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Volume 66 (2022): Issue 1 (July 2022)

Volume 65 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 64 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 63 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)

Volume 62 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 61 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 60 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 59 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-2819
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-2819
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Application of an Improved Empirical Model for Rheology Prediction of Cement Pastes Modified with Filler from Manufactured Sand

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

There is a need for simple but precise prediction models for proportioning concrete with manufactured sand, for use in ready-mix concrete production. For the last two decades, the particle-matrix model has been used in Norway for proportioning and prediction of concrete flow based on the properties and proportions of two concrete phases: coarse particles and filler modified cement paste (matrix). This paper presents experimental testing of 117 cement pastes of which 107 contain filler, i.e. particles < 125 microns, from manufactured sand. Based on compositions and properties of ingoing materials in these mixes, an empirical equation is developed that predicts the rheological properties plastic viscosity, yield stress, flow resistance ratio and mini slump flow. Optimization by regression analysis provides a practical microproportioning equation that readily can be used as input in concrete proportioning with the particle-matrix model. The equation provides a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.98 for plastic viscosity, R2 = 0.95 for mini slump flow, R2 = 0.91 for flow resistance ratio and R2 = 0.80 for yield stress.

Keywords

  • Rheology
  • empirical model
  • cement paste
  • filler
  • manufactured sand
Open Access

Static and Dynamic Four-Point Flexural Tests of Concrete Beams with Variation in Concrete Quality, Reinforcement Properties and Impact Velocity

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 19 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This paper discusses the results from three experimental test series previously conducted. The tests consist of quasi-static monotonic and dynamic four-point flexural tests on reinforced concrete beams. The effect of varying material and load parameters on the plastic strain distribution and energy absorbed by the reinforcement is discussed. The main findings are the significant effect of the post-elastic region of the steel reinforcement and the impact velocity during dynamic loading. The results will be used to validate and construct numerical models in future work, where the findings presented can be investigated further.

Keywords

  • Protective concrete structures
  • ductility
  • energy absorption capacity
  • reinforcement quality
  • impulsive loads
  • impact velocity
  • mild and stiff steels
Open Access

Resonant Frequency Ultrasonic P-Waves for Evaluating Uniaxial Compressive Strength of the Stabilized Slag–Cement Sediments

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 39 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Marine sediments can be stabilized by ultra high-strength binders: cement, Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) and slag. The properties of the stabilized soil indicate potential to their reuse. This study investigated the performance of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) in the marine sediments stabilized by binder (cement, CKD, slag), tested by ultrasonic P-waves. Materials include 194 specimens collected from the port of Gothenborg. The experiment was performed in Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI). The UCS of specimens stabilized by different ratio of binders (cement, CKD, slag) was tested by resonance frequencies of the elastic P-waves. The significant increase in the UCS (>1500 kPa) was recorded for the highest values of CKD and cement, and low values of slag. The correlation profiles of low water/high binder (LW/HB) cement/slag (40/60%) were controlled by curing time. The slag–cement–CKD simplex tests demonstrated UCS of samples with low/high water content and various binder ratio of cement (kg/m3). The ratio of cement binder and curing time play a critical role in the increase of UCS followed by mechanical properties of specimens and intensity of stress. The highest values exceed 1000 m/s in P-waves. The results shown high accuracy (97%) and non-contacting approach for testing UCS of sediments. Seismic methods can be applied to test the UCS of the stabilized sediments, and also in-situ via seismic CPT, surface testing or cross hole seismic testing.

Keywords

  • civil engineering
  • geophysics
  • seismicity
  • cement
  • slag
  • geotechnical engineering
Open Access

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Using Nonlinear Layered Shell Approach

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 63 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

This study discusses nonlinear modelling of a reinforced concrete wall utilizing the nonlinear layered shell approach. Rebar, unconfined and confined concrete behaviours are defined nonlinearly using proposed analytical models in the literature. Then, finite element model is validated using experimental results. It is shown that the nonlinear layered shell approach is capable of estimating wall response (i.e., stiffness, ultimate strength, and cracking pattern) with adequate accuracy and low computational effort. Modal analysis is conducted to evaluate the inherent characteristics of the wall to choose a logical loading pattern for the nonlinear static analysis. Moreover, pushover analysis’ outputs are interpreted comprehensibly from cracking of the concrete until reaching the rupture step by step.

Keywords

  • Crack
  • Nonlinear analysis
  • Pushover analysis
  • Reinforced concrete wall
  • Shell
Open Access

Towards Efficient Use of Cement in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 81 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on substituting the cement content with an inert material, in a typical locally produced UHPC mix. A structured literature review was performed to enrichen the discussion and to benchmark the results towards already reported investigations in the research society. Investigations on cement substitution in UHPC are frequently reported. However, usually the cement is substituted with other binding materials – often pozzolanic by-products from other industries. Reports from investigations on the use of inert materials for cement substitution in UHPC seem scarce.

An experimental program that included a total of 210 test specimens was executed. This program included evaluating several questions embedded to the problem on how to substitute cement while keeping all other variables constant.

It is concluded that up to 40% of the cement can be substituted with an inert material, without significantly changing the flexural tensile strength or compressive strength of the hardened UHPC. Two preconditions were caretaken: the particle packing was maintained by securing that the substitution material had a Particle Size Distribution (PSD) near identical to the cement and that the water balance was maintained through preconditioning of the substitution material. Suggestions are made for improving benchmarking.

Keywords

  • UHPC
  • Cement substitution
  • Inert material
  • Circular economy
  • Cement and CO efficiency indexing
Open Access

Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 107 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Concrete and asphalt are the two competitive materials for a highway. In Sweden, the predominant material for the highway system is asphalt. But under certain conditions, concrete pavements are competitive alternatives. For example, concrete pavements are suitable for high-traffic volume roads, roads in tunnels, concentrated loads (e.g., bus stops and industrial pavement). Besides the load-carrying capacity, the concrete pavement has many advantages such as durability (wear resistance), resistance against frost heave, environment (pollution, recycling, and low rolling resistance leading to fuel savings), fire resistance, noise limitations, brightness, evenness and aesthetics.

Concrete pavements are long-lasting but need final repair. Single slabs may crack in the jointed concrete pavement due to various structural and non-structural factors. Repair and maintenance operations are, therefore, necessary to increase the service life of the structures. To avoid extended lane closures, prevent traffic congestions, and expedite the pavement construction process, precast concrete technology is a recent innovative construction method that can meet the requirement of rapid construction and rehabilitation of the pavement. This paper evaluates rapid repair techniques of concrete pavement using precast concrete technology by analysing three case studies on jointed precast concrete pavements. The study showed that the required amount of time to re-open the pavement to traffic is dramatically reduced with jointed precast concrete panels.

Keywords

  • Jointed precast concrete panel
  • Concrete Pavements
  • Durability
  • Cracking
  • Repair
  • Maintenance
Open Access

Visible Corrosion Damage in Carbonated Reinforced Concrete

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 129 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

This study discusses visible corrosion damage due to carbonation in concrete balconies and facades. The focus of the study was to find out how the age of the structure, cover depth of concrete, carbonation coefficient, capillarity of concrete and the climate affect visible corrosion damage. The research data consist of condition investigation reports of existing concrete balconies and facades built between 1948 and 1996.

Balcony slabs and brushed painted facades were the most prone to visible corrosion damage. None of the researched panels met the required minimum cover depth of reinforcement even at the time of construction. However, most of the visible damage on the database was localized damage and there was not much visible corrosion damage. The carbonation coefficient of balconies was higher than the carbonation coefficient of facades. Brushed painted facade panels had clearly higher carbonation coefficient than other facade panels. The carbonation coefficient was considerably lower on white concrete panels compared to other panel types.

When capillarity of concrete raises, the carbonation rate of concrete increases slightly. However, no correlation can be seen. The capillarity of concrete and the carbonation rate of concrete had a major range.

Keywords

  • Corrosion
  • carbonation
  • capillarity
  • reinforcement
  • visible damage
  • field study
Open Access

Numerical Modelling of Heat Transport in Freezing Mortars with an External Liquid Reservoir

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 149 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Several studies indicate that the temperature distribution in concrete may affect the extent of frost scaling. This study presents a numerical model that describes the thermal response of freezing mortars in the presence of an external liquid reservoir, where the external liquid is either pure water or 3% sodium chloride solution. The phase transformation of supercooled external liquid is modelled in two stages: quick freezing, when the supercooled liquid starts to form crystals and slow freezing. The model is developed in two parts. In part I, the focus is the modelling of external liquid, and therefore a non-porous body with an external liquid reservoir is modelled and validated. In part II, the model developed in part I is developed further for a porous body containing different phases, i.e., unfrozen liquid and ice, in the pores. A comparison of simulated and experimentally measured temperature distributions shows a good agreement.

Keywords

  • Freezing and thawing
  • temperature distribution
  • heat transport
  • numerical modelling
8 Articles
Open Access

Application of an Improved Empirical Model for Rheology Prediction of Cement Pastes Modified with Filler from Manufactured Sand

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

There is a need for simple but precise prediction models for proportioning concrete with manufactured sand, for use in ready-mix concrete production. For the last two decades, the particle-matrix model has been used in Norway for proportioning and prediction of concrete flow based on the properties and proportions of two concrete phases: coarse particles and filler modified cement paste (matrix). This paper presents experimental testing of 117 cement pastes of which 107 contain filler, i.e. particles < 125 microns, from manufactured sand. Based on compositions and properties of ingoing materials in these mixes, an empirical equation is developed that predicts the rheological properties plastic viscosity, yield stress, flow resistance ratio and mini slump flow. Optimization by regression analysis provides a practical microproportioning equation that readily can be used as input in concrete proportioning with the particle-matrix model. The equation provides a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.98 for plastic viscosity, R2 = 0.95 for mini slump flow, R2 = 0.91 for flow resistance ratio and R2 = 0.80 for yield stress.

Keywords

  • Rheology
  • empirical model
  • cement paste
  • filler
  • manufactured sand
Open Access

Static and Dynamic Four-Point Flexural Tests of Concrete Beams with Variation in Concrete Quality, Reinforcement Properties and Impact Velocity

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 19 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This paper discusses the results from three experimental test series previously conducted. The tests consist of quasi-static monotonic and dynamic four-point flexural tests on reinforced concrete beams. The effect of varying material and load parameters on the plastic strain distribution and energy absorbed by the reinforcement is discussed. The main findings are the significant effect of the post-elastic region of the steel reinforcement and the impact velocity during dynamic loading. The results will be used to validate and construct numerical models in future work, where the findings presented can be investigated further.

Keywords

  • Protective concrete structures
  • ductility
  • energy absorption capacity
  • reinforcement quality
  • impulsive loads
  • impact velocity
  • mild and stiff steels
Open Access

Resonant Frequency Ultrasonic P-Waves for Evaluating Uniaxial Compressive Strength of the Stabilized Slag–Cement Sediments

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 39 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Marine sediments can be stabilized by ultra high-strength binders: cement, Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) and slag. The properties of the stabilized soil indicate potential to their reuse. This study investigated the performance of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) in the marine sediments stabilized by binder (cement, CKD, slag), tested by ultrasonic P-waves. Materials include 194 specimens collected from the port of Gothenborg. The experiment was performed in Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI). The UCS of specimens stabilized by different ratio of binders (cement, CKD, slag) was tested by resonance frequencies of the elastic P-waves. The significant increase in the UCS (>1500 kPa) was recorded for the highest values of CKD and cement, and low values of slag. The correlation profiles of low water/high binder (LW/HB) cement/slag (40/60%) were controlled by curing time. The slag–cement–CKD simplex tests demonstrated UCS of samples with low/high water content and various binder ratio of cement (kg/m3). The ratio of cement binder and curing time play a critical role in the increase of UCS followed by mechanical properties of specimens and intensity of stress. The highest values exceed 1000 m/s in P-waves. The results shown high accuracy (97%) and non-contacting approach for testing UCS of sediments. Seismic methods can be applied to test the UCS of the stabilized sediments, and also in-situ via seismic CPT, surface testing or cross hole seismic testing.

Keywords

  • civil engineering
  • geophysics
  • seismicity
  • cement
  • slag
  • geotechnical engineering
Open Access

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Using Nonlinear Layered Shell Approach

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 63 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

This study discusses nonlinear modelling of a reinforced concrete wall utilizing the nonlinear layered shell approach. Rebar, unconfined and confined concrete behaviours are defined nonlinearly using proposed analytical models in the literature. Then, finite element model is validated using experimental results. It is shown that the nonlinear layered shell approach is capable of estimating wall response (i.e., stiffness, ultimate strength, and cracking pattern) with adequate accuracy and low computational effort. Modal analysis is conducted to evaluate the inherent characteristics of the wall to choose a logical loading pattern for the nonlinear static analysis. Moreover, pushover analysis’ outputs are interpreted comprehensibly from cracking of the concrete until reaching the rupture step by step.

Keywords

  • Crack
  • Nonlinear analysis
  • Pushover analysis
  • Reinforced concrete wall
  • Shell
Open Access

Towards Efficient Use of Cement in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 81 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on substituting the cement content with an inert material, in a typical locally produced UHPC mix. A structured literature review was performed to enrichen the discussion and to benchmark the results towards already reported investigations in the research society. Investigations on cement substitution in UHPC are frequently reported. However, usually the cement is substituted with other binding materials – often pozzolanic by-products from other industries. Reports from investigations on the use of inert materials for cement substitution in UHPC seem scarce.

An experimental program that included a total of 210 test specimens was executed. This program included evaluating several questions embedded to the problem on how to substitute cement while keeping all other variables constant.

It is concluded that up to 40% of the cement can be substituted with an inert material, without significantly changing the flexural tensile strength or compressive strength of the hardened UHPC. Two preconditions were caretaken: the particle packing was maintained by securing that the substitution material had a Particle Size Distribution (PSD) near identical to the cement and that the water balance was maintained through preconditioning of the substitution material. Suggestions are made for improving benchmarking.

Keywords

  • UHPC
  • Cement substitution
  • Inert material
  • Circular economy
  • Cement and CO efficiency indexing
Open Access

Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 107 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Concrete and asphalt are the two competitive materials for a highway. In Sweden, the predominant material for the highway system is asphalt. But under certain conditions, concrete pavements are competitive alternatives. For example, concrete pavements are suitable for high-traffic volume roads, roads in tunnels, concentrated loads (e.g., bus stops and industrial pavement). Besides the load-carrying capacity, the concrete pavement has many advantages such as durability (wear resistance), resistance against frost heave, environment (pollution, recycling, and low rolling resistance leading to fuel savings), fire resistance, noise limitations, brightness, evenness and aesthetics.

Concrete pavements are long-lasting but need final repair. Single slabs may crack in the jointed concrete pavement due to various structural and non-structural factors. Repair and maintenance operations are, therefore, necessary to increase the service life of the structures. To avoid extended lane closures, prevent traffic congestions, and expedite the pavement construction process, precast concrete technology is a recent innovative construction method that can meet the requirement of rapid construction and rehabilitation of the pavement. This paper evaluates rapid repair techniques of concrete pavement using precast concrete technology by analysing three case studies on jointed precast concrete pavements. The study showed that the required amount of time to re-open the pavement to traffic is dramatically reduced with jointed precast concrete panels.

Keywords

  • Jointed precast concrete panel
  • Concrete Pavements
  • Durability
  • Cracking
  • Repair
  • Maintenance
Open Access

Visible Corrosion Damage in Carbonated Reinforced Concrete

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 129 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

This study discusses visible corrosion damage due to carbonation in concrete balconies and facades. The focus of the study was to find out how the age of the structure, cover depth of concrete, carbonation coefficient, capillarity of concrete and the climate affect visible corrosion damage. The research data consist of condition investigation reports of existing concrete balconies and facades built between 1948 and 1996.

Balcony slabs and brushed painted facades were the most prone to visible corrosion damage. None of the researched panels met the required minimum cover depth of reinforcement even at the time of construction. However, most of the visible damage on the database was localized damage and there was not much visible corrosion damage. The carbonation coefficient of balconies was higher than the carbonation coefficient of facades. Brushed painted facade panels had clearly higher carbonation coefficient than other facade panels. The carbonation coefficient was considerably lower on white concrete panels compared to other panel types.

When capillarity of concrete raises, the carbonation rate of concrete increases slightly. However, no correlation can be seen. The capillarity of concrete and the carbonation rate of concrete had a major range.

Keywords

  • Corrosion
  • carbonation
  • capillarity
  • reinforcement
  • visible damage
  • field study
Open Access

Numerical Modelling of Heat Transport in Freezing Mortars with an External Liquid Reservoir

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 149 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Several studies indicate that the temperature distribution in concrete may affect the extent of frost scaling. This study presents a numerical model that describes the thermal response of freezing mortars in the presence of an external liquid reservoir, where the external liquid is either pure water or 3% sodium chloride solution. The phase transformation of supercooled external liquid is modelled in two stages: quick freezing, when the supercooled liquid starts to form crystals and slow freezing. The model is developed in two parts. In part I, the focus is the modelling of external liquid, and therefore a non-porous body with an external liquid reservoir is modelled and validated. In part II, the model developed in part I is developed further for a porous body containing different phases, i.e., unfrozen liquid and ice, in the pores. A comparison of simulated and experimentally measured temperature distributions shows a good agreement.

Keywords

  • Freezing and thawing
  • temperature distribution
  • heat transport
  • numerical modelling

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