After the new crown epidemic outbreak in 2020, the market economy and social consumption level will inevitably be hit to a certain extent. The Hangzhou Municipal Government has formulated and implemented a series of policies to promote consumption and stimulate economic recovery to break this predicament. Among them, the “Consumption Vouchers” plan” is a means of focus. The issuing entity can divide consumer coupons into two categories: commercial and policy coupons. The meaning of retail coupons refers to the sales strategies issued by enterprises that are beneficial to their development, while relevant government agencies dominate the latter–a means of consumer coupons issued to solve and stimulate new trends in the economic market. According to the specific issuance situation, the policy coupons can be divided into two categories. According to relevant regulations, the number of consumer coupons within the specification will be issued to replace a small part of personal income. The second is to directly give consumer vouchers with a transfer payment nature to the market.
This article uses a simplified intertemporal consumption model to study the impact and role of the process of stimulating residents' consumption decisions utilizing consumer coupons. Before constructing the consumption model, it is assumed that there is a precondition that the consumer mainly needs to make decisions in two periods, namely current and future consumption. The former is carried out directly through the current consumer market, while the achievement of future consumption requires the participation of savings. Consumption vouchers are only used in conjunction with current consumption, regardless of the realization cost. The government has to pay an additional realization cost . Therefore, consumption vouchers may have a particular impact on the relative prices of the consumption parts of the two subjects in the model. Therefore, consumer coupons will specifically affect consumers' current and future consumption choices.
If the consumption planning of the real economy is carried out, it needs to be analyzed in two stages . The current consumption is
To ensure the establishment of this budget equation, a complete and efficient monetary and financial economy is required to participate
Considering the income disposition of individual consumers, disposable income cannot be fully monetized due to the nature of consumption activities. In other words, for individual consumers, a part of their income in addition to money exists as a proof of claim for purchasing goods or services. For this reason, coupons can play the same role as monetary value, budget, etc. The formula has changed . However, the scope of application of consumer coupons is not universal
This article examines the flexibility of coupon programs. Take advantage of a consumer coupon market that exists independently of the outside world. Under the means of consumer coupons, consumers can use the market to carry out cash payment activities. However, because the market liquidity of consumer coupons is relatively weak compared to currency, if you want to convert them into consumption later, you need to sell and resell consumer coupons in the secondary market and convert them into cash first. The value of the difference in the loss is regarded as the additional cost of enhancing market liquidity. Assuming the interest rate is zero, the budget line becomes:
Suppose the number of coupons
It is defined
If there is a situation where the proportion of saving propensity is too large, and consumption opinions are insufficient at this time, it means that consumers are more inclined to consume activities in the next period. For this situation, two quantitative features can be used to describe the utility function:
If the compensatory demand
The consumption and income growth curve in the next period is concave
If the compensatory demand
The consumption and income growth curve in the next period is concave
Two main factors cause the price level to fluctuate. The first is the “substitution effect” replaced by fixed-price items. The second is decreased real income due to rising prices . The additional cost of cashing out consumer vouchers will increase the price of consumers' savings assets, which will reduce the market consumer price and reduce the actual income of participants. In this new environment, the optimal consumption saving mode needs to consider the contrasting effects of the above two benefits. CDM decomposition of it:
Whether high or low, the overall effect
Considering the liquidity trap problem, it is assumed that the consumption level of consumers is stable. The stimulus effect of coupons is exploited most for this situation when all the extra money is spent on consumption in the next period. The price fluctuations in the consumer market in the next period will no longer affect the current income level.
The implementation of the consumption coupon stimulus plan will make the current consumption larger than the actual value
If the consumption potential is considerable
The second case of the voucher policy is that the government has developed a new means of transfer payment to issue vouchers to groups of consumers. We discussed the types of consumer coupons and the issuance method of currency and obtained a reasonable manner with the most apparent stimulation . the income of
The government transfers the payment to the consumer voucher
Relevant departments conducted consumer credential transfers. It specifies the unification of current purchases and the number of consumer goods purchased per day. At this point, the number of consumers that consumers can buy in the next period does not match the larger daily purchases. Because of the savings penalty, the actual price is required to use the coupon to purchase the savings product. If vouchers have a favorable impact on intertemporal allocation, the optimal current consumption needs to be exceeded. There are two cases:
Consumers have made intertemporal consumption decision
Consumers have implemented intertemporal consumption decisions. At this point the income has been allocated to
Consumers have made intertemporal consumption decision
Consumers have implemented intertemporal consumption decisions. At this point the income has been allocated to
If the consumption coupons are effective, the CDM formula explores the economic effect between the consumption coupons and income. The number of coupons is large. Consumer vouchers stimulate current economic consumption better than currency. This is even more pronounced when a liquidity trap occurs. The new optimal current consumption is satisfied when the coupon comes into play. At this time, it is necessary to formulate the timing of issuing consumer coupons reasonably
Assume that there are representative consumers with two income levels in the economy and society. Their disposable incomes are
It is assumed that the consumer groups in the market can be divided into two levels. For example, its disposable income is. Separate them into low-income and high-income earners. The similarity is that the same utility function describes them, and the optimal current consumption is selected respectively for their income characteristics. For no-flow traps, the optimal current consumption of both is. Suppose the number of coupons is sufficient. The low-income people will still have extra coupons after completing their consumption. In this case, the group will choose to resell the coupons in the secondary market; on the other hand, the high-income group will ultimately use the vouchers under the savings penalty. High-income groups can buy the remaining consumption coupons sold by low-income groups in the secondary market, which will help reduce the actual consumption amount and improve the utility. At this time, low-income groups will also accept savings penalties before they can sell consumer coupons to save. At this point, the budget constraint is broken. When the substitution and income effects work together, the current consumption level increases from an increase to an increase; on the other hand, the total amount of savings decreases. However, high-income groups buy excess coupons from the secondary market because their consumption plan is greater than the number of coupons. In addition, due to the combined effect of the two products, it will promote consumption and savings.
At this time, it is necessary to consider whether the role of high-income groups in using consumption coupons can supplement the consumption of low-income groups and improve the overall level of social well-being? Even if there is no mature theoretical support, it can be discussed. Implementing a coupon policy is non-neutral in use. Even if it increases the current total consumption, it can effectively improve the utility of high-income groups and reduce the utility of low-income groups. To sum up, if a correct valuation is carried out based on completing the issuance of valid consumer coupons and good secondary market liquidity, the average level of society will also decline.
On the other hand, the effect favors high-income earners and disfavors low-income groups is also incorrect. Different consumer coupon measures should be adopted for groups with varying income levels. Specific recommendations are as follows:
A non-transferable consumption coupon issuance plan should not be implemented, excluding extreme individual problems. Even if this approach is beneficial for stimulating the recovery of the real economy, it will adversely affect intertemporal distribution issues, which will reduce society's overall level of well-being. However, the implementation cost of registering consumer coupons is relatively high, and complete regulatory control is required. It is necessary to provide a complete and adequate secondary market for the resale of consumer coupons. At the same time, it is required to control the cost of “savings fines” and match the actual demand in real-time to prevent the influence of monopoly power on the economy. To break the liquidity price to maintain equilibrium. Compulsory management of consumer vouchers cannot be implemented. The market will have leftover coupons sold at a discount, with a savings penalty to remain valid. If compulsory consumption is prohibited in the secondary market, the transaction of consumer coupons will be conducted off-site. At this time, the effectiveness of the savings penalty will be increased, the public losses borne by consumers will also deepen, and the subsequent adverse effects on income will also adversely affect market consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a complete secondary market accordingly. Consequently, it can effectively manage illegal behaviors in the transaction of consumer coupons, and it will also reflect the respect for the standardized transaction activities of consumers. For high-income earners, the stimulus method of issuing consumer coupons within the scope to replace a small portion of income can be adopted. You can allocate more vouchers than the original consumption plan to achieve good results. Only then will intertemporal consumption decisions be effectively controlled. In addition, the program can make appropriate adjustments to the saving habits of high-income groups. In addition, they can trade coupons with low-income people, absorb savings penalties, and benefit from discounted purchases. While high-income earners lose some of their utility, low-income earners make up for it. Improve the overall well-being of society. When issuing coupons through transfer payment, it is necessary to investigate the income structure of market consumption. Usually follow the following principles: set a standard income level, and issue a set number of consumer coupons to groups below this standard. On the other hand, low-income groups trade excess coupons with high-income groups in the secondary market. Such trading activities can benefit both low-income and high-income groups through such trading activities. This promotes the average well-being of society and can also enhance the consumption vitality of the market. Fully carry out the technical design of consumer coupons to ensure market liquidity. Issuing local consumption coupons will not be the main reason for improving the consumption structure of consumers in the market. For example, if the low-income groups are provided with coupons limited to luxury consumption. Discount coupons on the secondary market to purchase planned items at that income level. This is equivalent to expanding the scope of punishment. Then the low-income group needs to bear the savings penalty and the consumption penalty simultaneously, which will weaken the utility level of this group.
A non-transferable consumption coupon issuance plan should not be implemented, excluding extreme individual problems. Even if this approach is beneficial for stimulating the recovery of the real economy, it will adversely affect intertemporal distribution issues, which will reduce society's overall level of well-being. However, the implementation cost of registering consumer coupons is relatively high, and complete regulatory control is required.
It is necessary to provide a complete and adequate secondary market for the resale of consumer coupons. At the same time, it is required to control the cost of “savings fines” and match the actual demand in real-time to prevent the influence of monopoly power on the economy. To break the liquidity price to maintain equilibrium. Compulsory management of consumer vouchers cannot be implemented. The market will have leftover coupons sold at a discount, with a savings penalty to remain valid. If compulsory consumption is prohibited in the secondary market, the transaction of consumer coupons will be conducted off-site. At this time, the effectiveness of the savings penalty will be increased, the public losses borne by consumers will also deepen, and the subsequent adverse effects on income will also adversely affect market consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a complete secondary market accordingly. Consequently, it can effectively manage illegal behaviors in the transaction of consumer coupons, and it will also reflect the respect for the standardized transaction activities of consumers.
For high-income earners, the stimulus method of issuing consumer coupons within the scope to replace a small portion of income can be adopted. You can allocate more vouchers than the original consumption plan to achieve good results. Only then will intertemporal consumption decisions be effectively controlled. In addition, the program can make appropriate adjustments to the saving habits of high-income groups. In addition, they can trade coupons with low-income people, absorb savings penalties, and benefit from discounted purchases. While high-income earners lose some of their utility, low-income earners make up for it. Improve the overall well-being of society.
When issuing coupons through transfer payment, it is necessary to investigate the income structure of market consumption. Usually follow the following principles: set a standard income level, and issue a set number of consumer coupons to groups below this standard. On the other hand, low-income groups trade excess coupons with high-income groups in the secondary market. Such trading activities can benefit both low-income and high-income groups through such trading activities. This promotes the average well-being of society and can also enhance the consumption vitality of the market.
Fully carry out the technical design of consumer coupons to ensure market liquidity. Issuing local consumption coupons will not be the main reason for improving the consumption structure of consumers in the market. For example, if the low-income groups are provided with coupons limited to luxury consumption. Discount coupons on the secondary market to purchase planned items at that income level. This is equivalent to expanding the scope of punishment. Then the low-income group needs to bear the savings penalty and the consumption penalty simultaneously, which will weaken the utility level of this group.
What needs to be considered is, will consumer coupons have a more significant impact on market price levels? Using a simulated mathematical function tool for analysis, if the number of consumer coupons issued is greater than the consumer's plan, there will be a “savings penalty.” At this time, consumer coupons can stimulate the demand for consumption to a certain extent. In the short term, the inelastic supply of bulk commodities will cause prices to fluctuate if there is a surplus of goods or a shortage of consumption. At this time, consumer coupons may not ultimately cause price fluctuations. Due to the price law of the market, there is often a “small profit but quick turnover” promotion, which reduces the average price level. Therefore, in this economic situation, the consumer coupon program will not have strong fluctuations in the price level. If prices fluctuate, coupons can provide market improvement for deflationary conditions.
For the problem of intertemporal consumption decision-making, if consumers choose to consume in the next period, then consumers will choose to carry out savings transactions. When the utility function is reflected in the concave of the income expansion curve, it will make the stock market price fluctuate, which will have a strong stimulating effect on the current consumption transaction. Based on this research theory, all aspects of income in the consumer coupon program will play a specific role in the current consumer transaction. The characteristic of consumer coupons is that they only cash out the total value of the current consumer market. If you try to convert it into future consumption, you can trade consumer coupons in the secondary market. Known as the “rescue penalty,” it is up to the seller of the voucher to bear the additional cost that must be spent to obtain this liquidity. It also increases the price level of future consumer goods to some extent. Combined with the utility function of preference saving, it is found that this operation can increase current consumption but reduce future consumption. The party bearing the “saving penalty” will exhibit a lower level of utility. Voucher programs can be beneficial to current consumption if the savings needs of the program are not fully realized. It will reduce society's overall well-being and reflect the non-neutrality of the policy in the income structure.
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Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups The internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H2-N2 atmosphere Algorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model