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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1846-9558
Pubblicato per la prima volta
28 Feb 2007
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 67 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1846-9558
Pubblicato per la prima volta
28 Feb 2007
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

10 Articoli

Original research paper

Accesso libero

Biomimetic insulin-imprinted polymer nanoparticles as a potential oral drug delivery system

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 149 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, we investigate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which form a three-dimensional image of the region at and around the active binding sites of pharmaceutically active insulin or are analogous to b cells bound to insulin. This approach was employed to create a welldefined structure within the nanospace cavities that make up functional monomers by cross-linking. The obtained MIPs exhibited a high adsorption capacity for the target insulin, which showed a significantly higher release of insulin in solution at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. In vivo studies on diabetic Wistar rats showed that the fast onset within 2 h is similar to subcutaneous injection with a maximum at 4 h, giving an engaged function responsible for the duration of glucose reduction for up to 24 h. These MIPs, prepared as nanosized material, may open a new horizon for oral insulin delivery.

Parole chiave

  • molecularly imprinted polymers
  • insulin
  • nanoparticles
  • islet cells
  • oral drug delivery
Accesso libero

Quantitative analysis of povidone-iodine thin films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and their physicochemical properties

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 169 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been formulated as a topical spray to produce a thin film for the controlled release of I2. By means of experimental design, 27 formulations containing glycerol, ethanol, PEG 400, copovidone and HFA 134a as a propellant were prepared. The pH values of all formulations were in the range of 6-7. The viscosity was within the range of 11.9-85.9 mPa s. The surface tensions were 20.3 to 24.6 mN m-1 and the contact angles were between 19.3 and 38.7°. The assays for the iodine contents were within acceptable range (80-120 %). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the ionized form of iodine was much higher than the unionized form. The MIC and MBC values of the PVP-I sprays against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were higher than that of commercial PVP-I solution. The cytotoxicity study confirmed that the PVP-I spray had lower toxic effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to the commercial PVP-I solution. The formulation containing 59 % ethanol, 18 % copovidone and 12 % PEG 400 showed good antibacterial activity.

Parole chiave

  • povidone-iodine
  • topical spray
  • bioactivity
  • cytotoxicity
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Accesso libero

Influence of concentration and type of microcrystalline cellulose on the physical properties of tablets containing Cornelian cherry fruits

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 187 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to find the optimal tablet composition with maximum content of dried fruits (Cornus mas L.). The effect of three different concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %) of two types of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101 and Avicel® PH 200) and three different compression pressures (20, 60 and 100 MPa) on the physical properties of tablet blends and tablets was studied. Tablets containing 50 % Avicel® PH 101 compressed under 100 MPa were found to have the best physical properties. This combination of composition and compression pressure resulted in stable tablets even after storage under accelerated stability conditions (6 months, 40 °C and 75 % RH).

Parole chiave

  • Cornus mas
  • microcrystalline cellulose
  • direct compression
  • accelerated stability
  • principal component analysis
Accesso libero

Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 203 - 213

Astratto

Abstract

HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5) and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %). Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

Parole chiave

  • monolithic silica column
  • fused core column
  • HPLC
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • analytical performance
Accesso libero

Effect of γ-ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL), anticonvulsant and hypnotic drug, on mouse brain catecholamine levels

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 215 - 226

Astratto

Abstract

γ-Ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL) is a structural combination of the anticonvulsant γ-hydroxy-γ-ethyl-γ-phenylbutyramide (HEPB) and the hypnotic γ-butyrolactone (GBL), which inherits both properties. To clarify its mechanism of action, the effects of EFBL, GBL and HEPB on dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) brain levels were investigated. Influences of chlorpromazine, phenelzine and aminooxyacetic acid were also studied. EFBL increased DA in a dose-dependent manner, remaining enhanced by 80 % over a period of 24 h and augmented NA by 54 % one hour after treatment. HEPB increased DA and NA approximately 2-fold after the first hour. GBL raised DA and NA after three and 24 h, resp. EFBL reversed chlorpromazine effects but potentiated those of phenelzine on DA. Amino-oxyacetic modified neither DA nor NA brain levels, not even in the presence of EFBL. The anticonvulsant and hypnotic properties of EFBL are attributed to its effect on presynaptic dopaminergic receptors and its lasting effect on ethyl and phenyl radicals that hinder its degradation. The results support the role of DA and NA in regulating seizure activity in the brain and indicate that EFBL offers a potential treatment for refractory epilepsy without complementary drugs and Parkinson’s disease, without the drawbacks of oral therapies.

Parole chiave

  • γ-ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL)
  • anticonvulsant
  • hypnotic
  • mouse brain
  • catecholamine
Accesso libero

Real-practice thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 227 - 236

Astratto

Abstract

This retrospective observational study was based on databases of the Local Health Authority of Treviso, Italy. It evaluated the prevalence and the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT) for the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in everyday clinical practice. Out of 6,138 NVAF patients, only 3,024 received vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Potential barriers decreasing the probability of being treated with VKA were female sex, older age, antiplatelet treatment and history of bleeding. In addition, VKA-treatment was not in line with current ESC and AIAC guidelines, since the patients at high or low risk of stroke were under- or over-treated, resp. Among VKAtreated patients, 73 % of subjects were not at target with anticoagulation. OAT resulted to be effective in reducing stroke risk. However, stroke events were significantly influenced also by previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, HR = 2.99, p < 0.001) and by previous bleeding events (HR = 1.60, p < 0.001).

Parole chiave

  • atrial fibrillation
  • thromboprophylaxis
  • realpractice
  • vitamin K antagonists
  • stroke risk

Short communication

Accesso libero

Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 237 - 246

Astratto

Abstract

Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM) and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash®) required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

Parole chiave

  • Ibuprofen DC 85TM
  • Ludiflash®
  • orodispersible
  • SeDeM
Accesso libero

Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 247 - 256

Astratto

Abstract

Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

Parole chiave

  • microemulsion
  • resveratrol
  • photostability
  • Ha-CaT cells
  • UVB
  • oxidative stress
Accesso libero

Porphyra-334, a mycosporine-like amino acid, attenuates UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 257 - 264

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the current research was to study the effect of porphyra-334, one of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), well known as UV-absorbing compounds, on UVinduced apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Due to their UV-screening capacity and ability to prevent UV-induced DNA damage, MAAs have recently attracted considerable attention in both industry and research in pharmacology. Herein, human HaCaT cells were used to determine the biological activities of porphyra- 334 by various in vitro assays, including proliferation, apoptosis and Western blot assays. The proliferation rate of UV-irradiated HaCaT cells was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Pretreatment with porphyra- 334 markedly attenuated the inhibitory effect of UV and induced a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate. Expression of active caspase-3 protein was increased in response to UV irradiation, while caspase-3 levels were similar between cells treated with porphyra-334 and the non-irradiated control group. Taken together, our data suggest that porphyra-334 inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.

Parole chiave

  • porphyra-334
  • apoptosis
  • cell proliferation
  • UV irradiation
  • HaCaT cells
Accesso libero

The bioguided fractionation and pharmacological activity of an endemic Salix canariensis species

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 265 - 273

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to confirm the wide traditional use of treating pain with Salix canariensis, an endemic species of the Macaronesian region. The active compounds were identified. Pharmacological activities were explored in experimental animals by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and Levy’s tests, and bioactive compounds were identified after a bio-guided fractionation of the most active organic extract. S. canariensis extract, orally administrated at different doses, led to a significant reduction in writhing, caused a moderate decrease of formalin-induced pain and revealed an excellent dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract suggested the possible presence of pentacyclic triterpenes from oleanane and ursane series. These findings allow the conclusion that S. canariensis exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, documenting its traditional use in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.

Parole chiave

  • Salix canariensis
  • analgesic activity
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • bioassay fractionation
  • pentacyclic triterpenes
  • ursanes
  • oleananes
10 Articoli

Original research paper

Accesso libero

Biomimetic insulin-imprinted polymer nanoparticles as a potential oral drug delivery system

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 149 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, we investigate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which form a three-dimensional image of the region at and around the active binding sites of pharmaceutically active insulin or are analogous to b cells bound to insulin. This approach was employed to create a welldefined structure within the nanospace cavities that make up functional monomers by cross-linking. The obtained MIPs exhibited a high adsorption capacity for the target insulin, which showed a significantly higher release of insulin in solution at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. In vivo studies on diabetic Wistar rats showed that the fast onset within 2 h is similar to subcutaneous injection with a maximum at 4 h, giving an engaged function responsible for the duration of glucose reduction for up to 24 h. These MIPs, prepared as nanosized material, may open a new horizon for oral insulin delivery.

Parole chiave

  • molecularly imprinted polymers
  • insulin
  • nanoparticles
  • islet cells
  • oral drug delivery
Accesso libero

Quantitative analysis of povidone-iodine thin films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and their physicochemical properties

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 169 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been formulated as a topical spray to produce a thin film for the controlled release of I2. By means of experimental design, 27 formulations containing glycerol, ethanol, PEG 400, copovidone and HFA 134a as a propellant were prepared. The pH values of all formulations were in the range of 6-7. The viscosity was within the range of 11.9-85.9 mPa s. The surface tensions were 20.3 to 24.6 mN m-1 and the contact angles were between 19.3 and 38.7°. The assays for the iodine contents were within acceptable range (80-120 %). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the ionized form of iodine was much higher than the unionized form. The MIC and MBC values of the PVP-I sprays against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were higher than that of commercial PVP-I solution. The cytotoxicity study confirmed that the PVP-I spray had lower toxic effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to the commercial PVP-I solution. The formulation containing 59 % ethanol, 18 % copovidone and 12 % PEG 400 showed good antibacterial activity.

Parole chiave

  • povidone-iodine
  • topical spray
  • bioactivity
  • cytotoxicity
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Accesso libero

Influence of concentration and type of microcrystalline cellulose on the physical properties of tablets containing Cornelian cherry fruits

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 187 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to find the optimal tablet composition with maximum content of dried fruits (Cornus mas L.). The effect of three different concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %) of two types of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101 and Avicel® PH 200) and three different compression pressures (20, 60 and 100 MPa) on the physical properties of tablet blends and tablets was studied. Tablets containing 50 % Avicel® PH 101 compressed under 100 MPa were found to have the best physical properties. This combination of composition and compression pressure resulted in stable tablets even after storage under accelerated stability conditions (6 months, 40 °C and 75 % RH).

Parole chiave

  • Cornus mas
  • microcrystalline cellulose
  • direct compression
  • accelerated stability
  • principal component analysis
Accesso libero

Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 203 - 213

Astratto

Abstract

HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5) and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %). Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

Parole chiave

  • monolithic silica column
  • fused core column
  • HPLC
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • analytical performance
Accesso libero

Effect of γ-ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL), anticonvulsant and hypnotic drug, on mouse brain catecholamine levels

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 215 - 226

Astratto

Abstract

γ-Ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL) is a structural combination of the anticonvulsant γ-hydroxy-γ-ethyl-γ-phenylbutyramide (HEPB) and the hypnotic γ-butyrolactone (GBL), which inherits both properties. To clarify its mechanism of action, the effects of EFBL, GBL and HEPB on dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) brain levels were investigated. Influences of chlorpromazine, phenelzine and aminooxyacetic acid were also studied. EFBL increased DA in a dose-dependent manner, remaining enhanced by 80 % over a period of 24 h and augmented NA by 54 % one hour after treatment. HEPB increased DA and NA approximately 2-fold after the first hour. GBL raised DA and NA after three and 24 h, resp. EFBL reversed chlorpromazine effects but potentiated those of phenelzine on DA. Amino-oxyacetic modified neither DA nor NA brain levels, not even in the presence of EFBL. The anticonvulsant and hypnotic properties of EFBL are attributed to its effect on presynaptic dopaminergic receptors and its lasting effect on ethyl and phenyl radicals that hinder its degradation. The results support the role of DA and NA in regulating seizure activity in the brain and indicate that EFBL offers a potential treatment for refractory epilepsy without complementary drugs and Parkinson’s disease, without the drawbacks of oral therapies.

Parole chiave

  • γ-ethyl-γ-phenyl-butyrolactone (EFBL)
  • anticonvulsant
  • hypnotic
  • mouse brain
  • catecholamine
Accesso libero

Real-practice thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 227 - 236

Astratto

Abstract

This retrospective observational study was based on databases of the Local Health Authority of Treviso, Italy. It evaluated the prevalence and the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT) for the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in everyday clinical practice. Out of 6,138 NVAF patients, only 3,024 received vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Potential barriers decreasing the probability of being treated with VKA were female sex, older age, antiplatelet treatment and history of bleeding. In addition, VKA-treatment was not in line with current ESC and AIAC guidelines, since the patients at high or low risk of stroke were under- or over-treated, resp. Among VKAtreated patients, 73 % of subjects were not at target with anticoagulation. OAT resulted to be effective in reducing stroke risk. However, stroke events were significantly influenced also by previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, HR = 2.99, p < 0.001) and by previous bleeding events (HR = 1.60, p < 0.001).

Parole chiave

  • atrial fibrillation
  • thromboprophylaxis
  • realpractice
  • vitamin K antagonists
  • stroke risk

Short communication

Accesso libero

Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 237 - 246

Astratto

Abstract

Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM) and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash®) required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

Parole chiave

  • Ibuprofen DC 85TM
  • Ludiflash®
  • orodispersible
  • SeDeM
Accesso libero

Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 247 - 256

Astratto

Abstract

Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

Parole chiave

  • microemulsion
  • resveratrol
  • photostability
  • Ha-CaT cells
  • UVB
  • oxidative stress
Accesso libero

Porphyra-334, a mycosporine-like amino acid, attenuates UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 257 - 264

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the current research was to study the effect of porphyra-334, one of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), well known as UV-absorbing compounds, on UVinduced apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Due to their UV-screening capacity and ability to prevent UV-induced DNA damage, MAAs have recently attracted considerable attention in both industry and research in pharmacology. Herein, human HaCaT cells were used to determine the biological activities of porphyra- 334 by various in vitro assays, including proliferation, apoptosis and Western blot assays. The proliferation rate of UV-irradiated HaCaT cells was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Pretreatment with porphyra- 334 markedly attenuated the inhibitory effect of UV and induced a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate. Expression of active caspase-3 protein was increased in response to UV irradiation, while caspase-3 levels were similar between cells treated with porphyra-334 and the non-irradiated control group. Taken together, our data suggest that porphyra-334 inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.

Parole chiave

  • porphyra-334
  • apoptosis
  • cell proliferation
  • UV irradiation
  • HaCaT cells
Accesso libero

The bioguided fractionation and pharmacological activity of an endemic Salix canariensis species

Pubblicato online: 01 Jun 2017
Pagine: 265 - 273

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to confirm the wide traditional use of treating pain with Salix canariensis, an endemic species of the Macaronesian region. The active compounds were identified. Pharmacological activities were explored in experimental animals by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and Levy’s tests, and bioactive compounds were identified after a bio-guided fractionation of the most active organic extract. S. canariensis extract, orally administrated at different doses, led to a significant reduction in writhing, caused a moderate decrease of formalin-induced pain and revealed an excellent dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract suggested the possible presence of pentacyclic triterpenes from oleanane and ursane series. These findings allow the conclusion that S. canariensis exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, documenting its traditional use in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.

Parole chiave

  • Salix canariensis
  • analgesic activity
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • bioassay fractionation
  • pentacyclic triterpenes
  • ursanes
  • oleananes

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