- Journal Details
- First Published
- 01 Oct 2009
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Does Porcine Oocytes Maturation in Vitro is Regulated by Genes Involved in Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor Signaling Pathway?
Page range: 1 - 14
The oocyte growth and development in follicular environment are substantially accompanied by surrounding somatic cumulus (CCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). During these processes, the mammalian gametes reach full maturational stage and may be further successfully fertilized by single spermatozoon. These unique mechanisms are regulated by expression of clusters of genes and their biochemical signaling pathways.
In this article we described differential expression pattern of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) gene superfamily in porcine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM).
We performed Affymetrix® microarray assays to investigate the TGFB-related genes expression profile in porcine immature oocytes and gametes cultured for 44h in vitro.
In results we found 419 different genes, 379 genes with lower expression, and 40 genes characterized by increased RNA profile. Moreover, significant up-regulation of 6 genes belonging to TGFB signaling pathway such as: TGFBR3, SMAD4, FOS, KLF10, ID1, MAP3K1 in immature porcine oocytes (before IVM), was also observed.
It may be suggested that genes involved in TGFB-related signaling pathway are substantially regulated before IVM. Furthermore, these genes may play a significant role during early stages of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic porcine oocytes maturation. The investigated transcripts may be also recommended as the markers of oocytes maturational capability in pigs.
- in vitro maturation (IVM)
- Open Access
Positive Regulation of Macromolecule Metabolic Process Belongs to the Main Mechanisms Crucial for Porcine Oocytes Maturation
Page range: 15 - 31
The mammalian oocytes maturation is the compound process that involves morphological and molecular changes. These modifications include storage of macromolecules, which are crucial for proteins biosynthesis during periimplantation stages of embryo development. This study was aimed to investigate the genes expression profile encoding macromolecules important for regulation of proper porcine oocytes maturation.
The porcine oocytes were collected from large ovarian follicles and analyzed both before and after in vitro maturation (IVM). Additionally, to check the developmental competence status, brilliant crezyl blue test (BCB) was performed. The obtained cDNA was used for biotin labeling and fragmentation by AffymetrixGeneChip® WT Terminal Labeling and Hybridization (Affymetrix). The preliminary analysis of the scanned chips was performed using AffymetrixGeneAtlasTM Operating Software. The created CEL files were imported into downstream data analysis software.
In results, we found expression of 419 different genes, 379 genes were down-regulated and 40 genes were up-regulated in relation to the oocyte transcriptome before in vitro procedure. We observed up-regulation of all genes involved in “positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process” before IVM as compared to transcriptional profile analyzed after IVM.
In conclusion, we suggested that genes encoding proteins involved in macromolecule metabolism are important for achieving of porcine oocytes maturational stage. Moreover, the “activity of macromolecules metabolism” is much more increased in immature oocytes.
- in vitro maturation (IVM)
- Open Access
Resveratrol and Its Analogues – Is It a New Strategy of Anticancer Therapy?
Page range: 32 - 42
Resveratrol (RSV) is one of the polyphenols - metabolites common in plants,however it does not occur in animals. It occurs mainly in grape skin (Vitisvinifera), peanuts (Arachis hypogeal) and in the roots of (Polygonumcupidatum) a traditional Chinese curative plant.
RSV has a preventive property against the most serious diseases of modern world such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Due to pleiotropy, RSV is currently the main object of many research teams′ interest, which is shown by the significant number of publications devoted to this subject.
Animal and human conducted studies have shown very low bioavailability of RSV (approx. 2%), which is the result of rapid biotransformation to sulphate and to a lesser extent, to the glucuronide conjugates as well. The studies on the improvement of RSV bioavailability, which have beencarried out for many years, have contributed to the synthesis of the analogues of more chemopreventive and more desirable pharmacokinetic properties. In order to enhance antiproliferative activity and RSV bioavailability, series of methyl analogues were synthesized and this will be described later in more detail. An example of such a derivative is DMU-212 (3,4,4’5-tetramethoxystilbene).
- the methylated resveratrol analogues
- Open Access
Recent Findings of the Types of Programmed Cell Death
Page range: 43 - 49
Cell death plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. It can occur in a controlled manner by apoptosis or autophagy. Cell death which occurs regardless of regulatory factors include necrosis, mitotic catastrophe or oncosis.
Apoptosis and necrosis are cellular process that leads to cell death. However their mechanisms are different, although factors triggering them can be similar. Necrosis and apoptosis have many different characteristics in terms of biochemistry and morphology.
There are two main pathways of apoptosis induction signal: receptor - dependent and mitochondrial. The outsider apoptotic pathway is induced by external factors stimulating membrane receptors having an intracellular domain called death domain.
Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, disorders electrolyte transport and an increase in the concentration of the calcium ions in the cytoplasm. In response to stress-factors, mitochondrial channels are opened, so that is released into the cytoplasm cytochrome C. This work is aimed at an overall description of exchanged processes.
- mitochondrial apoptosis pathway
- receptor-dependent apotposis pathway
- Open Access
Tumor Blood Vessels and Vasculogenic Mimicry – Current Knowledge and Searching for New Cellular/Molecular Targets of Anti-Angiogenic Therapy
Page range: 50 - 71
Blood vessel formation in tumor is defined as tumor angiogenesis. So far, the most known its mechanism is sprouting, which means formation of blood vessels from existing ones, as a result of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The main mitogenic factor of these cells is vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, acting by VEGFR-2 receptors. Recent studies have provided knowledge about the ability of tumors to form vessel-like structures. The phenomenon was called vascular mimicry. Tumor cells show a high plasticity and they can undergo differentiation to the ones with phenotype similar to endothelial cells. Each of the known tumor angiogenesis mechanisms is a result of many different factors and cell cooperation in tumor microenvironment. Tumor ability to the heterogeneous vascularization forces developing of complex, anti-angiogenic therapy directed to different molecular and cellular targets. Therapies, used so far, often lead to drug-induced hypoxia, which increases tumor cell aggressiveness and metastasis.
- tumor angiogenesis
- vasculogenic mimicry
- anti-angiogenic strategies
- resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy
- Open Access
Problems of Cancer Treatment. Part I. Theory of Treatment Based on Known Mechanisms of Anticancer Immunological Responses
Page range: 72 - 95
Various processes, taking place both in cells and in their environment, are linked to carcinogenesis. This paper aims at recalling the complex mechanisms of oncogenesis, with particular attention paid to responses of the immune system. In development of solid tumours, leukaemias and lymphomas several common stages can be noted. A neoplastic disease cannot be understood considering only phenomena of genetic mutations. Neoplastic cells are characterised by an extensive antigenic variability and resistance to apoptosis. The cells create around them a microenvironment which protects them from defensive activity of the host. In the paper we present the recognised mechanisms of anti-neoplastic defense as well as several elements allowing the solid tumours and leukaemias to escape from the immune surveillance. The generally accepted treatment of tumours aims at reducing numbers of tumour cells. Following resection of a tumour, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, the parallel or consecutive stage of treatment was found to involve an increase in number of clones of immune system cells. One of the ways in which the immune system can be activated involves autovaccination of the host with own neoplastic cells in an apoptosis. However, attempts of such a therapy frequently brought no expected results due to blocked activity of cytotoxic cells. Therefore, the subsequent stage in activation of the immune system should involve elimination of the tumor-mobilized blockade of the system. Attempts toward this aim include neutralization of the tumour-blocked cytotoxic properties of defensive cells, first of all T lymphocytes. The recognized mechanisms of blocking T cells activity in the PD-1/PD-L1 system or due to inhibition of activation by CTLA-4 molecule provided rationale for development of effective tumour immunotherapy approaches.
- targeted therapy
- lung cancer
- tumour microenvironments
- suppressor cells
- tumour markers
- Open Access
Problems of Cancer Treatment. Part 2. Treatment Based on Modification of Anticancer Immunological Responses in Therapy
Page range: 96 - 112
Here we present the concept of making own patient’s anti-cancer treatment more efficient and starting at testing the efficacy of immunological system. The respective tests are suggested, with special attention devoted to tumour-induced microenvironmental changes. The tumour should be considered to represent a complex tissue in which the cancer cells communicate directly and indirectly with the surrounding cellular immunological surrounding and develope traits that promote their own survival. The results of tests allow to propose a rational, individually profiled treatment of a patient, especially directed to elimination of blocks inhibiting the immunological system due to effects of cancer cells. The elimination can be implemented using commercially available antibodies, targeted at the cell surface receptors for inhibitors of T lymphocytes (CTLA-4 and PD-1). Outcome of the therapy is slow to appear and the results used to be selective. Some patients gain long term improvement and respective predictive markers are now tested. It is assumed that the future anti-cancer therapy will be individually targeted, based on individual tests and an assistance of own immunological system of the cancer patient.