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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-4799
Pubblicato per la prima volta
23 Sep 2008
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-4799
Pubblicato per la prima volta
23 Sep 2008
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Temper Bead Welding of S460N Steel in Wet Welding Conditions

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Wet welding is the most common method of welding in water environment. It is most often used for repairing of underwater parts of offshore structures. However, the water as a welding environment causes an increase of susceptibility of steels to cold cracking. For underwater constructions high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are widely used. In wet welding condition a HSLA steel is characterized by high susceptibility to cold cracking. Temper Bead Welding (TBW) was chosen as a method to improve the weldability of S460N steel. The studies showed that TBW technique causes significant decrease of maximum hardness of heat affected zone (HAZ). The largest decrease in hardness occurred in specimens with the pitches in range 66-100%.

Parole chiave

  • temper bead welding
  • underwater welding
  • covered electrodes
  • weldability
  • cold cracking
Accesso libero

Cutting Capacity and Wear Resistance of Cr2O3-AlN Nanocomposite Ceramic Obtained by Field Activated Sintering Technique (Fast)

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 15 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

Chromium oxide ceramics may be considered as a new generation of ceramic materials for cutting tools with considerably improved high speed cutting performance. The present work is focused on the development of Cr2O3 nanocomposite materials fabricated with the Field Activated Sintering Technique (FAST). The main objective of the proposed work is to study the influence of electric field on the densification process during FAST sintering of the materials in the Cr2O3-AlN system with nanosize microstructure. Additional objectives are to characterize mechanical properties of the obtained Cr2O3 ceramics. The work aimed to develop composite materials based on Cr2O3-based nanoparticles for cutting, then to check their cutting properties and to work out the recommendations for their use for processing of various materials, accordingly.

Parole chiave

  • nanocomposite ceramic
  • cutting capacity
  • wear
Accesso libero

Temporary Stability of Compressive Strength of Flow and Universal Type LC PMCCS Materials

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 22 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

This paper reports the results of compressive strength and elasticity studies of light-cured polymer matrix ceramic composites (LC PMCCs). The main purpose was to obtain new data on experimental composites and compare them with commercial composites from the world’s leading manufacturer. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the content of reinforcing components in the composites studied and the stability of their strength in time, expressed as the number of fatigue thermal cycles.

Parole chiave

  • light-cured polymer matrix ceramic composites (LC PMCCs)
  • compressive strength
  • linear regression
Accesso libero

Evaluation of Microstructure and Selected Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded S690QL High-Strength Steel

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 34 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of microstructure and mechanical properties investigation of laser beam welded high-strength steel. Material for test was non-alloyed steel with yield strength of 690 MPa after quenching and tempering in delivery condition. Research carried out on the butt-welded joints shows fine-grain martensitic-bainitic structure of base metal and in the weld. Investigations of mechanical properties revealed the softened zone in HAZ where the hardness decrease without microstructural changes was observed. Moreover, an influence of softened zone and HAZ width on impact strength was observed where the occurrence of lower hardness led to fracture path deviation phenomenon.

Parole chiave

  • high-strength steel
  • microstructure
  • laser welding
Accesso libero

The effect of shot peening on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy made by DMLS

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 43 - 54

Astratto

Abstract

Additive Manufacturing processes are being used increasingly in the scope of medicine and dentistry. As indicated by literature data, the durability and quality of medical implants is decisively influenced by surface modification. Insufficient quality of surface finishing leads, among others, to reduced service life of applied implants and to increased number of necessary revision surgeries. Furthermore, various types of finishing processes e.g. cleaning, shot peening or abrasive techniques are suggested by the manufacturers of products made by means of DMLS processes. Due to this fact, the analysis of proper formation of the surface layer of titanium products made by means of the method consisting in the direct laser sintering of metal powders (DMLS) was the subject matter of our research. Therefore, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been used for tests. The samples have been produced by means of EOSINT M280 system dedicated for laser sintering of metal powders. The surfaces of prepared samples have been subjected to shot peening process at three different values of working pressure (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 MPa) by means of three different working media i.e. CrNi steel shot, crushed nut shells and ceramic balls. The characteristics of the materials used for shot peening process have been determined by means of Zeiss Ultra Plus scanning electron microscope. The samples have been subjected to profilometric measurements on Bruker Contour GT optical profilometer and the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in Ringer solution has been determined in electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements by means of Atlas 0531 set dedicated for corrosion testing. The overall results of all tests indicate to favourable influence of the shot peening process on the corrosion behaviour of titanium alloy.

Parole chiave

  • Additive Manufacturing
  • titanium
  • shot peening
  • corrosion behaviour
Accesso libero

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Acrylic Acid)/Organo-Modified Nanohydroxyapatite Nanocomposites: Thermal, Optical and Biocompatibility Properties

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 54 - 67

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the structural, thermal, optical and biocompatibility properties of poly(acrylic acid)(PAA)/organo-modified nanohydroxyapatite (OM-nHAp) nanocomposites synthesized by solvent intercalation method. The characterization of PAA/OM-nHAp nanocomposites was made by different techniques. SEM and TEM results showed that OM-nHAp particles were dispersed in the nanoscale into PAA matrix and that they were uniformly distributed within film. Glass transition temperature of PAA increased with OM-nHAp content. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance experiments showed that PAA had a higher UV transmission than its nanocomposites. The biocompatibility of nanocomposites was also examined in simulated body fluid.

Parole chiave

  • Organo-modified nanohydroxyapatite
  • poly(acrylic acid)
  • nanocomposite
  • characterization
  • biocompatibility
Accesso libero

SEM, EDS, and XPS Characterization of Coatings Obtained on Titanium During AC Plasma Electrolytic Process Enriched in Magnesium

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 68 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) known also as Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO) process is widely used to fabricate porous coatings on titanium and its alloys mainly in water- and acid-based solutions to different applications, e.g. in biomaterials, catalysts, and sensors. In the present paper, the SEM, EDS, and XPS results of porous coatings obtained by PEO treatment on titanium in electrolytes based on concentrated phosphoric H3PO4 acid with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, or magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO3)2·6H2O, or zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2·6H2O for 3 minutes at 200 Vpp (peak to peak) with frequency of 50 Hz, are presented. Based on EDS results, the Ca/P, Mg/P, and Zn/P ratios, which equal to 0.95, 0.176, and 0.231, respectively, were found out. The XPS studies of the top 10 nm of the porous layer clearly indicate that it contains mainly phosphates (PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4, and/or P2O74−) with titanium (Ti4+) and calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+), or zinc (Zn2+).

Parole chiave

  • Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)
  • Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)
  • CP Titanium Grade 2
  • calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO)·4HO
  • magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO)·6HO
  • zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO)·6HO
Accesso libero

Optimization of Hydroxyapatite Synthesis and Microplasma Spraying of Porous Coatings Onto Titanium Implants

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 79 - 94

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the main results of development and optimization of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and the application of the micro-plasma spraying technique for biocompatible coatings. The hydroxyapatite synthesis was optimized using the mathematical modelling method. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis for assessment of the compatibility of the chemical and phase composition to the bone tissue. The Ca/P ratio of the obtained hydroxyapatite was 1.65, which is close to that of bone tissue (1.67). To increase the adhesion strength of the HA coating to the surface of the titanium implant, it was suggested to apply a titanium sublayer to the implant surface. Microplasma spraying (MPS) of biocompatible coatings from titanium wires and synthesized HA powders onto substrates made of medical titanium alloy has been carried out. Microplasmatron MPN-004 is used to obtain the two-layer coatings for titanium implants. The two layer coating includes a sub-layer of a porous titanium coating with a thickness in range from 200 up to 300 μm and the porosity level of about 30%, and an upper layer of HA about 100 μm thick with 95% level of HA phases and 93% level of crystallinity. The pore size varies from 20 to 100 μm in both coatings. The paper describes the technology and modes of microplasma deposition of two-layer coatings, including the mode of gas-abrasive treatment of the surface of implants made of titanium alloy before spraying. The synthesized HA powder and the Ti/HA coatings were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with the energy dispersion analysis and the X-ray diffraction analysis.

Parole chiave

  • hydroxyapatite (HA)
  • titanium
  • porous biocompatible coating
  • microplasma spraying (MPS)
Accesso libero

Thermal Barrier Coatings Manufactured by Suspension Plasma Spraying - A Review

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 95 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is one of the most intensively studied of coatings’ applications area. From 1970’s TBC are developed in two independent ways: (i) development in new materials, with lower thermal conductivity, better erosion resistance and better thermal shock resistance or (ii) development in new deposition techniques. On this field besides conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and almost conventional (because of very common use) EB-PVD method, in the past 20 years two new techniques have been developed, namely suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). In this paper only SPS method was described, as well as, new materials, which could be used in industrial applications of TBC. Moreover, the key issues, like suspension preparation, type of suspension injection, interaction between liquid droplets and plasma jet and deposition mechanism were described.

Parole chiave

  • suspension plasma spraying
  • thermal barrier coatings
  • microstructure
  • deposition mechanism
  • thermal conductivity
9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Temper Bead Welding of S460N Steel in Wet Welding Conditions

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Wet welding is the most common method of welding in water environment. It is most often used for repairing of underwater parts of offshore structures. However, the water as a welding environment causes an increase of susceptibility of steels to cold cracking. For underwater constructions high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are widely used. In wet welding condition a HSLA steel is characterized by high susceptibility to cold cracking. Temper Bead Welding (TBW) was chosen as a method to improve the weldability of S460N steel. The studies showed that TBW technique causes significant decrease of maximum hardness of heat affected zone (HAZ). The largest decrease in hardness occurred in specimens with the pitches in range 66-100%.

Parole chiave

  • temper bead welding
  • underwater welding
  • covered electrodes
  • weldability
  • cold cracking
Accesso libero

Cutting Capacity and Wear Resistance of Cr2O3-AlN Nanocomposite Ceramic Obtained by Field Activated Sintering Technique (Fast)

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 15 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

Chromium oxide ceramics may be considered as a new generation of ceramic materials for cutting tools with considerably improved high speed cutting performance. The present work is focused on the development of Cr2O3 nanocomposite materials fabricated with the Field Activated Sintering Technique (FAST). The main objective of the proposed work is to study the influence of electric field on the densification process during FAST sintering of the materials in the Cr2O3-AlN system with nanosize microstructure. Additional objectives are to characterize mechanical properties of the obtained Cr2O3 ceramics. The work aimed to develop composite materials based on Cr2O3-based nanoparticles for cutting, then to check their cutting properties and to work out the recommendations for their use for processing of various materials, accordingly.

Parole chiave

  • nanocomposite ceramic
  • cutting capacity
  • wear
Accesso libero

Temporary Stability of Compressive Strength of Flow and Universal Type LC PMCCS Materials

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 22 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

This paper reports the results of compressive strength and elasticity studies of light-cured polymer matrix ceramic composites (LC PMCCs). The main purpose was to obtain new data on experimental composites and compare them with commercial composites from the world’s leading manufacturer. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the content of reinforcing components in the composites studied and the stability of their strength in time, expressed as the number of fatigue thermal cycles.

Parole chiave

  • light-cured polymer matrix ceramic composites (LC PMCCs)
  • compressive strength
  • linear regression
Accesso libero

Evaluation of Microstructure and Selected Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded S690QL High-Strength Steel

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 34 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of microstructure and mechanical properties investigation of laser beam welded high-strength steel. Material for test was non-alloyed steel with yield strength of 690 MPa after quenching and tempering in delivery condition. Research carried out on the butt-welded joints shows fine-grain martensitic-bainitic structure of base metal and in the weld. Investigations of mechanical properties revealed the softened zone in HAZ where the hardness decrease without microstructural changes was observed. Moreover, an influence of softened zone and HAZ width on impact strength was observed where the occurrence of lower hardness led to fracture path deviation phenomenon.

Parole chiave

  • high-strength steel
  • microstructure
  • laser welding
Accesso libero

The effect of shot peening on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy made by DMLS

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 43 - 54

Astratto

Abstract

Additive Manufacturing processes are being used increasingly in the scope of medicine and dentistry. As indicated by literature data, the durability and quality of medical implants is decisively influenced by surface modification. Insufficient quality of surface finishing leads, among others, to reduced service life of applied implants and to increased number of necessary revision surgeries. Furthermore, various types of finishing processes e.g. cleaning, shot peening or abrasive techniques are suggested by the manufacturers of products made by means of DMLS processes. Due to this fact, the analysis of proper formation of the surface layer of titanium products made by means of the method consisting in the direct laser sintering of metal powders (DMLS) was the subject matter of our research. Therefore, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been used for tests. The samples have been produced by means of EOSINT M280 system dedicated for laser sintering of metal powders. The surfaces of prepared samples have been subjected to shot peening process at three different values of working pressure (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 MPa) by means of three different working media i.e. CrNi steel shot, crushed nut shells and ceramic balls. The characteristics of the materials used for shot peening process have been determined by means of Zeiss Ultra Plus scanning electron microscope. The samples have been subjected to profilometric measurements on Bruker Contour GT optical profilometer and the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in Ringer solution has been determined in electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements by means of Atlas 0531 set dedicated for corrosion testing. The overall results of all tests indicate to favourable influence of the shot peening process on the corrosion behaviour of titanium alloy.

Parole chiave

  • Additive Manufacturing
  • titanium
  • shot peening
  • corrosion behaviour
Accesso libero

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Acrylic Acid)/Organo-Modified Nanohydroxyapatite Nanocomposites: Thermal, Optical and Biocompatibility Properties

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 54 - 67

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the structural, thermal, optical and biocompatibility properties of poly(acrylic acid)(PAA)/organo-modified nanohydroxyapatite (OM-nHAp) nanocomposites synthesized by solvent intercalation method. The characterization of PAA/OM-nHAp nanocomposites was made by different techniques. SEM and TEM results showed that OM-nHAp particles were dispersed in the nanoscale into PAA matrix and that they were uniformly distributed within film. Glass transition temperature of PAA increased with OM-nHAp content. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance experiments showed that PAA had a higher UV transmission than its nanocomposites. The biocompatibility of nanocomposites was also examined in simulated body fluid.

Parole chiave

  • Organo-modified nanohydroxyapatite
  • poly(acrylic acid)
  • nanocomposite
  • characterization
  • biocompatibility
Accesso libero

SEM, EDS, and XPS Characterization of Coatings Obtained on Titanium During AC Plasma Electrolytic Process Enriched in Magnesium

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 68 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) known also as Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO) process is widely used to fabricate porous coatings on titanium and its alloys mainly in water- and acid-based solutions to different applications, e.g. in biomaterials, catalysts, and sensors. In the present paper, the SEM, EDS, and XPS results of porous coatings obtained by PEO treatment on titanium in electrolytes based on concentrated phosphoric H3PO4 acid with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, or magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO3)2·6H2O, or zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2·6H2O for 3 minutes at 200 Vpp (peak to peak) with frequency of 50 Hz, are presented. Based on EDS results, the Ca/P, Mg/P, and Zn/P ratios, which equal to 0.95, 0.176, and 0.231, respectively, were found out. The XPS studies of the top 10 nm of the porous layer clearly indicate that it contains mainly phosphates (PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4, and/or P2O74−) with titanium (Ti4+) and calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+), or zinc (Zn2+).

Parole chiave

  • Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO)
  • Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)
  • CP Titanium Grade 2
  • calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO)·4HO
  • magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO)·6HO
  • zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO)·6HO
Accesso libero

Optimization of Hydroxyapatite Synthesis and Microplasma Spraying of Porous Coatings Onto Titanium Implants

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 79 - 94

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the main results of development and optimization of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and the application of the micro-plasma spraying technique for biocompatible coatings. The hydroxyapatite synthesis was optimized using the mathematical modelling method. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis for assessment of the compatibility of the chemical and phase composition to the bone tissue. The Ca/P ratio of the obtained hydroxyapatite was 1.65, which is close to that of bone tissue (1.67). To increase the adhesion strength of the HA coating to the surface of the titanium implant, it was suggested to apply a titanium sublayer to the implant surface. Microplasma spraying (MPS) of biocompatible coatings from titanium wires and synthesized HA powders onto substrates made of medical titanium alloy has been carried out. Microplasmatron MPN-004 is used to obtain the two-layer coatings for titanium implants. The two layer coating includes a sub-layer of a porous titanium coating with a thickness in range from 200 up to 300 μm and the porosity level of about 30%, and an upper layer of HA about 100 μm thick with 95% level of HA phases and 93% level of crystallinity. The pore size varies from 20 to 100 μm in both coatings. The paper describes the technology and modes of microplasma deposition of two-layer coatings, including the mode of gas-abrasive treatment of the surface of implants made of titanium alloy before spraying. The synthesized HA powder and the Ti/HA coatings were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with the energy dispersion analysis and the X-ray diffraction analysis.

Parole chiave

  • hydroxyapatite (HA)
  • titanium
  • porous biocompatible coating
  • microplasma spraying (MPS)
Accesso libero

Thermal Barrier Coatings Manufactured by Suspension Plasma Spraying - A Review

Pubblicato online: 29 Oct 2018
Pagine: 95 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is one of the most intensively studied of coatings’ applications area. From 1970’s TBC are developed in two independent ways: (i) development in new materials, with lower thermal conductivity, better erosion resistance and better thermal shock resistance or (ii) development in new deposition techniques. On this field besides conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and almost conventional (because of very common use) EB-PVD method, in the past 20 years two new techniques have been developed, namely suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). In this paper only SPS method was described, as well as, new materials, which could be used in industrial applications of TBC. Moreover, the key issues, like suspension preparation, type of suspension injection, interaction between liquid droplets and plasma jet and deposition mechanism were described.

Parole chiave

  • suspension plasma spraying
  • thermal barrier coatings
  • microstructure
  • deposition mechanism
  • thermal conductivity

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