Rivista e Edizione

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 3 (September 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 2 (June 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 1 (March 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 4 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 3 (September 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 2 (June 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 2 (July 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 2 (July 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 2 (July 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (April 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2449-5999
Pubblicato per la prima volta
12 Mar 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2449-5999
Pubblicato per la prima volta
12 Mar 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

20 Articoli
Accesso libero

Impact of the Plate Diameter on the Value of the Pre-Compaction Stress in Soils With Varied Textural Group

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to verify the previously obtained results of research concerning the impact of the plate diameter on the measured value of the pre-compaction stress of silt (NG), in conditions of a wider range of soil types and their initial stage. The research was carried out on samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 30 mm produced from the soil material (M) or collected from the subsoil of the selected soils (AWN) with the granulation type of: silt loam, loam, light loam, sandy-clay soil. The following soils properties were determined: the granulation type, density of the solid phase, content of humus and calcium carbonate, reaction, plastic and liquid limit. The properties of samples were described with moisture, dry density of solid particles, porosity of aeration, degree of plasticity and degree of saturation. The samples were loaded with a testing machine with plates with varied diameters. The value of the pre-compaction stress of soil was measured with the method of searching the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and the original stresses curve (a classical method). It was found out that for samples M with the degree of saturation of 0.40-0.50, the pre-compaction stress does not significantly depend on the plate diameter. For samples M or AWN, with the degree of saturation of 0.64-0.82, the pre-compaction stress significantly depends on the diameter of the plate. A conclusion was formulated that in the research of NG with the method of uniaxial defonnations, the relation of the diameter of the plate (d) to the diameter of the cylinder (D) should be within 0.5 ≤ d/D ≤ 0.8.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • moisture
  • granulation type
  • pre-compaction stress
  • diameter of plate
Accesso libero

Changes of Mechanical Properties of Kumquat (Citrus Japonica Thunb.) and Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) Fruits During Storage

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 15 - 25

Astratto

Abstract

The selected physical properties as well as mechanical proprieties of kumquat and cape gooseberry fruit kept in the temperature of 12°C for 3 days, 8°C for 6 days and 4°C for 9 days were studied. The mass and size of fruit in three perpendicular directions were determined and density and moisture of tested material were calculated. Compressive tests of whole fruit were conducted for two directions of load application in order to determine the unit work WP an apparent coefficient of elasticity, stress σ and strain ε. The growth of inputs of the deformation work with expansion of the storage time was confirmed with regard to kumquat fruit which is related to the decrease of their conventional density. The decrease of the stress and elasticity values coefficient of cape gooseberry fruit with higher temperatures of storing expressed with the change of the slope angle of curves of the relation of stress-deformation was proved.

Parole chiave

  • mechanical properties
  • kumquat
  • cape gooseberry
  • storage
Accesso libero

The Use of it Technologies in Farms on the Example of Zambrôw and Wysokie Mazowieckie County

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 27 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of use of IT technologies by farmers. Data from a research survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms in 2015 constituted research material. The research area covered farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship on the area of two counties i.e. Wysokie Mazowieckie (50 questionnaires) and Zambrów County (50 questionnaires). The questionnaire is a research instrument. The research was to determine the level of use of specialist computer programs by farmers and their needs concerning acqui sition of information on innovations in agriculture. Due to the obtained results one may find out that a low number of farmers uses specialist computer programs in their farms. In Wysokie Mazowieckie County it is only 8% of respondents and in Zambrów County 14%. The main source of infonnation on innovations in agriculture is the Internet, professional agricultural press and television.

Parole chiave

  • agricultural farm
  • Internet
  • computer
  • computer program
  • agriculture
Accesso libero

Shear Strength of the Selected Types of Pellets

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 35 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The usefulness of raw material obtained from oak leaves, waste from paper mass and fragments of Miscanthus was verified with regard to pellet production. A batch of pellets produced therefrom was subjected to technological shear tests with the use of prototype equipment. Also pellets produced by well-known Polish producers were tested. The suggested method of technological shear enables obtaining credible results through standardization of tests conditions. Statistical processing of results proved that there are significant differences in the values of shear strength and unit shear work obtained for both group of pellets. An experimental batch of pellets has a lower density and thus lower shear strength which limits the scope of industrial application. The research which was carried out proved that there is a strong correlation between mechanical strength and density.

Parole chiave

  • shear strength
  • density
  • pellet
Accesso libero

Verification of Economic and Agricultural Indicators With the Use of Statistical Methods on the Example of Individual Farms

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 43 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

The paper describes basic methodology assumptions related to construction of Bayesian networks. The paper aims at preparation of data for modeling to obtain fresh knowledge on economic and agricultural database and will constitute the first stage of research. Variables (economic and agricultural indicators) with discreet values were used for analysis with the use of two step grouping technique and previous non-typical data were explored. The research was carried out on the group of three hundred individual fanns from Malopolskie and Swiçtokrzyskie Voiovedship. The knowledge obtained from analyses will be used in practice in agricultural engineering in order to support agricultural activity.

Parole chiave

  • economical and agricultural indicators
  • individual farms
  • data exploration
  • two step cluster analysis
Accesso libero

Cutting of Woody Shrubs at Melioration Objects by a Multi-Rotor Mower With Trapezoidal Knives

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 53 - 71

Astratto

Abstract

The object of the research is a technological process and technical means of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects. The subject of the research consists of regularities and methods of execution of the process of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects by a multirotor mower with trapezoidal knives. The aim of the research is to increase efficiency of cutting shrubs at melioration objects by applying a multi-rotor mower with trapezoidal knives. We have obtained analy tical dependences in order to determine the angle of diversion of a knife from the radial position during contact with the stem, and to calculate the reaction in the joint “knife-fixing bolt” depending on the parameters of a knife and rotor, and the distance from the centre of the knife fixing bolt to the point of contact of a knife and stem, which provides minimal impact load on the knife fixing bolt during cutting woody shrubs. We have also developed a mathematical model of the process of cutting shrubs by a multi-rotor mover with trapezoidal knives, and methods of determination of the main parameters and regimes of work of the mower cutting apparatus for cutting shrubs at melioration objects, which contain a monogram, based on the use of theoretical-experimental dependences.

Parole chiave

  • multi-rotor mower
  • woody shrubs
  • trapezoidal knives
  • melioration objects
  • cutting
  • efficiency
Accesso libero

Analysis of Performance of Timber Harvesting With the Use of Highlander Harvester

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 73 - 82

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the work performance analysis of timber harvesting with the use of Highlander harvester produced by KONRAD Forsttechnik GmbH. The analysis was performed based on the timing of the working day. We also assessed the organization of the machine operation in the research area and its functional capability. The study was conducted in Miçdzylesie Forest Department, Nowu Wieś Forestry in fresh mixed mountain forest, where the machine acquired spruce. Timing was perfonned based on the registration of the machine operation on a video camera and the measurements of collected assortment. Based on the results of measurements it was found that organization of the machine operation was not the best. A one-shift work system and short duration of a shift caused that the effective working time occupied only 67.9% of the shift time (about 4 hours). This resulted in reduction of the operating perfonnance on a working day which was only 12,7 m3·h−1, while an effective high-efficiency was 18.7 m3·h−1.

Parole chiave

  • timber harvesting
  • work performance
  • harvester
Accesso libero

Methodical Aspects of Determination of Parameters Which Characterize Thermal Balance of a Plastic Tunnel

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 83 - 93

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents methodology of measuring the values which characterize the thermal balance in a horticultural facility. Thermal transmittance through a plastic tunnel cover and the ratio of solar radiation energy conversion into heat were analysed in detail. The research was carried out in real time with closed ventilators, where no plants were cultivated during the tests. The utility surface area was 144 m2, the cover was 289 m2 and its volume was 508 m3. Basing on the standard relations, first of all, thermal transmittance through a cover was measured. The ratio was measured with the use of standard criteria equations. Then, a correlation equation, which makes its course dependent on the climate parameters (the wind speed and temperature difference between the interior of the facility and its surroundings), was found. Knowing the course of the ratio in the function of the climate parameters, the value of the ratio of solar radiation conversion into heat stored in the facility was measured. Both parameters (thermal transmittance and solar radiation conversion ratios) were calculated from the thermal balance equaition where the change of the energy stored inside the facility was compared to the heat losses through a cover (for thenual transmittance) and the profit (in case of solar radiation conversion). For the obtained values, using the non-linear estimation procedure (with quasi-Newtom method with maintenance of the correlation coefficient of 0.001) the change of both ratios in the function of easily measured parameters of climate inside and outside the facility was found out. In the investigated conditions, the average value of thermal transmittance through a cover was 5.32 W·m−2·K−1, and the solar radiation conversion into heat was 0.36. The values and their course from the climate parameters inside and outside the facility may be used for controlling the amount of supplied heat and location of ventilators.

Parole chiave

  • plastic tunnel
  • ratio of thermal transmittance
  • coefficient of solar radiation
  • conversion into heat
Accesso libero

Modelling of an Actuator in the Vacuum Control System of an Autonomous Milking Machine

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 95 - 104

Astratto

Abstract

Design intents for an actuator of the suction pressure control system in an autonomous milking machine were presented. For determination of its dynamic properties step characteristic was taken. The considered object was described with transmittance and thermodynamic models. Models were identified and their parameters were adjusted. Computer simulation was carried out in MATLAB®-Simulink. Analysis of research results proved that the thermodynamic model allows more detailed reflection of dynamic characteristic of the real object. Its degree of imperfections is 0.99%. For the transmittance model a degree of imperfection with the value of 2.02% was obtained.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • autonomous milking machine
  • control
  • simulation model
Accesso libero

Cluster With Flo-Star Max Claw With Crossing Milk Connection Pipes

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 105 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

Improvement of mechanical milking in the aspect of cow's udder health and maintaining correct milking parameters is possible through e.g. constant improvement of the structure of clusters. A cluster with a specific claw with crossing milk connection pipes Flo-Star Max with liners with a round profile of the barrel of DK1X. The objective of the paper was to analyse usefulness of this type of the sitructure of the machine for mechanical milking of cows. Measurements of simulated milking were carried out in a laboratory to the upper milking pipeline at variable mass intensity of liquid flow within 0-8 kg·min−1, for four penetrations of artificial teats of 100, 75, 62, 50 mm at the systemic negative pressure values within 50 to 44 kPa, simultaneous and alternating pulsation and during real milking of cows in a cowshed. Using a multivariate analysis of variance, the impact of independent variables of an experiment on the values of average vacuum of suction, vacuum fluctuations in cycle, average drop of vacuum in a cycle were proved. Analysis of the machine operation in a milking parallel parlour in real mechanical milking conditions and difficulties in placing a machine on the cow's udder as well as violent milk flow were reported and the milk flow of 3.5 kg·min−1 was exceeded with its characteristic balancing in the rhythm of a pulsator.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • cluster
  • milking parameters
Accesso libero

Impact of the Temperature of Waste Biomass Py-Rolysis on the Quality of the Obtained Biochar

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 115 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

Combustion and co-combustion of biomass from different sources is one of the most popular technologies applied in Poland. It allows management of numerous industrial, communal and agricultural waste. Organic waste constitutes one of the richest sources of cheap biomass solid fuels since they are very popular. The paper includes an assessment of practical use of biomass waste: hazelnut shell and pistachio nut shell. The impact of pyrolysis temperature (300, 450 and 550°C) of the investigated biomass on the quality of the obtained biochar was determined and the optimal temperature of this process was defined. The quality of the investigated biomass was analysed on account of its use for energy purposes. Numerous advantageous properties of the obtained materials were found out, for instance: low content of ash and a noticeable increase of the calorific value with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature.

Parole chiave

  • biomass
  • nutshell
  • pyrolysis
  • calorific value
Accesso libero

Assessment of the Logistic System of Fuel Life Cycle Using the LCA Method

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 125 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the logistic system of fuel life cycle, covering diesel oil and the mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio), using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. This method is a technique in the field of management processes with a view to assessing the potential environmental hazards. Our intention was to compare the energy consumption needed to produce each of the test fuels and emissions of selected substances generated during ithe production process. The study involved 10,000 liters of diesel and the same amount of rapeseed oil and butanol mixture (2:3 ratio). On the basis of measurements the following results were obtained. To produce a functional unit of diesel oil (i.e. 10,000 liters) it is necessary to extract 58.8 m3 of crude oil. The entire life cycle covering the consumption of 10,000 liters of diesel consumes 475.668 GJ of energy and causes the emission to air of the following substances: 235.376 kg of COx, 944.921 kg of NOx, 83.287 kg of SOx. In the ease of a functional unit, to produce a mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio) 10,000 kg of rapeseed and 20,350 kg of straw should be used. The entire life cycle of 10,000 liters of a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio) absorbs 370.616 GJ of energy, while emitting the following air pollutants: 105.14832 kg of COx, 920.03124 kg of NOx, 0.162 kg of SOx. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion that it is oil refining which is the most energy-intensive and polluting process in the life cycle of diesel. The process consumes 41.4 GJ of energy, and causes a significant emission of sulfur oxides (50 kg). In the production of fuel that is a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio), rape production is the most energy-intensive manufacturing process is (absorbs 53.856 GJ of energy). This is due to the long operation time of the farm tractor and combine harvester. The operation of these machines leads also to the emission of a significant amount of pollution in the form of COx (2.664 kg) and NOx (23.31 kg).

Parole chiave

  • life cycle
  • logistic system
  • LCA method
  • environmental hazards
Accesso libero

Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Under Reduced Pressure Conditions

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of reduced pressure on the osmotic dehydration of apples. Tests were performed under vacuum of 8 kPa, 67 kPa, 80 kPa and under the atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). The samples were dehydrated in a sucrose solution with a concentration of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx. It has been shown that the effect of low pressure application depends significantly to the concentration of the osmotic solution. It has been found that the overall weight change significantly depend on the concentration of the solution, and after 3 hours of dehydration at a pressure of 80 kPa at solutions of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx total weight loss increased by 65%, 12% and 25% respectively, when compared to samples dehydrated at atmospheric pressure. From the studied variants of reduced pressure, the pressure of 80 kPa seems to be the optimal one, as evidenced by the lowest values of weight gain to water loss ratios for apples dehydrated in solutions of 50°Bx and 70°Bx.

Parole chiave

  • osmotic dehydration
  • reduced pressure
  • fruit
  • apple
  • sucrose
Accesso libero

Windrow Scarifier for Rotary Mower

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 145 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

In order to accelerate the process of drying of grass mowed for hay and haylage there are numerous technological treatments: multiple tedding, raking in rolls and turning rolls, mechanical impact on green forage in the process of mowing by the use of presses and windrow scarifiers. Presently mechanical maceration of green forage with mowing is popular. Papilionaceous feed plants are subjected to windrow presses and graminacenous plants to beating working systems. Analysis of various devices for acceleration of the drying process of green forage proves that they are quite complex and expensive on account of considerable material consumption. In order to eliminate the faults in the Russian Scientific and Research Fodder Institute of Wiliams a completely different windrow scarifier for the rotary mower KR-2.4 M was developed. It has a simple structure and it serves for acceleration of field drying of mowed grass in loose rolls. The paper presents the results of the research on a mower with an experimental windrow scarifier

Parole chiave

  • rotary mower
  • windrow scarifier
  • drums
  • screw areas
  • research
Accesso libero

The Sowing Value of Tansy Phacelia (Phacelia Tanacetifolia Benth.) Seeds in the Long-Term Storage

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 153 - 159

Astratto

Abstract

In 2010 the experiment, which aim was to examine the sowing value of tansy phacelia seeds after eight and nine years of storage, was conducted in the laboratory of the Academy of Agrobusiness in Łomża. The experiment clearly demonstrates that the period of storage of tansy phacelia seeds has an essential impact on the changes of basic parameters of the sowing value. Vetrovska variety had the highest seed germinability among the other varieties of tansy phacelia which were stored for 8 years. At the same time this variety had the highest decrease in seed germinability after 9 years of storage. During the 9-year storage Natra variety showed the highest decrease in thousand seeds weight despite the highest value of this parameter among all the tested varieties immediately after yielding. The results; of the experiment allowed for the conclusion that the economic life: cycle of tansy phacelia seeds is 8 years.

Parole chiave

  • tansy phacelia
  • long-term storage
  • sowing value
Accesso libero

Analysis of Assumptions of the Environment Management System Implementation for the Selected Undertaking in Waste Management

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the concept of the environmental management system. Moreover, organization frames of the undertaking related to eco-transport of waste were determined. Elements of the environmental management were characterized including the environmental aspect. They were subjected to interpretation in terms of reduction of the impact on the environment. In the context of constant improvement, the attention was paid to the influence of the analysed organization of its environmental activity. The objective of the paper is the analysis of assumptions which follow from the ISO 14001 standard including arrangement of the eco-transport of waste.

Parole chiave

  • transport of waste
  • environmental management system
  • ISO 14001 standard
Accesso libero

Analysis of Technical Assumptions of Selection of Elements of a Landfill Site on the Municipal Area

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 171 - 182

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents environmental conditions for the selected location of a landfill site on the area of Stary Sącz designated for deposing neutral waste from the installation for secondary segregation of waste. Based on the productivity of the selected municipal waste parameters of accumulation indicators were detennined strictly correlated with the amount of waste predicted for disposal. Components of the facility were selected including the requirements of the resolution as of 30th April 2013 on landfill sites (Journal of Laws 2013 item 523) for application of solutions for protection of water, soil and atmospheric air environment in its surroundings against the negative impact of waste. The paper also refers to the final stage related to closing of a landfill with the assumed plan of its reclamation. The article was summed up with conclusions indicating the limited possibility of location of such a facility on the selected area on account of its location close to Poprad River and on the area of the Main Reservoir of Underground Water. The objective of the paper was to make an attempt to choose components of the installation for neutralization of waste in Stary Sącz taking into account the local environmental conditions.

Parole chiave

  • municipal waste
  • landfill site
  • depositing
Accesso libero

Image Analysis in Wood Testing - Selected Examples

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 183 - 195

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is a review article which presents examples of application of the image analysis in wood testing. The objective of the paper was to present selected research methods with the use of image analysis used in the research on anatomy and macro-structure of wood carried out in the Department of Forest and Wood Utilization of the Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. In the part concerning research on wood anatomy the following areas of application of the image analysis were indicated: identification of wood species and variability of the selected parameters of the anatomic structure with special attention to coniferous trees. In the part concerning the research on macro-structure of wood, methodology of collection and preparation of wood samples and measurement of the most important properties of the macrostructure was described with the use of the image analysis program. Moreover, the selected areas of practical application of the results of such analysis were indicated.

Parole chiave

  • anatomy and macro-structure of wood
  • image analysis
Accesso libero

Impact of the System of Air Supply to a Milking Unit on Selected Parameters of Milking Machine Operation

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 195 - 205

Astratto

Abstract

Air is supplied to a milking machine installation most usually in a constant manner by supply of a small amount of air to a milking chamber of a claw or periodically to a connection pipe of a liner, which enables milk outflow to a milking pipe and improves stabilization of vacuum and limits its fluctuations. On the market of milking machines there is a new solution in the form of mouthpiece vented liners - impulseair®, where air is supplied constantly by a calibrated nozzle in the head of a liner. The objective of the paper was to analyse and assess the selected parameters of milking determined in a milking machine with a claw with fixed volume of a milking chamber (250 cm3) with mouthpiece vented liners in comparison to other solutions used for air supply in milking machines. Measurements were carried out in laboratory conditions with milking to the upper milk pipeline, at variable mass intensities of liquid flow (within 0-8 kg·min−1), for three penetrations of artificial teats (46, 48, 62 mm), at three values of the system vacuum (46, 48 and 50 kPa). A significant impact of the manner of air supply to a milking machine and remaining independent variables of an experiment on the selected milking parameters was proved with the use of a statistical analysis. It was found that a milking unit with mouthpiece vented liners, although it reduces average vacuum of suction [pss], at the same time it limits fluctuations of underpressure in the dp cycle.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • milking machine
  • milking parameters
  • vented gums
Accesso libero

Application of Hyperspectral Imaging for Cultivar Discrimination of Malting Barley Grains

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 207 - 217

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform and evaluate the accuracy of classification of grains of different cultivars of malting barley. The grains of eight cultivars: Blask, Bor do, Con chita, Kormoran, Mercada, Serwal, Signora, Victoriana, with three moisture content: 12, 14, 16% were examined. The selected parameters of the surface texture of grain mass obtained from images taken using the techniques of hyperspectral imaging were determined. The accuracy of grains discrimination carried out using different methods of selection and classification of data was compared. The pairwise comparison and comparison of three, four and eight cultivars of malting barley were carried out. The most accurate discrimination was determined in the case of the pairwise comparison. Victoriana cultivar was the most different from the others. The most similar texture of grain mass was found in the comparison of cultivars: Blask and Mercada. In the case of eight examined cultivars of malting barley, the most accurate discrimination (classification error – 55%) was obtained for images taken at the moisture content of 14% and at a wavelength of 750 nm, for the attributes selection performed with the use of probability of error and average correlation coefficient (POE+ACC) method and the discrimination carried out using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

Parole chiave

  • spring malting barley
  • grain mass
  • attributes selection
  • multidimensional analysis
  • classification error
20 Articoli
Accesso libero

Impact of the Plate Diameter on the Value of the Pre-Compaction Stress in Soils With Varied Textural Group

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to verify the previously obtained results of research concerning the impact of the plate diameter on the measured value of the pre-compaction stress of silt (NG), in conditions of a wider range of soil types and their initial stage. The research was carried out on samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 30 mm produced from the soil material (M) or collected from the subsoil of the selected soils (AWN) with the granulation type of: silt loam, loam, light loam, sandy-clay soil. The following soils properties were determined: the granulation type, density of the solid phase, content of humus and calcium carbonate, reaction, plastic and liquid limit. The properties of samples were described with moisture, dry density of solid particles, porosity of aeration, degree of plasticity and degree of saturation. The samples were loaded with a testing machine with plates with varied diameters. The value of the pre-compaction stress of soil was measured with the method of searching the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and the original stresses curve (a classical method). It was found out that for samples M with the degree of saturation of 0.40-0.50, the pre-compaction stress does not significantly depend on the plate diameter. For samples M or AWN, with the degree of saturation of 0.64-0.82, the pre-compaction stress significantly depends on the diameter of the plate. A conclusion was formulated that in the research of NG with the method of uniaxial defonnations, the relation of the diameter of the plate (d) to the diameter of the cylinder (D) should be within 0.5 ≤ d/D ≤ 0.8.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • moisture
  • granulation type
  • pre-compaction stress
  • diameter of plate
Accesso libero

Changes of Mechanical Properties of Kumquat (Citrus Japonica Thunb.) and Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) Fruits During Storage

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 15 - 25

Astratto

Abstract

The selected physical properties as well as mechanical proprieties of kumquat and cape gooseberry fruit kept in the temperature of 12°C for 3 days, 8°C for 6 days and 4°C for 9 days were studied. The mass and size of fruit in three perpendicular directions were determined and density and moisture of tested material were calculated. Compressive tests of whole fruit were conducted for two directions of load application in order to determine the unit work WP an apparent coefficient of elasticity, stress σ and strain ε. The growth of inputs of the deformation work with expansion of the storage time was confirmed with regard to kumquat fruit which is related to the decrease of their conventional density. The decrease of the stress and elasticity values coefficient of cape gooseberry fruit with higher temperatures of storing expressed with the change of the slope angle of curves of the relation of stress-deformation was proved.

Parole chiave

  • mechanical properties
  • kumquat
  • cape gooseberry
  • storage
Accesso libero

The Use of it Technologies in Farms on the Example of Zambrôw and Wysokie Mazowieckie County

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 27 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of use of IT technologies by farmers. Data from a research survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms in 2015 constituted research material. The research area covered farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship on the area of two counties i.e. Wysokie Mazowieckie (50 questionnaires) and Zambrów County (50 questionnaires). The questionnaire is a research instrument. The research was to determine the level of use of specialist computer programs by farmers and their needs concerning acqui sition of information on innovations in agriculture. Due to the obtained results one may find out that a low number of farmers uses specialist computer programs in their farms. In Wysokie Mazowieckie County it is only 8% of respondents and in Zambrów County 14%. The main source of infonnation on innovations in agriculture is the Internet, professional agricultural press and television.

Parole chiave

  • agricultural farm
  • Internet
  • computer
  • computer program
  • agriculture
Accesso libero

Shear Strength of the Selected Types of Pellets

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 35 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The usefulness of raw material obtained from oak leaves, waste from paper mass and fragments of Miscanthus was verified with regard to pellet production. A batch of pellets produced therefrom was subjected to technological shear tests with the use of prototype equipment. Also pellets produced by well-known Polish producers were tested. The suggested method of technological shear enables obtaining credible results through standardization of tests conditions. Statistical processing of results proved that there are significant differences in the values of shear strength and unit shear work obtained for both group of pellets. An experimental batch of pellets has a lower density and thus lower shear strength which limits the scope of industrial application. The research which was carried out proved that there is a strong correlation between mechanical strength and density.

Parole chiave

  • shear strength
  • density
  • pellet
Accesso libero

Verification of Economic and Agricultural Indicators With the Use of Statistical Methods on the Example of Individual Farms

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 43 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

The paper describes basic methodology assumptions related to construction of Bayesian networks. The paper aims at preparation of data for modeling to obtain fresh knowledge on economic and agricultural database and will constitute the first stage of research. Variables (economic and agricultural indicators) with discreet values were used for analysis with the use of two step grouping technique and previous non-typical data were explored. The research was carried out on the group of three hundred individual fanns from Malopolskie and Swiçtokrzyskie Voiovedship. The knowledge obtained from analyses will be used in practice in agricultural engineering in order to support agricultural activity.

Parole chiave

  • economical and agricultural indicators
  • individual farms
  • data exploration
  • two step cluster analysis
Accesso libero

Cutting of Woody Shrubs at Melioration Objects by a Multi-Rotor Mower With Trapezoidal Knives

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 53 - 71

Astratto

Abstract

The object of the research is a technological process and technical means of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects. The subject of the research consists of regularities and methods of execution of the process of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects by a multirotor mower with trapezoidal knives. The aim of the research is to increase efficiency of cutting shrubs at melioration objects by applying a multi-rotor mower with trapezoidal knives. We have obtained analy tical dependences in order to determine the angle of diversion of a knife from the radial position during contact with the stem, and to calculate the reaction in the joint “knife-fixing bolt” depending on the parameters of a knife and rotor, and the distance from the centre of the knife fixing bolt to the point of contact of a knife and stem, which provides minimal impact load on the knife fixing bolt during cutting woody shrubs. We have also developed a mathematical model of the process of cutting shrubs by a multi-rotor mover with trapezoidal knives, and methods of determination of the main parameters and regimes of work of the mower cutting apparatus for cutting shrubs at melioration objects, which contain a monogram, based on the use of theoretical-experimental dependences.

Parole chiave

  • multi-rotor mower
  • woody shrubs
  • trapezoidal knives
  • melioration objects
  • cutting
  • efficiency
Accesso libero

Analysis of Performance of Timber Harvesting With the Use of Highlander Harvester

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 73 - 82

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the work performance analysis of timber harvesting with the use of Highlander harvester produced by KONRAD Forsttechnik GmbH. The analysis was performed based on the timing of the working day. We also assessed the organization of the machine operation in the research area and its functional capability. The study was conducted in Miçdzylesie Forest Department, Nowu Wieś Forestry in fresh mixed mountain forest, where the machine acquired spruce. Timing was perfonned based on the registration of the machine operation on a video camera and the measurements of collected assortment. Based on the results of measurements it was found that organization of the machine operation was not the best. A one-shift work system and short duration of a shift caused that the effective working time occupied only 67.9% of the shift time (about 4 hours). This resulted in reduction of the operating perfonnance on a working day which was only 12,7 m3·h−1, while an effective high-efficiency was 18.7 m3·h−1.

Parole chiave

  • timber harvesting
  • work performance
  • harvester
Accesso libero

Methodical Aspects of Determination of Parameters Which Characterize Thermal Balance of a Plastic Tunnel

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 83 - 93

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents methodology of measuring the values which characterize the thermal balance in a horticultural facility. Thermal transmittance through a plastic tunnel cover and the ratio of solar radiation energy conversion into heat were analysed in detail. The research was carried out in real time with closed ventilators, where no plants were cultivated during the tests. The utility surface area was 144 m2, the cover was 289 m2 and its volume was 508 m3. Basing on the standard relations, first of all, thermal transmittance through a cover was measured. The ratio was measured with the use of standard criteria equations. Then, a correlation equation, which makes its course dependent on the climate parameters (the wind speed and temperature difference between the interior of the facility and its surroundings), was found. Knowing the course of the ratio in the function of the climate parameters, the value of the ratio of solar radiation conversion into heat stored in the facility was measured. Both parameters (thermal transmittance and solar radiation conversion ratios) were calculated from the thermal balance equaition where the change of the energy stored inside the facility was compared to the heat losses through a cover (for thenual transmittance) and the profit (in case of solar radiation conversion). For the obtained values, using the non-linear estimation procedure (with quasi-Newtom method with maintenance of the correlation coefficient of 0.001) the change of both ratios in the function of easily measured parameters of climate inside and outside the facility was found out. In the investigated conditions, the average value of thermal transmittance through a cover was 5.32 W·m−2·K−1, and the solar radiation conversion into heat was 0.36. The values and their course from the climate parameters inside and outside the facility may be used for controlling the amount of supplied heat and location of ventilators.

Parole chiave

  • plastic tunnel
  • ratio of thermal transmittance
  • coefficient of solar radiation
  • conversion into heat
Accesso libero

Modelling of an Actuator in the Vacuum Control System of an Autonomous Milking Machine

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 95 - 104

Astratto

Abstract

Design intents for an actuator of the suction pressure control system in an autonomous milking machine were presented. For determination of its dynamic properties step characteristic was taken. The considered object was described with transmittance and thermodynamic models. Models were identified and their parameters were adjusted. Computer simulation was carried out in MATLAB®-Simulink. Analysis of research results proved that the thermodynamic model allows more detailed reflection of dynamic characteristic of the real object. Its degree of imperfections is 0.99%. For the transmittance model a degree of imperfection with the value of 2.02% was obtained.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • autonomous milking machine
  • control
  • simulation model
Accesso libero

Cluster With Flo-Star Max Claw With Crossing Milk Connection Pipes

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 105 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

Improvement of mechanical milking in the aspect of cow's udder health and maintaining correct milking parameters is possible through e.g. constant improvement of the structure of clusters. A cluster with a specific claw with crossing milk connection pipes Flo-Star Max with liners with a round profile of the barrel of DK1X. The objective of the paper was to analyse usefulness of this type of the sitructure of the machine for mechanical milking of cows. Measurements of simulated milking were carried out in a laboratory to the upper milking pipeline at variable mass intensity of liquid flow within 0-8 kg·min−1, for four penetrations of artificial teats of 100, 75, 62, 50 mm at the systemic negative pressure values within 50 to 44 kPa, simultaneous and alternating pulsation and during real milking of cows in a cowshed. Using a multivariate analysis of variance, the impact of independent variables of an experiment on the values of average vacuum of suction, vacuum fluctuations in cycle, average drop of vacuum in a cycle were proved. Analysis of the machine operation in a milking parallel parlour in real mechanical milking conditions and difficulties in placing a machine on the cow's udder as well as violent milk flow were reported and the milk flow of 3.5 kg·min−1 was exceeded with its characteristic balancing in the rhythm of a pulsator.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • cluster
  • milking parameters
Accesso libero

Impact of the Temperature of Waste Biomass Py-Rolysis on the Quality of the Obtained Biochar

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 115 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

Combustion and co-combustion of biomass from different sources is one of the most popular technologies applied in Poland. It allows management of numerous industrial, communal and agricultural waste. Organic waste constitutes one of the richest sources of cheap biomass solid fuels since they are very popular. The paper includes an assessment of practical use of biomass waste: hazelnut shell and pistachio nut shell. The impact of pyrolysis temperature (300, 450 and 550°C) of the investigated biomass on the quality of the obtained biochar was determined and the optimal temperature of this process was defined. The quality of the investigated biomass was analysed on account of its use for energy purposes. Numerous advantageous properties of the obtained materials were found out, for instance: low content of ash and a noticeable increase of the calorific value with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature.

Parole chiave

  • biomass
  • nutshell
  • pyrolysis
  • calorific value
Accesso libero

Assessment of the Logistic System of Fuel Life Cycle Using the LCA Method

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 125 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the logistic system of fuel life cycle, covering diesel oil and the mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio), using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. This method is a technique in the field of management processes with a view to assessing the potential environmental hazards. Our intention was to compare the energy consumption needed to produce each of the test fuels and emissions of selected substances generated during ithe production process. The study involved 10,000 liters of diesel and the same amount of rapeseed oil and butanol mixture (2:3 ratio). On the basis of measurements the following results were obtained. To produce a functional unit of diesel oil (i.e. 10,000 liters) it is necessary to extract 58.8 m3 of crude oil. The entire life cycle covering the consumption of 10,000 liters of diesel consumes 475.668 GJ of energy and causes the emission to air of the following substances: 235.376 kg of COx, 944.921 kg of NOx, 83.287 kg of SOx. In the ease of a functional unit, to produce a mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio) 10,000 kg of rapeseed and 20,350 kg of straw should be used. The entire life cycle of 10,000 liters of a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio) absorbs 370.616 GJ of energy, while emitting the following air pollutants: 105.14832 kg of COx, 920.03124 kg of NOx, 0.162 kg of SOx. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion that it is oil refining which is the most energy-intensive and polluting process in the life cycle of diesel. The process consumes 41.4 GJ of energy, and causes a significant emission of sulfur oxides (50 kg). In the production of fuel that is a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio), rape production is the most energy-intensive manufacturing process is (absorbs 53.856 GJ of energy). This is due to the long operation time of the farm tractor and combine harvester. The operation of these machines leads also to the emission of a significant amount of pollution in the form of COx (2.664 kg) and NOx (23.31 kg).

Parole chiave

  • life cycle
  • logistic system
  • LCA method
  • environmental hazards
Accesso libero

Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Under Reduced Pressure Conditions

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of reduced pressure on the osmotic dehydration of apples. Tests were performed under vacuum of 8 kPa, 67 kPa, 80 kPa and under the atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). The samples were dehydrated in a sucrose solution with a concentration of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx. It has been shown that the effect of low pressure application depends significantly to the concentration of the osmotic solution. It has been found that the overall weight change significantly depend on the concentration of the solution, and after 3 hours of dehydration at a pressure of 80 kPa at solutions of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx total weight loss increased by 65%, 12% and 25% respectively, when compared to samples dehydrated at atmospheric pressure. From the studied variants of reduced pressure, the pressure of 80 kPa seems to be the optimal one, as evidenced by the lowest values of weight gain to water loss ratios for apples dehydrated in solutions of 50°Bx and 70°Bx.

Parole chiave

  • osmotic dehydration
  • reduced pressure
  • fruit
  • apple
  • sucrose
Accesso libero

Windrow Scarifier for Rotary Mower

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 145 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

In order to accelerate the process of drying of grass mowed for hay and haylage there are numerous technological treatments: multiple tedding, raking in rolls and turning rolls, mechanical impact on green forage in the process of mowing by the use of presses and windrow scarifiers. Presently mechanical maceration of green forage with mowing is popular. Papilionaceous feed plants are subjected to windrow presses and graminacenous plants to beating working systems. Analysis of various devices for acceleration of the drying process of green forage proves that they are quite complex and expensive on account of considerable material consumption. In order to eliminate the faults in the Russian Scientific and Research Fodder Institute of Wiliams a completely different windrow scarifier for the rotary mower KR-2.4 M was developed. It has a simple structure and it serves for acceleration of field drying of mowed grass in loose rolls. The paper presents the results of the research on a mower with an experimental windrow scarifier

Parole chiave

  • rotary mower
  • windrow scarifier
  • drums
  • screw areas
  • research
Accesso libero

The Sowing Value of Tansy Phacelia (Phacelia Tanacetifolia Benth.) Seeds in the Long-Term Storage

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 153 - 159

Astratto

Abstract

In 2010 the experiment, which aim was to examine the sowing value of tansy phacelia seeds after eight and nine years of storage, was conducted in the laboratory of the Academy of Agrobusiness in Łomża. The experiment clearly demonstrates that the period of storage of tansy phacelia seeds has an essential impact on the changes of basic parameters of the sowing value. Vetrovska variety had the highest seed germinability among the other varieties of tansy phacelia which were stored for 8 years. At the same time this variety had the highest decrease in seed germinability after 9 years of storage. During the 9-year storage Natra variety showed the highest decrease in thousand seeds weight despite the highest value of this parameter among all the tested varieties immediately after yielding. The results; of the experiment allowed for the conclusion that the economic life: cycle of tansy phacelia seeds is 8 years.

Parole chiave

  • tansy phacelia
  • long-term storage
  • sowing value
Accesso libero

Analysis of Assumptions of the Environment Management System Implementation for the Selected Undertaking in Waste Management

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the concept of the environmental management system. Moreover, organization frames of the undertaking related to eco-transport of waste were determined. Elements of the environmental management were characterized including the environmental aspect. They were subjected to interpretation in terms of reduction of the impact on the environment. In the context of constant improvement, the attention was paid to the influence of the analysed organization of its environmental activity. The objective of the paper is the analysis of assumptions which follow from the ISO 14001 standard including arrangement of the eco-transport of waste.

Parole chiave

  • transport of waste
  • environmental management system
  • ISO 14001 standard
Accesso libero

Analysis of Technical Assumptions of Selection of Elements of a Landfill Site on the Municipal Area

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 171 - 182

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents environmental conditions for the selected location of a landfill site on the area of Stary Sącz designated for deposing neutral waste from the installation for secondary segregation of waste. Based on the productivity of the selected municipal waste parameters of accumulation indicators were detennined strictly correlated with the amount of waste predicted for disposal. Components of the facility were selected including the requirements of the resolution as of 30th April 2013 on landfill sites (Journal of Laws 2013 item 523) for application of solutions for protection of water, soil and atmospheric air environment in its surroundings against the negative impact of waste. The paper also refers to the final stage related to closing of a landfill with the assumed plan of its reclamation. The article was summed up with conclusions indicating the limited possibility of location of such a facility on the selected area on account of its location close to Poprad River and on the area of the Main Reservoir of Underground Water. The objective of the paper was to make an attempt to choose components of the installation for neutralization of waste in Stary Sącz taking into account the local environmental conditions.

Parole chiave

  • municipal waste
  • landfill site
  • depositing
Accesso libero

Image Analysis in Wood Testing - Selected Examples

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 183 - 195

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is a review article which presents examples of application of the image analysis in wood testing. The objective of the paper was to present selected research methods with the use of image analysis used in the research on anatomy and macro-structure of wood carried out in the Department of Forest and Wood Utilization of the Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. In the part concerning research on wood anatomy the following areas of application of the image analysis were indicated: identification of wood species and variability of the selected parameters of the anatomic structure with special attention to coniferous trees. In the part concerning the research on macro-structure of wood, methodology of collection and preparation of wood samples and measurement of the most important properties of the macrostructure was described with the use of the image analysis program. Moreover, the selected areas of practical application of the results of such analysis were indicated.

Parole chiave

  • anatomy and macro-structure of wood
  • image analysis
Accesso libero

Impact of the System of Air Supply to a Milking Unit on Selected Parameters of Milking Machine Operation

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 195 - 205

Astratto

Abstract

Air is supplied to a milking machine installation most usually in a constant manner by supply of a small amount of air to a milking chamber of a claw or periodically to a connection pipe of a liner, which enables milk outflow to a milking pipe and improves stabilization of vacuum and limits its fluctuations. On the market of milking machines there is a new solution in the form of mouthpiece vented liners - impulseair®, where air is supplied constantly by a calibrated nozzle in the head of a liner. The objective of the paper was to analyse and assess the selected parameters of milking determined in a milking machine with a claw with fixed volume of a milking chamber (250 cm3) with mouthpiece vented liners in comparison to other solutions used for air supply in milking machines. Measurements were carried out in laboratory conditions with milking to the upper milk pipeline, at variable mass intensities of liquid flow (within 0-8 kg·min−1), for three penetrations of artificial teats (46, 48, 62 mm), at three values of the system vacuum (46, 48 and 50 kPa). A significant impact of the manner of air supply to a milking machine and remaining independent variables of an experiment on the selected milking parameters was proved with the use of a statistical analysis. It was found that a milking unit with mouthpiece vented liners, although it reduces average vacuum of suction [pss], at the same time it limits fluctuations of underpressure in the dp cycle.

Parole chiave

  • machine milking
  • milking machine
  • milking parameters
  • vented gums
Accesso libero

Application of Hyperspectral Imaging for Cultivar Discrimination of Malting Barley Grains

Pubblicato online: 17 Oct 2016
Pagine: 207 - 217

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform and evaluate the accuracy of classification of grains of different cultivars of malting barley. The grains of eight cultivars: Blask, Bor do, Con chita, Kormoran, Mercada, Serwal, Signora, Victoriana, with three moisture content: 12, 14, 16% were examined. The selected parameters of the surface texture of grain mass obtained from images taken using the techniques of hyperspectral imaging were determined. The accuracy of grains discrimination carried out using different methods of selection and classification of data was compared. The pairwise comparison and comparison of three, four and eight cultivars of malting barley were carried out. The most accurate discrimination was determined in the case of the pairwise comparison. Victoriana cultivar was the most different from the others. The most similar texture of grain mass was found in the comparison of cultivars: Blask and Mercada. In the case of eight examined cultivars of malting barley, the most accurate discrimination (classification error – 55%) was obtained for images taken at the moisture content of 14% and at a wavelength of 750 nm, for the attributes selection performed with the use of probability of error and average correlation coefficient (POE+ACC) method and the discrimination carried out using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

Parole chiave

  • spring malting barley
  • grain mass
  • attributes selection
  • multidimensional analysis
  • classification error

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo