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Volume 13 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 12 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 11 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 10 (2019): Edizione 2 (August 2019)
Migration and Those Left Behind

Volume 10 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2520-1786
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2520-1786
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli

Accesso libero

Migration, Cultural Identity and Diasporas An Identity Economics Approach

Pubblicato online: 29 Jun 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Besides effects on economic well-being, migration of people with distant cultural backgrounds may also have large effects on people’s cultural identity. In this paper, the identity economics of Akerlof and Kranton (2000) is applied to migration. Accordingly, it is assumed that the utility of both the immigrants and the native population encompasses economic well-being and cultural identity. The migration effect on cultural identity depends, among others, on the distance between cultures. In a simple immigration game it is shown that immigrants may prefer to live rather in diaspora communities than to integrate into the host countries’ culture. This subgame-perfect equilibrium choice of immigrants seems the more likely the greater the cultural distance between their country of origin and the destination country is. Among the available policy instruments, restrictions on the freedom of movement and settlement of immigrants may be the most effective way to prevent the setup of large diaspora communities. For young immigrants and later generations of immigrants, integration via compulsory schooling is the most important policy. In general, cultural, religious and social institutions may support integration.

Parole chiave

  • Akerlof-Kranton game
  • cultural identity
  • diaspora
  • economic well-being
  • identity economics
  • immigration

JEL Classification

  • D91
  • I31
  • J15
  • J61
Accesso libero

Asymmetric Information and the Discount on Foreign-Acquired Degrees in Canada

Pubblicato online: 27 Jul 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

A growing wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers is well documented and is a fundamental policy issue in Canada. It is quite possible that wage differences, commonly attributed to the lower quality of foreign credentials or the deficiency in the accreditation of these credentials, merely reflect lower wage offers that immigrant workers receive due to risk aversion among local firms facing an elevated degree of asymmetric information. Using the 2006 and 2011 population censuses, this paper empirically investigates the effects of wage bargaining in labor markets on the wage gap between foreign- and Canadian-educated workers. Our results imply that a significant part of the wage gap between foreign-educated and Canadian-educated immigrant (and native-born) workers is not driven by the employers’ risk aversion but by differences in human capital endowments and occupational matching quality.

Parole chiave

  • risk aversion
  • return to education
  • occupational mismatch

JEL Classification

  • J6
  • J15
  • J61
Accesso libero

Substitution between Immigrant and Native Farmworkers in the United States: Does Legal Status Matter?

Pubblicato online: 27 Jul 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

The policy debate surrounding the employment of immigrant workers in U.S. agriculture centers around the extent to which immigrant farmworkers adversely affect the economic opportunities of native farmworkers. To help answer this question, we propose a three-layer nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) framework to investigate the substitutability among heterogeneous farmworker groups based on age, skill, and legal status utilizing National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) data from 1989 through 2012. We use farmwork experience and type of task performed as alternative proxies for skill to disentangle the substitution effect between U.S. citizens, authorized immigrants, and unauthorized immigrant farmworkers. Results show that substitutability between the three legal status groups is small; neither authorized nor unauthorized immigrant farmworkers have a significant impact on the employment of native farmworkers.

Parole chiave

  • elasticity of substitution
  • immigration
  • legal status
  • agricultural labor
  • nested CES framework

JEL Classification

  • J20
  • J43
  • J61
Accesso libero

The Marginal Benefit of an Active Labor Market Program Relative to a Public Works Program: Evidence from Papua New Guinea

Pubblicato online: 05 Oct 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Policymakers typically try to address youth unemployment in developing countries through either active labor market programs (ALMPs) or labor-intensive public works programs (LIPWs). We examine whether there is any additional benefit for unemployed youth from participating in a comprehensive ALMP compared to a LIPW. We exploit an unanticipated intervention in the largest employment program in Papua New Guinea, which resulted in one intake of the program completing a LIPW and missing out on a comprehensive ALMP. We conduct a difference-in-difference analysis between participants in the intake that missed out on the ALMP component of the program and participants in the intakes immediately before and after. In contrast to most impact evaluations of ALMPs, we show youth that completed the comprehensive ALMP were around twice as likely to be employed in the formal sector 9–12 months after the program compared to similar youth in the intake that only completed a LIWP. This effect was entirely driven by 20% of youth who participated in the ALMP staying with the employer they were placed with following the end of the program. Surveys of these employers illustrate that they use the ALMP as a low-cost, low-risk, and relatively low-effort way of hiring new employees.

Parole chiave

  • active labor market policy
  • jobs
  • wage subsidies
  • vocational training
  • job search

JEL Classification

  • J08
  • J30
  • J68
  • O15
Accesso libero

Double Jeopardy: How Refugees Fare in One European Labor Market

Pubblicato online: 16 Nov 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

This paper examines the labor market trajectories of refugees who arrived in Belgium between 1999 and 2009. Belgium offers a relatively easy formal labor market access to refugees and other types of migrants but they face many other barriers in this strongly regulated and institutionalized labor market. Based on a longitudinal dataset that links respondents’ information from the Belgian Labor Force Survey with comprehensive social security data on their work histories, we estimate discrete-time hazard models to analyze refugees’ entry into and exit out of the first employment spell, contrasting their outcomes with family and labor migrants of the same arrival cohort. The analysis shows that refugees take significantly longer to enter their first employment spell as compared with other migrant groups. They also run a greater risk of exiting out of their first employment spell (back) into social assistance and into unemployment. The low employment rates of refugees are thus not only due to a slow integration process upon arrival, but also reflect a disproportional risk of exiting the labor market after a period in work. Our findings indicate that helping refugees into a first job is not sufficient to ensure labor market participation in the long run, because these jobs may be short-lived. Instead, our results provide clear arguments in favor of policies that support sustainable labor market integration.

Parole chiave

  • discrete-time hazard models
  • labor market integration
  • longitudinal research
  • refugees

JEL Classification

  • D64
  • J6
  • J20
  • D15
5 Articoli

Accesso libero

Migration, Cultural Identity and Diasporas An Identity Economics Approach

Pubblicato online: 29 Jun 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Besides effects on economic well-being, migration of people with distant cultural backgrounds may also have large effects on people’s cultural identity. In this paper, the identity economics of Akerlof and Kranton (2000) is applied to migration. Accordingly, it is assumed that the utility of both the immigrants and the native population encompasses economic well-being and cultural identity. The migration effect on cultural identity depends, among others, on the distance between cultures. In a simple immigration game it is shown that immigrants may prefer to live rather in diaspora communities than to integrate into the host countries’ culture. This subgame-perfect equilibrium choice of immigrants seems the more likely the greater the cultural distance between their country of origin and the destination country is. Among the available policy instruments, restrictions on the freedom of movement and settlement of immigrants may be the most effective way to prevent the setup of large diaspora communities. For young immigrants and later generations of immigrants, integration via compulsory schooling is the most important policy. In general, cultural, religious and social institutions may support integration.

Parole chiave

  • Akerlof-Kranton game
  • cultural identity
  • diaspora
  • economic well-being
  • identity economics
  • immigration

JEL Classification

  • D91
  • I31
  • J15
  • J61
Accesso libero

Asymmetric Information and the Discount on Foreign-Acquired Degrees in Canada

Pubblicato online: 27 Jul 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

A growing wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers is well documented and is a fundamental policy issue in Canada. It is quite possible that wage differences, commonly attributed to the lower quality of foreign credentials or the deficiency in the accreditation of these credentials, merely reflect lower wage offers that immigrant workers receive due to risk aversion among local firms facing an elevated degree of asymmetric information. Using the 2006 and 2011 population censuses, this paper empirically investigates the effects of wage bargaining in labor markets on the wage gap between foreign- and Canadian-educated workers. Our results imply that a significant part of the wage gap between foreign-educated and Canadian-educated immigrant (and native-born) workers is not driven by the employers’ risk aversion but by differences in human capital endowments and occupational matching quality.

Parole chiave

  • risk aversion
  • return to education
  • occupational mismatch

JEL Classification

  • J6
  • J15
  • J61
Accesso libero

Substitution between Immigrant and Native Farmworkers in the United States: Does Legal Status Matter?

Pubblicato online: 27 Jul 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

The policy debate surrounding the employment of immigrant workers in U.S. agriculture centers around the extent to which immigrant farmworkers adversely affect the economic opportunities of native farmworkers. To help answer this question, we propose a three-layer nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) framework to investigate the substitutability among heterogeneous farmworker groups based on age, skill, and legal status utilizing National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) data from 1989 through 2012. We use farmwork experience and type of task performed as alternative proxies for skill to disentangle the substitution effect between U.S. citizens, authorized immigrants, and unauthorized immigrant farmworkers. Results show that substitutability between the three legal status groups is small; neither authorized nor unauthorized immigrant farmworkers have a significant impact on the employment of native farmworkers.

Parole chiave

  • elasticity of substitution
  • immigration
  • legal status
  • agricultural labor
  • nested CES framework

JEL Classification

  • J20
  • J43
  • J61
Accesso libero

The Marginal Benefit of an Active Labor Market Program Relative to a Public Works Program: Evidence from Papua New Guinea

Pubblicato online: 05 Oct 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Policymakers typically try to address youth unemployment in developing countries through either active labor market programs (ALMPs) or labor-intensive public works programs (LIPWs). We examine whether there is any additional benefit for unemployed youth from participating in a comprehensive ALMP compared to a LIPW. We exploit an unanticipated intervention in the largest employment program in Papua New Guinea, which resulted in one intake of the program completing a LIPW and missing out on a comprehensive ALMP. We conduct a difference-in-difference analysis between participants in the intake that missed out on the ALMP component of the program and participants in the intakes immediately before and after. In contrast to most impact evaluations of ALMPs, we show youth that completed the comprehensive ALMP were around twice as likely to be employed in the formal sector 9–12 months after the program compared to similar youth in the intake that only completed a LIWP. This effect was entirely driven by 20% of youth who participated in the ALMP staying with the employer they were placed with following the end of the program. Surveys of these employers illustrate that they use the ALMP as a low-cost, low-risk, and relatively low-effort way of hiring new employees.

Parole chiave

  • active labor market policy
  • jobs
  • wage subsidies
  • vocational training
  • job search

JEL Classification

  • J08
  • J30
  • J68
  • O15
Accesso libero

Double Jeopardy: How Refugees Fare in One European Labor Market

Pubblicato online: 16 Nov 2019
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

This paper examines the labor market trajectories of refugees who arrived in Belgium between 1999 and 2009. Belgium offers a relatively easy formal labor market access to refugees and other types of migrants but they face many other barriers in this strongly regulated and institutionalized labor market. Based on a longitudinal dataset that links respondents’ information from the Belgian Labor Force Survey with comprehensive social security data on their work histories, we estimate discrete-time hazard models to analyze refugees’ entry into and exit out of the first employment spell, contrasting their outcomes with family and labor migrants of the same arrival cohort. The analysis shows that refugees take significantly longer to enter their first employment spell as compared with other migrant groups. They also run a greater risk of exiting out of their first employment spell (back) into social assistance and into unemployment. The low employment rates of refugees are thus not only due to a slow integration process upon arrival, but also reflect a disproportional risk of exiting the labor market after a period in work. Our findings indicate that helping refugees into a first job is not sufficient to ensure labor market participation in the long run, because these jobs may be short-lived. Instead, our results provide clear arguments in favor of policies that support sustainable labor market integration.

Parole chiave

  • discrete-time hazard models
  • labor market integration
  • longitudinal research
  • refugees

JEL Classification

  • D64
  • J6
  • J20
  • D15

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