood-floors markets. The tree has also a remarkable ecological value, as an important food source and habitat for several endangered fauna. This research studied the potential for genetic improvement and stability of a collection of 29 open-pollinated families of Dipteryx panamensis at 48 months of age. The materials came from three different local native populations northern from Costa Rica. Individual heritabilities for commercial volume registered moderate values, between 9 % and 22 %, while mean family heritability, ranged between 47 % and 74 % for the traits evaluated. No significant genetic differences among provenances for none of the traits evaluated were observed. The genetic correlation for commercial volume between both sites showed a value of r = 0.96, which suggests low G × E interaction. If selected the top 20 individuals from the genetic ranking in commercial volume, an expected genetic gain above 50 % in year 4 can be obtained. The use of improved almendro seeds could have great impact and motivate plantations with this tree species in tropical regions. It is concluded that a unique breeding program for the whole country is feasible.

Parole chiave

  • almond
  • Dipteryx panamensis
  • breeding
  • genotype × environment interaction
Accesso libero

Genetic Variation in Abies religiosa for Quantitative Traits and Delineation of Elevational and Climatic Zoning for Maintaining Monarch Butterfly Overwintering Sites in Mexico, considering Climatic Change

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 14 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

Conservation of Abies religiosa (sacred fir) within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in Mexico requires adaptive management to cope with expected climatic change, in order to have healthy trees for Danaus plexippus overwintering sites in the future. Open pollinated seeds from fifteen A. religiosa populations were collected along an elevational gradient (2850-3550 masl; one sampled population every 50 m of elevational difference). Seedlings were evaluated in a common garden test over a period of 30 months. We found significant differences (P < 0.03) among populations in total elongation, final height, date of growth cessation, foliage, stem and total dry weight, as well as frost damage. These differences were strongly associated with the Mean Temperature of the Coldest Month (MTCM; r2 = 0.6222, P = 0.0005). Seedlings originating from lower elevation populations grew more but suffered more frost damage than those from higher elevations. Populations differentiate genetically when they are separated by 364 m in elevation. Such differentiation was used to delineate three elevational/climatic zones for seed collection, with limits defined at: 2650 masl or 9.7 °C of MTCM; 3000 masl or 8.5 °C; 3350 masl or 7.3 °C; and 3700 masl or 6.1 °C. Zonification for seedling deployment aiming to match a suitable climate in year 2030 (after projections using an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models and a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 watts/ m2), would have the same MTCM zone limits, but shifted 350 m upwards in elevation. This shift would exceed the highest elevations within the MBBR, necessitating the establishment of A. religiosa stands outside the MBBR, to serve as potential future overwintering sites.

Parole chiave

  • altitudinal gradient
  • growth timing
  • seed zoning
  • assisted migration
  • provenance
  • common garden
  • frost damage
Accesso libero

Spring and autumn phenology of Bulgarian and German provenances of Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under similar climatic conditions

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 24 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The ongoing climate change creates serious concerns about how tree species will behave under new environmental condi­tions. Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a main and important tree species in Europe, will also be affected by the coming changes. One possibility to test the adaptability of this tree species is to perform provenance tests, transplanting trees from northern areas to warmer and drier places, and to investigate their behavior over a long period of time (transfer experiments). This work describes such an experiment. A provenance test was established in April 2010 with two-year-old seedlings from 8 provenances of beech - 5 from Germany (Bavaria) and 3 from Bulgaria. Our purposes were to determine differences in the manifestation of the spring and autumn phenophases from beech of German and Bulgarian provenances and to seek a relationship between geographical coordinates and altitude of the same provenances and timing of leaf flushing and leaf coloring/shedding. In this experiment we examined leaf unfolding and leaf coloring/shedding in two growing periods (2013 and 2016). We found that the Bulgarian provenances flushed earlier in comparison with the German ones in both growing periods. No statistically significant clustering of the Bulgarian and German provenances during leaf coloring/shedding for the second period of observation was found. Longitude had the most important influence on flushing. A linear relationship between the mean date of leaf coloring and the longitude and latitude was determined, but only for the first growing period (2013), when eastern provenances had later leaf coloring, while more northern provenances had earlier leaf coloring.

Parole chiave

  • climate change
  • provenance test
  • phenological observations
  • leaf flushing
  • leaf coloring
Accesso libero

Additive and Non-Additive Genetic Variances for Tree Growth in Several Hybrid Poplar Populations and Implications Regarding Breeding Strategy

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 33 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

Populus species (P. deltoides, P. maximowiczii, P. nigra) and their inter-specific hybrids were tested for growth rate over a five year period at four test locations in Minnesota, USA, to estimate genetic variance components. The breeding scheme incorporated recurrent selection of full-sib families of pure species parents, production of F1 inter-specific hybrids from selected families, and selection of clones within the F1s. Improvement of yield through time using this scheme is predicated on the assumption that additive effects comprise a significant portion of the total genetic variance. The estimates of additive and non-additive variances reported are not traditional point estimates, because a fully balanced mating design was impossible due to parental incompatibilities which result in incomplete breeding matrices. Instead, bounded estimates, not previously used in tree genetics research, are derived from linear combinations of formulae of genetic expectations observed among-family, among-clone, and environmental variances. Our results suggest that combined family and mass selection would lead to increases in growth rate of 27 % and 47 % per generation in P. deltoides and P. nigra, respectively. Broad sense-based clonal selection within the F1 could yield selection responses in excess of 90 % of the mean of such populations. Among-family variance comprised about 1/3 of total genetic variance while within-family variance was always about 2/3 of total genetic variance, regardless of pedigree. The results indicate that recurrent intraspecific selective breeding followed by interspecific hybridization and non-recurrent selection based on broad sense genetic variation would constitute an effective yield improvement strategy.

Parole chiave

  • Populus
  • breeding strategy
  • additive and non-additive genetic variance
  • clonal selection
Accesso libero

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the RAD sequence of two temperate liana species: Euonymus fortunei (Celastraceae) and Schizophragma hydrangeoides (Hydrangeaceae)

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 40 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

Clonal reproduction of lianas is a common but important life history strategy. It is necessary to evaluate the clonal structure of liana species because clonal ability is potentially a major determinants distribution pattern of lianas. Therefore, we developed 10 microsatellite markers for Euonymus fortunei and Schizophragma hydrangeoides respectively from genomic sequences obtained from double-digest restriction site associated DNA (ddRAD). The sequence data of the developed markers were deposited on the public database. The expected heterozygosity (HE) of E. fortunei and S. hydrangeoides ranged from 0.727 to 0.847 with an average of 0.766, and from 0.734 to 0.924 with an average of 0.812, respectively. All loci were under HWE except for a locus of S. hydrangeoides (sh07). These markers should contribute to the understanding of the life history of temperate liana species.

Parole chiave

  • liana
  • Celastraceae
  • Hydrangeaceae
  • microsatellite
  • simple sequence repeat
  • ddRAD
Accesso libero

Evidence of clonal propagation in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don distributed on Pacific Ocean side in Japan

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 43 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

Cryptomeria japonica is distributed on the Pacific Ocean side and reproduces only by seedling; however, C. japonica var. radicans is distributed on the Japan Sea side and reproduces by both seedling and layering. Until now, there has been no report that C. japonica on the Pacific Ocean side regenerates by layering. In this study, the regeneration system of C. japonica in a national forest of Miyagi Prefecture Ishinomaki City was investigated using DNA analysis. C. japonica growing in the study plot was divided into seven genets and 40 single ramets, clearly suggesting that C. japonica at this site regenerates not only by seedling, but also by layering. The strong winds and low temperature appear to be key factors in layering reproduction at this site.

Parole chiave

  • sugi
  • C. japonica var. radicans
  • SSR
  • microsatellite
  • clone reproduction
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Genetic conservation in Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) - what do we know?

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 1 - 8

Astratto

Abstract

The medicinal and food tree species Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is widespread in the Sudanian savannahs of sub-Saharan Africa, where it has a strong socio-cultural and economic importance. Populations of this species are highly threatened in large parts of its range due to overexploitation and environmental degradation. In the light of climatic changes, safeguarding the genetic diversity of the species is crucial to foster adaptation and to support its long-term survival. Genetic insight is also relevant to guide sustainable harvesting. This paper has the objective to review information on the species’ geographic distribution, reproductive biology, genetic characteristics and existing conservation practices, and to identify knowledge gaps to orientate future conservation and research focus. The literature review revealed that the species is mainly outcrossed and is pollinated by a diversity of vectors, including bats that allow long-pollen dispersal. When bats are absent, pollination is mainly carried out by honey bees and stingless bees and in such case pollen-mediated gene flow is relatively restricted. Data of a large-scale genetic study based on allozyme markers showing a moderate genetic differentiation among populations were reanalyzed using an inverse distance weighted interpolation function. Three distinctive regions of diversity based on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were identified. Finally, we discuss future challenges for genetic conservation by emphasizing the need to use both neutral and adaptive markers in future research.

Parole chiave

  • Parkia biglobosa
  • conservation
  • distribution
  • repro­ductive biology
  • sub-Saharan Africa
Accesso libero

Expected genetic gain and genotype by environment interaction in almond (Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Rec. and Mell) in Costa Rica

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 9 - 13

Astratto

Abstract

Almendro (Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell.) is one of the native tree species with higher wood density planted in Latin American tropical region, which has given it a reputation and international acceptance in the wood-floors markets. The tree has also a remarkable ecological value, as an important food source and habitat for several endangered fauna. This research studied the potential for genetic improvement and stability of a collection of 29 open-pollinated families of Dipteryx panamensis at 48 months of age. The materials came from three different local native populations northern from Costa Rica. Individual heritabilities for commercial volume registered moderate values, between 9 % and 22 %, while mean family heritability, ranged between 47 % and 74 % for the traits evaluated. No significant genetic differences among provenances for none of the traits evaluated were observed. The genetic correlation for commercial volume between both sites showed a value of r = 0.96, which suggests low G × E interaction. If selected the top 20 individuals from the genetic ranking in commercial volume, an expected genetic gain above 50 % in year 4 can be obtained. The use of improved almendro seeds could have great impact and motivate plantations with this tree species in tropical regions. It is concluded that a unique breeding program for the whole country is feasible.

Parole chiave

  • almond
  • Dipteryx panamensis
  • breeding
  • genotype × environment interaction
Accesso libero

Genetic Variation in Abies religiosa for Quantitative Traits and Delineation of Elevational and Climatic Zoning for Maintaining Monarch Butterfly Overwintering Sites in Mexico, considering Climatic Change

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 14 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

Conservation of Abies religiosa (sacred fir) within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in Mexico requires adaptive management to cope with expected climatic change, in order to have healthy trees for Danaus plexippus overwintering sites in the future. Open pollinated seeds from fifteen A. religiosa populations were collected along an elevational gradient (2850-3550 masl; one sampled population every 50 m of elevational difference). Seedlings were evaluated in a common garden test over a period of 30 months. We found significant differences (P < 0.03) among populations in total elongation, final height, date of growth cessation, foliage, stem and total dry weight, as well as frost damage. These differences were strongly associated with the Mean Temperature of the Coldest Month (MTCM; r2 = 0.6222, P = 0.0005). Seedlings originating from lower elevation populations grew more but suffered more frost damage than those from higher elevations. Populations differentiate genetically when they are separated by 364 m in elevation. Such differentiation was used to delineate three elevational/climatic zones for seed collection, with limits defined at: 2650 masl or 9.7 °C of MTCM; 3000 masl or 8.5 °C; 3350 masl or 7.3 °C; and 3700 masl or 6.1 °C. Zonification for seedling deployment aiming to match a suitable climate in year 2030 (after projections using an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models and a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 watts/ m2), would have the same MTCM zone limits, but shifted 350 m upwards in elevation. This shift would exceed the highest elevations within the MBBR, necessitating the establishment of A. religiosa stands outside the MBBR, to serve as potential future overwintering sites.

Parole chiave

  • altitudinal gradient
  • growth timing
  • seed zoning
  • assisted migration
  • provenance
  • common garden
  • frost damage
Accesso libero

Spring and autumn phenology of Bulgarian and German provenances of Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under similar climatic conditions

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 24 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The ongoing climate change creates serious concerns about how tree species will behave under new environmental condi­tions. Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a main and important tree species in Europe, will also be affected by the coming changes. One possibility to test the adaptability of this tree species is to perform provenance tests, transplanting trees from northern areas to warmer and drier places, and to investigate their behavior over a long period of time (transfer experiments). This work describes such an experiment. A provenance test was established in April 2010 with two-year-old seedlings from 8 provenances of beech - 5 from Germany (Bavaria) and 3 from Bulgaria. Our purposes were to determine differences in the manifestation of the spring and autumn phenophases from beech of German and Bulgarian provenances and to seek a relationship between geographical coordinates and altitude of the same provenances and timing of leaf flushing and leaf coloring/shedding. In this experiment we examined leaf unfolding and leaf coloring/shedding in two growing periods (2013 and 2016). We found that the Bulgarian provenances flushed earlier in comparison with the German ones in both growing periods. No statistically significant clustering of the Bulgarian and German provenances during leaf coloring/shedding for the second period of observation was found. Longitude had the most important influence on flushing. A linear relationship between the mean date of leaf coloring and the longitude and latitude was determined, but only for the first growing period (2013), when eastern provenances had later leaf coloring, while more northern provenances had earlier leaf coloring.

Parole chiave

  • climate change
  • provenance test
  • phenological observations
  • leaf flushing
  • leaf coloring
Accesso libero

Additive and Non-Additive Genetic Variances for Tree Growth in Several Hybrid Poplar Populations and Implications Regarding Breeding Strategy

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 33 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

Populus species (P. deltoides, P. maximowiczii, P. nigra) and their inter-specific hybrids were tested for growth rate over a five year period at four test locations in Minnesota, USA, to estimate genetic variance components. The breeding scheme incorporated recurrent selection of full-sib families of pure species parents, production of F1 inter-specific hybrids from selected families, and selection of clones within the F1s. Improvement of yield through time using this scheme is predicated on the assumption that additive effects comprise a significant portion of the total genetic variance. The estimates of additive and non-additive variances reported are not traditional point estimates, because a fully balanced mating design was impossible due to parental incompatibilities which result in incomplete breeding matrices. Instead, bounded estimates, not previously used in tree genetics research, are derived from linear combinations of formulae of genetic expectations observed among-family, among-clone, and environmental variances. Our results suggest that combined family and mass selection would lead to increases in growth rate of 27 % and 47 % per generation in P. deltoides and P. nigra, respectively. Broad sense-based clonal selection within the F1 could yield selection responses in excess of 90 % of the mean of such populations. Among-family variance comprised about 1/3 of total genetic variance while within-family variance was always about 2/3 of total genetic variance, regardless of pedigree. The results indicate that recurrent intraspecific selective breeding followed by interspecific hybridization and non-recurrent selection based on broad sense genetic variation would constitute an effective yield improvement strategy.

Parole chiave

  • Populus
  • breeding strategy
  • additive and non-additive genetic variance
  • clonal selection
Accesso libero

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the RAD sequence of two temperate liana species: Euonymus fortunei (Celastraceae) and Schizophragma hydrangeoides (Hydrangeaceae)

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 40 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

Clonal reproduction of lianas is a common but important life history strategy. It is necessary to evaluate the clonal structure of liana species because clonal ability is potentially a major determinants distribution pattern of lianas. Therefore, we developed 10 microsatellite markers for Euonymus fortunei and Schizophragma hydrangeoides respectively from genomic sequences obtained from double-digest restriction site associated DNA (ddRAD). The sequence data of the developed markers were deposited on the public database. The expected heterozygosity (HE) of E. fortunei and S. hydrangeoides ranged from 0.727 to 0.847 with an average of 0.766, and from 0.734 to 0.924 with an average of 0.812, respectively. All loci were under HWE except for a locus of S. hydrangeoides (sh07). These markers should contribute to the understanding of the life history of temperate liana species.

Parole chiave

  • liana
  • Celastraceae
  • Hydrangeaceae
  • microsatellite
  • simple sequence repeat
  • ddRAD
Accesso libero

Evidence of clonal propagation in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don distributed on Pacific Ocean side in Japan

Pubblicato online: 28 Dec 2017
Pagine: 43 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

Cryptomeria japonica is distributed on the Pacific Ocean side and reproduces only by seedling; however, C. japonica var. radicans is distributed on the Japan Sea side and reproduces by both seedling and layering. Until now, there has been no report that C. japonica on the Pacific Ocean side regenerates by layering. In this study, the regeneration system of C. japonica in a national forest of Miyagi Prefecture Ishinomaki City was investigated using DNA analysis. C. japonica growing in the study plot was divided into seven genets and 40 single ramets, clearly suggesting that C. japonica at this site regenerates not only by seedling, but also by layering. The strong winds and low temperature appear to be key factors in layering reproduction at this site.

Parole chiave

  • sugi
  • C. japonica var. radicans
  • SSR
  • microsatellite
  • clone reproduction

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