- Journal Details
- First Published
- 23 May 1993
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Three-Dimensional Simulation of High Reynolds Turbulent Flows in a Rectangular Open Channel with the Presence of a Disruptive Element (Obstacles) Transversely
Page range: 1 - 7
This study aims at describing a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent flow with a high Reynolds number in a rectangular open channel with the presence of a disruptive element (obstacles) transversely. The numerical study is based on measuring the flow velocity in two directions, i.e., horizontal and vertical, in four planes located near the obstacle built across a simulated channel. For the modeling of the free surface, a Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase flow model is used. In the present case, namely a study of turbulence, three numerical models are compared, a k-ε standard, a k-w standard and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The verification of the simulation results has allowed us to show the advantages of the Reynolds stress model. This model is more representative of the phenomena of an intense vortex flow in the presence of obstacles, especially in drainage systems.
- Turbulent flow
- high Reynolds number
- numerical models
- multiphase flow
- Open Access
Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision
Page range: 8 - 13
Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions.
On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized.
The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a central project register, and develop documents and databases that are needed for analyses of the safety of low earthfill dam constructions in the Slovak Republic.
- Dam safety
- technical and safety supervision
- Open Access
Optimization of the Infrastructure of Reinforced Concrete Reservoirs by a Particle Swarm Algorithm
Page range: 14 - 22
Optimization techniques may be effective in finding the best modeling and shapes for reinforced concrete reservoirs (RCR) to improve their durability and mechanical behavior, particularly for avoiding or reducing the bending moments in these structures. RCRs are one of the major structures applied for reserving fluids to be used in drinking water networks. Usually, these structures have fixed shapes which are designed and calculated based on input discharges, the conditions of the structure's topology, and geotechnical locations with various combinations of static and dynamic loads. In this research, the elements of reservoir walls are first typed according to the performance analyzed; then the range of the membrane based on the thickness and the minimum and maximum cross sections of the bar used are determined in each element. This is done by considering the variable constraints, which are estimated by the maximum stress capacity. In the next phase, based on the reservoir analysis and using the algorithm of the PARIS connector, the related information is combined with the code for the PSO algorithm, i.e., an algorithm for a swarming search, to determine the optimum thickness of the cross sections for the reservoir membrane’s elements and the optimum cross section of the bar used. Based on very complex mathematical linear models for the correct embedding and angles related to achain of peripheral strengthening membranes, which optimize the vibration of the structure, a mutual relation is selected between the modeling software and the code for a particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, the comparative weight of the concrete reservoir optimized by the peripheral strengthening membrane is analyzed using common methods. This analysis shows a 19% decrease in the bar’s weight, a 20% decrease in the concrete’s weight, and a minimum 13% saving in construction costs according to the items of a checklist for a concrete reservoir at 10,000 m3.
- Concrete Reservoirs
- health monitoring
- Particle Swarm Algorithm
- Open Access
Elastic Critical Axial Force for the Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Thin-Walled Metal Members: An Approximate Method
Page range: 23 - 32
Thin-walled centrically compressed members with non-symmetrical or mono-symmetrical cross-sections can buckle in a torsional-flexural buckling mode. Vlasov developed a system of governing differential equations of the stability of such member cases. Solving these coupled equations in an analytic way is only possible in simple cases. Therefore, Goľdenvejzer introduced an approximate method for the solution of this system to calculate the critical axial force of torsional-flexural buckling. Moreover, this can also be used in cases of members with various boundary conditions in bending and torsion. This approximate method for the calculation of critical force has been adopted into norms. Nowadays, we can also solve governing differential equations by numerical methods, such as the finite element method (FEM). Therefore, in this paper, the results of the approximate method and the FEM were compared to each other, while considering the FEM as a reference method. This comparison shows any discrepancies of the approximate method. Attention was also paid to when and why discrepancies occur. The approximate method can be used in practice by considering some simplifications, which ensure safe results.
- Torsional-flexural buckling
- elastic critical axial force
- thin-walled metal members
- non-symmetrical and mono-symmetrical cross-sections
- Open Access
Estimation of an Effective Young’s Modulus of Elasticity in the Locality of the Gabčíkovo Hydrology Power Plant by Geometric Leveling
Page range: 33 - 40
The Gabčíkovo hydroelectric power plant is located in a complicated geological environment (gravel sub-soil and a high groundwater level). Excavation work started after the withdrawal of water in the autumn of 1984 and lasted until the autumn of 1986. A basic geodetic control network with a special monument was founded before the excavation work began. This network served for the setting-out of the hydroelectric power plant as well as for the control of the excavation work. The repeated geodetic control measurements have been evaluated and presented at many seminars and conferences. Monitoring the horizontal and vertical stability of the geodetic control network during the general site excavation showed significant horizontal and vertical deformations. The paper is focused on an estimation of an effective Young's modulus of elasticity in the area studied.
- Elasticity deformation
- Boussinesq's homogeneous elastic half-space
- Young’s modulus
- Green's function