- Dettagli della rivista
- Pubblicato per la prima volta
- 26 Jun 2014
- Periodo di pubblicazione
- 2 volte all'anno
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 86 - 87
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 88 - 97
The energy transition towards high shares of renewables and the continued urbanization process have a direct and strong impact on the shape and characteristics of the electricity transmission and distribution systems. At the continental and national scale, improved high voltage grids should allow the transmission and balance of electricity from hot-spots of variable renewable energy generation installations to demand centres. At the regional and municipal scale, the medium and low voltage grids should be capable of bringing sufficient electricity to users and allow the integration of distributed renewable generation installations. While data on the transmission systems is widely available, spatial and attribute data of the medium and mainly the low voltage grids are scarce. Additionally, while there are plenty of studies on the requirements of the grid to allow the energy transition, there is very little information on the necessary transformation of the grid due to changes generated by the expected urbanization process. This study relies on a data set that estimates the topology of the medium and low voltage grids of Bavaria (Germany) as well as data from the LUISA territorial modelling platform of the European Commission to calculate key figures of grid requirements depending on population and land use for the current case and the decades to come. Typologies of grid requirements are proposed based on a statistical analysis of population and land use data of each square kilometre of the federal state. These typologies are extrapolated to changes in the structure of settlements that are expected in the years 2030 and 2050. Results are presented using maps with expected absolute values of grid requirements and their temporal changes for each square kilometre of the project area. Grid requirements are expected to increase in cities and to be reduced in most of the rural areas. The largest changes are expected to take place in the suburbs of the major cities.
• Medium and low voltage grid shapes and lengths are estimated for the entire federal state of Bavaria, Germany.
• On average, distribution grid length requirements per person are between 13 and 16 times larger in rural regions than in city centres.
• While city centres and suburbs expect an increase in grid requirements, the total grid length of Bavaria is expected to decrease in the near future.
• Suburbs of large cities are not only expected to change steadily but also to show the largest changes in grid length requirements until 2050.
- Low voltage grid
- Medium voltage grid
- Energy transition
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 98 - 105
Smart defence in NATO may in its very nature represent not only automated remote solutions for battle activities, but harmonized and efficient system of geospatial support of deployed units as well. The objective of this study is to uncover the essence of allied geospatial support mechanism, determine critical spots and propose appropriate system enhancements. Wealth of experience of members of the Armed forces of the Czech Republic was utilized to summarize the state of geospatial support in NATO. It is preferentially experience from foreign operations ISAF and KFOR, cooperation with NATO Headquarters SHAPE and from participation in Multinational Geospatial Support Group. Presented proposals for improvements of geospatial support might have significant impact on intelligence service and military units themselves.
• Multinational Geospatial Support Group will become a single complex executive component of NATO geospatial support for foreign operations.
• Financial and capacity means for geospatial support must be centralized directly within NATO structure to reach maximum efficiency.
• Production of standardized-only scale set maps covering territory of NATO and areas of interest is to be obligatorily for all member nations.
• Access to the web service CoreGIS should be granted for all NATO nations at a national level.
- Multinational Geospatial Support Group
- Geographic information
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 106 - 113
The aim of the paper is to give an overview of selected ongoing ISO standardization activities in the domain of geographic information dealing with BIM/GIS and 3D cadastre. The presented international standards have also a close relation to the activities (e.g. 3D spatial planning) from which the smart cities could benefit. In particular, in this paper the ISO 19152 Geographic information – Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard and ISO 19166 Geographic information – BIM to GIS conceptual mapping (B2GM) standard (still under development) are emphasized. Both mentioned standards are also strongly interrelated with each other. The ISO 19152 standard supports the smart registration of real estates by providing a conceptual schema incorporating 3D parcels, i.e. the 3D cadastre. 3D cadastre can provide the accurate, authoritative and unambiguous foundation for understanding the urban form. The second version of the ISO 19152 is also going to be extended to manage the spatial planning information. This enables 3D spatial planning in connection with the legal information, which is all together of big importance for building the smart cities. Furthermore, the ISO 19166 standard is going to provide a conceptual framework for transformation of BIM into GIS (at various level of details) and vice versa. This enables a wider use of existing detailed and semantically rich 3D digital BIM data in building of the 3D cadastre and smart cities GIS projects.
• There are currently two running projects within International Organization for Standardization (ISO) from which the smart city should benefit – the international standard ISO 19166 BIM2GIS and ISO TR 23262 GIS (geospatial) / BIM interoperability.
• There is an existing international standard ISO 19152 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) supporting the creation of the 3D cadastre.
• The second version of the international standard ISO 19152, which is now under development, will bring a support for spatial planning and also the examples of technical encodings of LADM in BIM/IFC and CityGML.
- 3D cadastre
- Land Administration Domain Model
- Geographic information
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 114 - 124
Using maps is inevitable in many human activities as well as in mountaineering. Until recently, most of the spatial and attribute data of the mountaineer’s interest could have been found only in analog form. With the development of information technology, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), easily accessible measuring sensors and digital cameras, it is easier to collect, store, visualize, share, and update spatial data. The web GIS with its associated applications assumes dominance in browsing and dissemination of spatial data, and is applied in areas where there is a need for processing, analysis and visualization of various data that contain a spatial component, including mountaineering. When planning hiking, mountaineers need both spatial and attribute information on mountaineering facilities, checkpoints, and hiking trails in the form of GNSS traces. Through the interactive web application interface, it is possible to connect all these data, enabling easy viewing, browsing and analysis, or performing various spatial queries, which greatly facilitates the planning of hiking excursions. This paper presents a review and comparison of four most visited Croatian mountaineering portals: HPS’s
• The presented web GIS represent an effective and efficient tool for planning and conducting trips in mountain areas as it allows better organization and management of mountain content for the tourists and other hikers.
• Registered users can participate in the portal update (e.g. peak or hill endonyms) and this can be used by State Geodetic Administration for their register of geographical names (
• The Web GIS can also be used as a support in the tourism development of local mountain areas with respect to the ecological culture and sustainability of the mountain environment.
- Web GIS
- Mountaineering portal
- Hiking trail
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 125 - 131
The purpose of this article was to present the methodology which enables automatic map labelling. This topic is particularly important in the context of the ongoing research into the full automation of visualization process of spatial data stored in the currently used topographic databases (e.g. OpenStreetMap, Vector Map Level 2, etc.). To carry out this task, the artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron) was used. The Vector Map Level 2 was used as a test database. The data for neural network learning (the reference label localization) was obtained from the military topographic map at scale 1 : 50 000. In the article, the method of applying artificial neural networks to the map labelling is presented. Detailed research was carried out on the basis of labels from the feature class “built-up area”. The results of the analyses revealed that it is possible to use the artificial intelligence computational methods to automate the process of placing labels on maps. The results showed that 65% of the labels were put on the topographic map in the same place as in the case of the labelling which was done manually by a cartographer. The obtained results can contribute both to the enhancement of the quality of cartographic visualization (e.g. in geoportals) and the partial elimination of the human factor in this process.
• Map label placement is among key variables ensuring the usability of topographic maps across disciplines.
• We present the neural network approach for automating the process of labelling topographic maps with locality names.
• The presented case study applies to the military map in scale 1:50 000, but can be applied on other maps and geoportals.
- Artificial neural network
- Multilayer perceptron
- Label localization
- Topographic map
- Accesso libero
Pagine: 132 - 140
One of the fundamental issues of hydrology is determination of total runoff volume from rainfall. The mutual relationship of these quantities can be experimentally determined by measuring rainfall and runoff. Rainfall-runoff models describe natural relations on the basis of variables determining physio-geographical conditions of a territorial unit as well as hydraulic properties of the respective river network. In the proposed paper, we focused on parameter recalculation of a rainfall-runoff model with focusing on runoff curve numbers (CN). The objective of this study was to update the data (CN) in the old modelling structures within the FLOREON+ (FLOods REcognition on the Net – Study Area) system and replace them with the new ones. The parameters of runoff CN were estimated according to available GIS layers primarily related to the existing soil conditions and land use. In the first phase, the calculation procedure was prepared for the smaller Porubka and Lubina basins, and then it was applied to the whole basin area. The results showed that the new runoff CN recalculation procedure resulted in reduction of the simulated runoff (peak discharge, volume) in the Odra River sub-basins, which also led to approximation to the real measured runoff in the Ostrava-Svinov profile. The derived method is applicable to other basins as well.
• Runoff volumes resulting from rainfall significantly contribute to risk processes, such as soil erosion and floods.
• The partially automated procedure for rainfall-runoff estimation is preseted, based on data for soil conditions and land cover.
• Derivation is based on the original principles determined by the US Soil Conservation Service and can be applied to any river basin in the area of the Czech Republic.
• In the future, the proposed methodology will be adapted to run within the ArcMap application.
- Runoff curve numbers
- Rainfall-runoff model
- Odra River basin