- Journal Details
- First Published
- 30 May 2013
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Reduction of waste production during juice processing with a simultaneous creation of the new type of added-value products
Page range: 1 - 6
The paper presents a new method for the reduction of waste production during juice processing through the reformulation of cloudy juices by ultrafiltration (UF), resulting in simultaneous production of a new type of cloudy juice of reduced sugar content. In contrast to the traditional juice production process, the final product was UF retentate. During UF, sugars were partially removed, while fibre and other macromolecular components present in a cloudy fraction, with health-promoting properties, were retained. Such treatment gives the possibility to reduce waste production during juice processing, because in the traditional approach, the cloudy fraction is usually treated as a waste after the clarification step. After UF in apple cloudy juice, the total content of soluble solids and sugars decreased from the initial values 11.0% and 10.4% to 9.2% and 8.8%, respectively; while in apple-beetroot cloudy juice, it reduced from 11.4% and 8.2% to 8.7% and 5.8%, respectively. At the same time, the cloudy fraction was retained and concentrated. The retention of soluble solids and sugars after the UF of apple juice was 66% and 67%, respectively, that is, 34% of soluble solids and 33% of the sugars were removed to the permeate. In apple-beetroot juice, 68% and 71% of soluble solids and sugars was retained, respectively.
- Waste management
- fruit and vegetable industry by-products
- cloudy juice
- health promoting properties
- Open Access
Herpetofauna of the Kozubów Landscape Park
Page range: 7 - 14
The research was conducted in 2016–2017 in the 6,613-ha Kozubów Landscape Park (KLP). It focused on the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology and phenology of selected species and the existing threats.
The KLP, established in 1986, is located in the Nida Basin, covering the eastern part of the Wodzisławski Ridge. This area is characterised by diverse landscape features formed on a chalk substrate. A significant part of the KLP (48.8%) is covered by forests growing on the tops and slopes of loess hills intersected by valleys and gorges. Hornbeam forests and fragments of riparian forests have retained a semi-natural character. The steep, non-forested slopes with a southern and south-western exposure are overgrown by thermophilic xerothermic grasslands. Xerothermic plant communities show a relatively low species diversity, because the main type of substrate in this area is loess. Two nature reserves, Polana Polichno and Wroni Dół, are located within the KLP borders.
The following amphibian species were found in the KLP: smooth newt (
Major threats to the herpetofauna are posed by grass burning. Unfavourable changes include decreasing water levels and drying out of water bodies.
- Kozubów Landscape Park
- Open Access
Characteristics of the butterflies on various forms of land uses
Page range: 15 - 22
The purpose of the work was to identify the occurrence of butterflies depending on landform uses and human influence on the population domination structure. The research was conducted in the ‘Krzywda’ field-and-forest Site occupying 172 ha. The area consists of the land leaving in fallow, meadows and wasteland including about 68 ha of swamps that are strongly eutrophic due to human economic activity. The area is subjected to artificial succession inhibition processes in the form of mowing and cutting of trees and shrubs. 32 species of butterflies were recorded during the research, that is, 20% of all species within this group occurring in Poland. The research has approved the great spatial and quantitative diversification of the occurring area of butterflies depending on the form of the land uses. The greatest number of species and their greatest populations were found in the land laying in fallow without the removal of the biomass. The least number of species and their specimens were collected in the unmown laying fallow land. Lycaena virgaureae was the most numerous species collected. The correct domination structure characterized by a small number of numerous species and a large number of species consisting of a low number of specimens. Processes observed in the studied Site subjected to various types of land use influence the occurrence diversity of this group of insects.
- land use
- human economic activity
- Open Access
Legal aspects of the resolutions determining the acceptable types and quality of fuels under Polish legislation
Page range: 23 - 28
The article focuses on the selected aspects of introducing a resolution by a self-government of a province, which allows to determine the acceptable types and quality of fuels. The impact of polluted air on human health is significant. The actions carried out by the local authorities should be aimed on seeking effective air protection remedies; nonetheless, the scale of these activities seems to be still insignificant. One of the legal mechanisms is introducing resolutions determining the acceptable types and quality of fuels by a self-government of a province in order to protect the health of Polish residents and reduce the negative impact of air pollution on the environment. The question, however, is whether such resolutions could be audited with respect to the execution of such a resolution and whether they effectively lead to air quality improvement.
- Air pollution
- air quality
- resolutions determining the acceptable types and quality of fuels
- low emission
- anti-smog resolutions
- Open Access
Xerothermic pavements – a meadow biodiversity richness. Jaworzno case study
Page range: 29 - 34
Xerothermic pavements are plant communities located in sunny and dry sites, comprising many protected and valuable species. In Poland, thermophilic pavements occur in fragmentary patches, and because they are semi-natural communities, they require active protection. Several sites covered by pavements occur in Jaworzno town; the main threat posed on them, that is, overgrowing by bushes and trees, is removed naturally. The town authorities have decided to support sheep grazing, due to which biodiversity of xerothermic pavements is maintained and local sustainable farming is reinforced.
- Xerothermic pavements
- sustainable farming
- protected plants
- Open Access
Protected areas of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
Page range: 35 - 46
The Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is one of the smallest provinces in Poland, but it clearly stands out with a very well-preserved natural environment. Because of exceptional features of animate and inanimate nature, large parts of the province are covered by various forms of nature protection. There is 1 national park (NP), 72 nature reserves (NRs), 9 landscape parks, 21 protected landscape areas and 40 Natura 2000 sites within the administrative borders of the province. The most unique natural features are found in the Świętokrzyski National Park (ŚNP), but the largest surface of the province is covered by protected landscape areas. Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is the first in Poland in terms of the share of protected areas (as much as 65.2%), strongly outdistancing other Voivodeships. Small natural objects are much more numerous than large protected areas. At present, the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship has 705 natural monuments (NMs), 114 ecological sites (ESs), 20 documentation sites (DSs) and 17 nature and landscape complexes (NLCs). Moreover, new protected areas and sites may still be established within its borders.
- Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
- protection areas
- natural objects