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Volume 13 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 2 (May 2020)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 2 (May 2019)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2463-8226
First Published
20 Jul 2021
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2463-8226
First Published
20 Jul 2021
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
access type Open Access

Differences between psychotherapy and counselling. Who is looking for and who needs them?

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 4 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

According to statistical forecasts in modern societies is trend of mental disorders growth, especially anxiety and depression. At the same time there will be probably present higher demands for professional psychosocial support. Psychotherapy and counselling as talking interventions are part of the psychosocial support, needed when people can’t resolve their (mental) problems by themselves. The article deals with the question about differneces between those two professions. Are those differences artificial, is there any argumented facts in favour of different proponents? For this purpose we have examined different definitions of counselling and psychotherapy, training standards, techniques and skills, ethical standards, treatment outcomes, depth of treatment and clients expiriences.

Key-words

  • counselling
  • psychotherapy
  • differences
  • similarities
access type Open Access

Incarceration as a result of the play of interests in the Polish judicial system

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 19 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of this article is to show one of the social trap of the Polish justice system. Using Mertonian category of 'unforeseen consequences' the authors show how the constellations of interests of the main social actors in Polish courts leads to far-from-optimal effects. Inside the system, judges, court staff, lawyers, defendants and others fall into the trap of unforeseen consequences. At the same time, from the macro-social perspective, the effects imply increasing fragmentation of society, instead of cohesion, for increasing which the whole judicial system is constructed.

Key-words

  • unforeseen consequences
  • incarceration
  • imprisonment rate
  • Polish justice system
  • restorative justice
access type Open Access

Re-adjustment in the home country – The effects of return migration and transnationalism

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 42 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyses how returned and transnational migrants can affect development and social change in the home country. It focuses on the Shkodra Region in Albania. Returnees and transnational migrants use the financial and social capital acquired during migration as mechanisms to readjust in their home country, while at the same time affecting development and social change. The paper deals with a specific returnees’ group, entrepreneur-returnees, and raises some main research questions: How is the social and cultural capital gained during migration used while setting up new enterprises? In what scale does this capital determine the success of the undertaking?

Acting as agents of development, these migrants have taken advantage of their migration experience, especially in the opening of new enterprises. This process has also involved the non-migrant population through the introduction of new employment possibilities and the transmission of new ideas and knowledge.

Key-words

  • development
  • entrepreneur returnee
  • financial capital
  • social capital
  • transnationalism
access type Open Access

Bricks and bombast: U.S. presidential economic cheerleading in response to the housing market

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 62 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

There is a long-standing discussion in the academic literature on whether presidential rhetoric mirrors or guides conditions in the sociopolitical environment. Scholars like Canes-Wrone (2001) and Edwards (2009) believe responsive presidential rhetoric that reflects what is happening in the sociopolitical environment is more likely to resonate with the public. This paper assesses whether presidents will heighten the usage of cheerleading rhetoric about the economy that uses a positive tone in response to changes in the housing market. The time series analyses of information available between 1963 to 2005 indicate presidents increase economic cheerleading in response to positive changes in the housing market.

Key-words

  • American presidency
  • rhetoric
  • political communication
  • housing market
  • interdisciplinary
  • macroeconomics
  • American politics
access type Open Access

Expect the unexpected: Processing of sensory information in the anticipation of predictable and unpredictable threats

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 80 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

Anxiety is characterized by a sustained state of heightened vigilance due to uncertain danger, producing increased attention to a perceived threat in one's environment. To further examine this exploited the temporal resolution afforded by event-related potentials to investigate the impact of predictability of threat on early perceptual activity. We recruited 28 participants and utilized a within-subject design to examine hypervigilance in anticipation of shock, unpleasant picture and unpleasant sound during a task with unpredictable, predictable and no threat. We investigated if habituation to stimuli was present by asking the participants to rate unpleasantness and intensity of the stimuli before and after the experiment. We observed hypervigilance in the unpredictable threat of shock. Habituation was observed for the visual stimuli. The present study suggests that unpredictability enhances attentional engagement with neutral somatosensory stimuli when the threat is of the same modality, meaning we observed the presence of hypervigilance which is a characteristic of anxiety.

Key-words

  • sensory processing
  • anxiety
  • unpredictable threats
  • EEG
  • N1
5 Articles
access type Open Access

Differences between psychotherapy and counselling. Who is looking for and who needs them?

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 4 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

According to statistical forecasts in modern societies is trend of mental disorders growth, especially anxiety and depression. At the same time there will be probably present higher demands for professional psychosocial support. Psychotherapy and counselling as talking interventions are part of the psychosocial support, needed when people can’t resolve their (mental) problems by themselves. The article deals with the question about differneces between those two professions. Are those differences artificial, is there any argumented facts in favour of different proponents? For this purpose we have examined different definitions of counselling and psychotherapy, training standards, techniques and skills, ethical standards, treatment outcomes, depth of treatment and clients expiriences.

Key-words

  • counselling
  • psychotherapy
  • differences
  • similarities
access type Open Access

Incarceration as a result of the play of interests in the Polish judicial system

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 19 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of this article is to show one of the social trap of the Polish justice system. Using Mertonian category of 'unforeseen consequences' the authors show how the constellations of interests of the main social actors in Polish courts leads to far-from-optimal effects. Inside the system, judges, court staff, lawyers, defendants and others fall into the trap of unforeseen consequences. At the same time, from the macro-social perspective, the effects imply increasing fragmentation of society, instead of cohesion, for increasing which the whole judicial system is constructed.

Key-words

  • unforeseen consequences
  • incarceration
  • imprisonment rate
  • Polish justice system
  • restorative justice
access type Open Access

Re-adjustment in the home country – The effects of return migration and transnationalism

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 42 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyses how returned and transnational migrants can affect development and social change in the home country. It focuses on the Shkodra Region in Albania. Returnees and transnational migrants use the financial and social capital acquired during migration as mechanisms to readjust in their home country, while at the same time affecting development and social change. The paper deals with a specific returnees’ group, entrepreneur-returnees, and raises some main research questions: How is the social and cultural capital gained during migration used while setting up new enterprises? In what scale does this capital determine the success of the undertaking?

Acting as agents of development, these migrants have taken advantage of their migration experience, especially in the opening of new enterprises. This process has also involved the non-migrant population through the introduction of new employment possibilities and the transmission of new ideas and knowledge.

Key-words

  • development
  • entrepreneur returnee
  • financial capital
  • social capital
  • transnationalism
access type Open Access

Bricks and bombast: U.S. presidential economic cheerleading in response to the housing market

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 62 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

There is a long-standing discussion in the academic literature on whether presidential rhetoric mirrors or guides conditions in the sociopolitical environment. Scholars like Canes-Wrone (2001) and Edwards (2009) believe responsive presidential rhetoric that reflects what is happening in the sociopolitical environment is more likely to resonate with the public. This paper assesses whether presidents will heighten the usage of cheerleading rhetoric about the economy that uses a positive tone in response to changes in the housing market. The time series analyses of information available between 1963 to 2005 indicate presidents increase economic cheerleading in response to positive changes in the housing market.

Key-words

  • American presidency
  • rhetoric
  • political communication
  • housing market
  • interdisciplinary
  • macroeconomics
  • American politics
access type Open Access

Expect the unexpected: Processing of sensory information in the anticipation of predictable and unpredictable threats

Published Online: 21 Jul 2021
Page range: 80 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

Anxiety is characterized by a sustained state of heightened vigilance due to uncertain danger, producing increased attention to a perceived threat in one's environment. To further examine this exploited the temporal resolution afforded by event-related potentials to investigate the impact of predictability of threat on early perceptual activity. We recruited 28 participants and utilized a within-subject design to examine hypervigilance in anticipation of shock, unpleasant picture and unpleasant sound during a task with unpredictable, predictable and no threat. We investigated if habituation to stimuli was present by asking the participants to rate unpleasantness and intensity of the stimuli before and after the experiment. We observed hypervigilance in the unpredictable threat of shock. Habituation was observed for the visual stimuli. The present study suggests that unpredictability enhances attentional engagement with neutral somatosensory stimuli when the threat is of the same modality, meaning we observed the presence of hypervigilance which is a characteristic of anxiety.

Key-words

  • sensory processing
  • anxiety
  • unpredictable threats
  • EEG
  • N1

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