Journal & Issues

Volume 19 (2023): Issue 3 (September 2023)

Volume 19 (2023): Issue 2 (June 2023)

Volume 19 (2023): Issue s1 (September 2023)

Volume 19 (2023): Issue 1 (March 2023)

Volume 18 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 18 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 18 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 18 (2022): Issue 1 (April 2022)

Volume 17 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 17 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 17 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 17 (2021): Issue s1 (October 2021)

Volume 17 (2021): Issue 1 (April 2021)

Volume 16 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)

Volume 16 (2020): Issue 2 (September 2020)

Volume 16 (2020): Issue 1 (April 2020)

Volume 16 (2020): Issue s1 (February 2020)

Volume 15 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)

Volume 15 (2019): Issue 2 (September 2019)

Volume 15 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 14 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 14 (2018): Issue 2 (September 2018)

Volume 14 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 13 (2017): Issue 2-3 (December 2017)

Volume 13 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 12 (2016): Issue 3 (December 2016)

Volume 12 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)

Volume 12 (2016): Issue 1 (April 2016)

Volume 11 (2015): Issue 2 (December 2015)

Volume 11 (2015): Issue 1 (April 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

0 Articles
Open Access

Does hatred rule political communication on social media? How do politicians talk about the EU on Facebook, and how do their followers react?

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 477 - 498

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on the communication of four Slovak political leaders about the European Union’s agenda on Facebook and their followers’ interactions. As cognitive authorities of their followers, politicians directly impact public perception of current news by providing their own opinions and views. The paper studies the politicians’ followers’ engagement through manual qualitative sentiment analysis. The results suggest that while moderate Facebook users who support the EU are not active and do not show their support openly, users who condemn the EU express their negative sentiments regardless of the politician’s sentiment in the post. If a politician praises the EU, the followers criticise it. If a politician criticises the EU, followers agree with them. That leads us to the conclusion that social media dynamised the concept of cognitive authority.

Key Words

  • Facebook
  • social media
  • political communication
  • EU
  • cognitive authority
Open Access

Power and powerlessness of the civil society in Hungarian illiberal democracy between 2010–2022

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 499 - 529

Abstract

Abstract

In the study we examine the pulling, pushing and pulling back factors and events that influenced civil activism in Hungary between 2010–2022, which was the period of the birth of illiberal democracy in the country. We describe – relying on newspaper reports – the most important events and campaigns in the given period and their effectiveness. In Hungary citizenship activity is at a low level, even within Central-Europe. The viability of civil society is decreasing, especially in terms of financing opportunities, legal environment, image of civil sphere and ability to interest representation. We found that between 2010–2022 the presence of grievances as triggers was constant in the country, while the opportunity structures for action narrowed somewhat, but the illiberal Hungarian system is restrictive and not oppressive. There is a way to protest, to act in a different way, and actions do take place, but it is rarely possible to influence decision-makers - mostly in simple matters that affect everyone. However, social movements do not only fight for instrumental goals, but they also mobilise people, build organisations, contribute to self-development, form collective identity and (re)socialise the participants. These are important consequences even if the instrumental goals are not achieved.

Keywords

  • civil activism
  • illiberal democracy
  • Hungary
Open Access

A correlation of the measurement techniques and their outputs in the study of the subnational level of politics

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 531 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

At the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century, the role and value of subnational research in comparative political science are further strengthened, given that the political life of society is moving in two interdependent directions: localisation and internationalisation. Instead, the specifics of the subnational topic contribute to changes and innovations in the implementation of various methodological techniques in the study of subnational units and their structural elements. However, the question of correlating outputs of techniques – objective and subjective – still remains unresolved, and therefore actualises the following formulation: how they appear equivalent in the practical plane, as their theoretical context is illustrated balanced within equivalence in spatial research politics on a subnational scale. In other words, whether the results of each technique are approximate or distinctive from each other from the point of view of the final situation. In the article, a variable degree of correlation has been demonstrated between both techniques and also a hypothesis has been presented about the nature and type of such interactions on the example of three cases (Transcarpathian, Lviv and Chernivtsi regions) in Ukraine in the period 2010–2015.

Key words

  • methodical correlation
  • objective and subjective measurement technique
  • subnational political regimes
  • Ukraine
  • subnational level of politics
Open Access

Abusive Constitutionalism in Hungary

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 573 - 601

Abstract

Abstract

The study, using the concept of abusive constitutionalism, examines those formal and informal constitutional changes which took place after the Fidesz-KDNP coalition had come into power in 2010 and resulted in the hybridisation of the Hungarian political system. The paper, using qualitative research methods such as analysis of the relevant literature and primary resources, including the in-depth analysis of the relevant Constitutional Court decisions, comes to the conclusion that the Orbán governments first dismantled the checks and balances, foremost the Constitutional Court via formal abusive constitutional changes, and as a next step, with the contribution of the weakened and packed Constitutional Court, the government aims to eliminate the EU’s legislation and intervention on the field of asylum policy via formal and informal abusive constitutional changes based on the concepts of constitutional pluralism and identity.

Keywords

  • legal constitutionalism
  • political constitutionalism
  • abusive constitutionalism
  • constitutional identity
  • asylum and migration
  • Hungary
Open Access

The nature of the Education Cleavage in four Eroding Democracies1

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 603 - 632

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, weaker and consolidated democracies alike were in many instances caught by a wave of autocratisation. However, given the protractedness in the time of the phenomenon of democratic erosion, it is not unlikely that the process overlaps with multiple electoral cycles. This gives to those parties committed to liberal democracy a window to organise themselves and challenge the incumbent at the ballots. The present study investigates whether the political division between incumbent parties and organised pro-democratic opposition in Poland, Hungary, Bolivia and Turkey coincides with a political cleavage that fits Baiern and Maier’s three-dimensional conceptualisation of the term. Through a quantitative approach, it emerges that indeed authoritarian and liberal values (Normative dimension) substantially account for the divergence in political support (Organisational dimension) by the different educated groups (Social dimension) in all the countries under observation. These findings not only support the existence of an educational cleavage outside of Western and Northern Europe, but also highlights its centrality in the ongoing fight for democracy. Furthermore, Hungary appears as a peculiar case, since democratic commitment accounts more than the authoritarian-liberal scale in explaining the support (or lack of it) for the incumbent party by the Hungarian educational groups.

Keywords

  • Autocratisation
  • Democratic Erosion
  • Educational cleavage
  • Political Cleavages
  • DPA scale
  • Authoritarian scale
Open Access

Peculiarities and Prospects of the European Union Involvement in the Settlement of Conflicts on the Territory of the Eastern Partnership Countries1

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 633 - 660

Abstract

Abstract

A new EU global strategy is being formed, as opposed to the European Security Strategy, which no longer corresponds to the geopolitical environment. In accordance with the evolution of security threats at the basis of the Global Strategy, the trends of ensuring unity within the EU and its global leadership, as well as strengthening the EU’s defence capabilities and changing its security approaches are now becoming of vital importance. It is the security structural transformations that currently pose the task of geopolitical repositioning to international actors in the global security system. In the conditions of such restructuring, the role of the EU in resolving international conflicts is given a special place. It is obvious that its classic approaches to conflict resolution have lost their perspective.

Key words

  • European Union
  • mediation
  • Eastern Partnership
  • armed conflicts
  • negotiation process
  • peacekeeping activities
  • territorial integrity
  • unrecognised republics
  • separatists
  • international security
  • threats
  • peace agreement
  • war
Open Access

The European Parliament as Transformational Actor toward the Reconsideration of the EU Eastern Policy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 661 - 679

Abstract

Abstract

The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the role of the European Parliament (EP) in the reconsideration of the EU eastern policy in the light of Russian full-scale military aggression against Ukraine. With the view to reaching the stated objective, the following research tasks are taken into consideration. First, particular attention is paid to the change of the EP approach toward the issue of eastern policy building in the aftermath of the 2019 elections and after the 24 February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. In order to define the transformative potential of the EP in the institutional system of the European Union (EU) as regards the eastern dimension of its neighbourhood policy, the analysis covers selected resolutions and recommendations as well as key political addresses delivered by leaders of the EP, European Council and European Commission. Second, the study presents the context of the foreign policy structural competition between the EU and Russia putting particular emphasis on the role of institutions mentioned above in the process of foreign policy-making and on the nature of the EU support for the democratisation processes in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) region before the 24 February 2022. Finally, there is made an attempt to evaluate the steps undertaken by the EP in order to reform the EU eastern policy and enhance support for the Europeanisation processes in partner states aimed at democratic transformation of the region.

Key words

  • European Parliament
  • transformational leadership
  • transactional leadership
  • EU eastern policy
  • Eastern Partnership
Open Access

Virgil Gheorghiu on Communism, Capitalism and National Socialism

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 681 - 683

Abstract

0 Articles
Open Access

Does hatred rule political communication on social media? How do politicians talk about the EU on Facebook, and how do their followers react?

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 477 - 498

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on the communication of four Slovak political leaders about the European Union’s agenda on Facebook and their followers’ interactions. As cognitive authorities of their followers, politicians directly impact public perception of current news by providing their own opinions and views. The paper studies the politicians’ followers’ engagement through manual qualitative sentiment analysis. The results suggest that while moderate Facebook users who support the EU are not active and do not show their support openly, users who condemn the EU express their negative sentiments regardless of the politician’s sentiment in the post. If a politician praises the EU, the followers criticise it. If a politician criticises the EU, followers agree with them. That leads us to the conclusion that social media dynamised the concept of cognitive authority.

Key Words

  • Facebook
  • social media
  • political communication
  • EU
  • cognitive authority
Open Access

Power and powerlessness of the civil society in Hungarian illiberal democracy between 2010–2022

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 499 - 529

Abstract

Abstract

In the study we examine the pulling, pushing and pulling back factors and events that influenced civil activism in Hungary between 2010–2022, which was the period of the birth of illiberal democracy in the country. We describe – relying on newspaper reports – the most important events and campaigns in the given period and their effectiveness. In Hungary citizenship activity is at a low level, even within Central-Europe. The viability of civil society is decreasing, especially in terms of financing opportunities, legal environment, image of civil sphere and ability to interest representation. We found that between 2010–2022 the presence of grievances as triggers was constant in the country, while the opportunity structures for action narrowed somewhat, but the illiberal Hungarian system is restrictive and not oppressive. There is a way to protest, to act in a different way, and actions do take place, but it is rarely possible to influence decision-makers - mostly in simple matters that affect everyone. However, social movements do not only fight for instrumental goals, but they also mobilise people, build organisations, contribute to self-development, form collective identity and (re)socialise the participants. These are important consequences even if the instrumental goals are not achieved.

Keywords

  • civil activism
  • illiberal democracy
  • Hungary
Open Access

A correlation of the measurement techniques and their outputs in the study of the subnational level of politics

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 531 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

At the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century, the role and value of subnational research in comparative political science are further strengthened, given that the political life of society is moving in two interdependent directions: localisation and internationalisation. Instead, the specifics of the subnational topic contribute to changes and innovations in the implementation of various methodological techniques in the study of subnational units and their structural elements. However, the question of correlating outputs of techniques – objective and subjective – still remains unresolved, and therefore actualises the following formulation: how they appear equivalent in the practical plane, as their theoretical context is illustrated balanced within equivalence in spatial research politics on a subnational scale. In other words, whether the results of each technique are approximate or distinctive from each other from the point of view of the final situation. In the article, a variable degree of correlation has been demonstrated between both techniques and also a hypothesis has been presented about the nature and type of such interactions on the example of three cases (Transcarpathian, Lviv and Chernivtsi regions) in Ukraine in the period 2010–2015.

Key words

  • methodical correlation
  • objective and subjective measurement technique
  • subnational political regimes
  • Ukraine
  • subnational level of politics
Open Access

Abusive Constitutionalism in Hungary

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 573 - 601

Abstract

Abstract

The study, using the concept of abusive constitutionalism, examines those formal and informal constitutional changes which took place after the Fidesz-KDNP coalition had come into power in 2010 and resulted in the hybridisation of the Hungarian political system. The paper, using qualitative research methods such as analysis of the relevant literature and primary resources, including the in-depth analysis of the relevant Constitutional Court decisions, comes to the conclusion that the Orbán governments first dismantled the checks and balances, foremost the Constitutional Court via formal abusive constitutional changes, and as a next step, with the contribution of the weakened and packed Constitutional Court, the government aims to eliminate the EU’s legislation and intervention on the field of asylum policy via formal and informal abusive constitutional changes based on the concepts of constitutional pluralism and identity.

Keywords

  • legal constitutionalism
  • political constitutionalism
  • abusive constitutionalism
  • constitutional identity
  • asylum and migration
  • Hungary
Open Access

The nature of the Education Cleavage in four Eroding Democracies1

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 603 - 632

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, weaker and consolidated democracies alike were in many instances caught by a wave of autocratisation. However, given the protractedness in the time of the phenomenon of democratic erosion, it is not unlikely that the process overlaps with multiple electoral cycles. This gives to those parties committed to liberal democracy a window to organise themselves and challenge the incumbent at the ballots. The present study investigates whether the political division between incumbent parties and organised pro-democratic opposition in Poland, Hungary, Bolivia and Turkey coincides with a political cleavage that fits Baiern and Maier’s three-dimensional conceptualisation of the term. Through a quantitative approach, it emerges that indeed authoritarian and liberal values (Normative dimension) substantially account for the divergence in political support (Organisational dimension) by the different educated groups (Social dimension) in all the countries under observation. These findings not only support the existence of an educational cleavage outside of Western and Northern Europe, but also highlights its centrality in the ongoing fight for democracy. Furthermore, Hungary appears as a peculiar case, since democratic commitment accounts more than the authoritarian-liberal scale in explaining the support (or lack of it) for the incumbent party by the Hungarian educational groups.

Keywords

  • Autocratisation
  • Democratic Erosion
  • Educational cleavage
  • Political Cleavages
  • DPA scale
  • Authoritarian scale
Open Access

Peculiarities and Prospects of the European Union Involvement in the Settlement of Conflicts on the Territory of the Eastern Partnership Countries1

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 633 - 660

Abstract

Abstract

A new EU global strategy is being formed, as opposed to the European Security Strategy, which no longer corresponds to the geopolitical environment. In accordance with the evolution of security threats at the basis of the Global Strategy, the trends of ensuring unity within the EU and its global leadership, as well as strengthening the EU’s defence capabilities and changing its security approaches are now becoming of vital importance. It is the security structural transformations that currently pose the task of geopolitical repositioning to international actors in the global security system. In the conditions of such restructuring, the role of the EU in resolving international conflicts is given a special place. It is obvious that its classic approaches to conflict resolution have lost their perspective.

Key words

  • European Union
  • mediation
  • Eastern Partnership
  • armed conflicts
  • negotiation process
  • peacekeeping activities
  • territorial integrity
  • unrecognised republics
  • separatists
  • international security
  • threats
  • peace agreement
  • war
Open Access

The European Parliament as Transformational Actor toward the Reconsideration of the EU Eastern Policy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 661 - 679

Abstract

Abstract

The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the role of the European Parliament (EP) in the reconsideration of the EU eastern policy in the light of Russian full-scale military aggression against Ukraine. With the view to reaching the stated objective, the following research tasks are taken into consideration. First, particular attention is paid to the change of the EP approach toward the issue of eastern policy building in the aftermath of the 2019 elections and after the 24 February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. In order to define the transformative potential of the EP in the institutional system of the European Union (EU) as regards the eastern dimension of its neighbourhood policy, the analysis covers selected resolutions and recommendations as well as key political addresses delivered by leaders of the EP, European Council and European Commission. Second, the study presents the context of the foreign policy structural competition between the EU and Russia putting particular emphasis on the role of institutions mentioned above in the process of foreign policy-making and on the nature of the EU support for the democratisation processes in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) region before the 24 February 2022. Finally, there is made an attempt to evaluate the steps undertaken by the EP in order to reform the EU eastern policy and enhance support for the Europeanisation processes in partner states aimed at democratic transformation of the region.

Key words

  • European Parliament
  • transformational leadership
  • transactional leadership
  • EU eastern policy
  • Eastern Partnership
Open Access

Virgil Gheorghiu on Communism, Capitalism and National Socialism

Published Online: 10 Mar 2023
Page range: 681 - 683

Abstract