Issues

Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 20 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 19 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 18 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 17 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 16 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 15 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 14 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 13 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 12 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Volume 11 (2012): Issue Supplement (December 2012)

Volume 11 (2012): Issue 1 (November 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2286-0134
ISSN
1583-980X
First Published
08 Feb 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2286-0134
ISSN
1583-980X
First Published
08 Feb 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Female Gender Marginality in the Imperial Roman World: Affinity Between Women and Slaves in their Shared Stereotypes and Penetrability

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The concepts of sex and gender existed in the imperial Roman world. Although there existed a sliding scale of sex and gender, gender was largely pre-determined at the time of one’s birth based on one’s sexual anatomy and concurrently, gender acculturation of the male and the female began. It was a conventional notion that women were marginal compared to freeborn men by the virtue of gender. Although the Romans improved the legal independence of free women, Greco-Roman literary evidence harbors various theoretical positions regarding female social marginality and submission, which were largely associated with slaves, and also underscores the paradox that female position of authority was only meant to be negotiated with the position of subordination. This article deals with the issue of female gender marginality and enculturation of female servility in the imperial Roman world. Various Roman literary traditions link women to slaves in their shared stereotypes and evidence that women and slaves were seen to share affinity for vulnerable penetrability in the face of the male sexual and domestic violence.

Keywords

  • affinity between women and slaves
  • female social marginality
  • gender disparity
  • sex and gender
  • sexual and domestic abuse
Open Access

The Witch(ES) of Aiaia: Gender, Immortality and the Chronotope in Madeline Miller’s Circe

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 27 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores Madeline Miller’s Circe from the perspective of Bakhtin’s concept of the chronotope, the inseparability of space and time in fiction. The article focuses on the chronotopes of the road, the idyll and the threshold in the novel, and how these intersect with its themes of gender and immortality. The island of Aiaia acts as a threshold, transforming all who cross it. Circe’s life on the island, however, is a repetitive idyll; only at the end of the novel does she become a traveller on the road herself rather than just a stop on the way.

Keywords

  • Chronotope
  • gender
  • idyll
  • immortality
  • road
  • threshold
Open Access

Lady into Fox (David Garnett, 1922): Un-Weaving a Tailor-Made Gender or Re-Taming the Shrew?

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 39 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

One day, while going for a walk with her husband, the young Mrs Tebrick turns into a fox. At first, they both try to keep things the way they were. The lady-fox dresses, drinks tea and plays cards with her husband until she breaks herself free of conventions and opts for a wild life in the forest which Mr Tebrick apparently accepts, claiming an unchanged marital love. One wonders though whether this metamorphosis sincerely unwinds the tailor-made gender Mrs Tebrick had to endorse in her marriage and whether Mr Tebrick’s full freedom of speech honestly echoes an agonistic discourse revealing injustice, a courageous parrhesiastic protest against compulsory gendered structures, Parrhesia being, according to Foucault, a “transhistorical possibility we have” to speak up against the powerful. In other words: Is David Garnett critically re-gendering “The Shrew”, un-weaving a tailor-made gender, or simply re-taming her anew for a XXth century readership?

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Melancholia
  • Metamorphosis
  • inner Nomadism
  • Subversiveness
Open Access

When Children Look at Us

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 48 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

“Hideous Kinky” presents the story of an English mother travelling in Morocco with her two daughters. As expected, this exotic journey is about the woman’s pursuit of spiritual enlightenment. Less expected, the story is narrated by her youngest daughter who constantly denies the story to the reader. Starting from the issue of unreliable homodiegetic narration, this paper proposes to analyse the effects of missing information in the text, and the reader’s subsequent responsibility for filling the gaps and disambiguating the story. As a method, the essay establishes connections between its theoretical investigations and Esther Freud’s novel.

Keywords

  • gap
  • homodiegesis
  • interpretation
  • narrator
  • unreliability
Open Access

Constructing Womanhood in Zimbabwean Literature: Noviolet Bulawayo and Petina Gappah

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 58 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Literature written in English in the former British colonies of Southern Africa has attracted the public’s attention after the publication of Michael Chapman’s “Southern African Literaturesˮ (1996). The paper analyses the writings of two Zimbabwean authors - NoViolet Bulawayo (Elizabeth Zandile Tshele) and Petina Gappah – taking into account African feminist discourses.

Keywords

  • identity
  • language
  • women’s voices
  • Zimbabwe
Open Access

Women Figures in George Macdonald’s and J.R.R. Tolkien’s Fantasy Writings

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 69 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

It is an undisputed fact that George MacDonald’s fantasy books were among J.R.R. Tolkien’s many sources of inspiration when writing his Middle-earth epic. Among these, “The Princess and the Goblinˮ and “The Princess and Curdieˮ attracted my attention, through the figures of some interesting women who appear in both of them. This paper endeavours to draw a comparison between Tolkien’s outstanding female characters in “The Lord of the Ringsˮ and the earlier versions of the same feminine archetypes in the two MacDonald books, noting both points of similarity and differences, as well as the strong effect these women have upon other characters in the stories.

Keywords

  • faith
  • initiation
  • innocence
  • power
  • wisdom
  • women
Open Access

The Feminisation of Tradition. The Case of the Ukrainian Minority in Poland

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 83 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Research on the Ukrainian minority in Poland was conducted from a feminocentric perspective to break the masculinised perception of this minority. Multiple data in the research have demonstrated that over a span of three generations Ukrainian families have turned from patriarchal into matriarchal ones. Currently it is women who preserve and invent tradition, both in the private and the public sphere. This is an effect of the cultural change and of the disappearance of jobs previously done by men. The contemporary tradition of the minority as a whole rests on tasks and values previously ascribed to women.

Keywords

  • feminisation of tradition
  • invented tradition
  • Ukrainian minority in Poland
  • matriarchalisation of family
  • masculinity crisis
Open Access

“Should I Stay or Should I Go?” The Promise of Europe and Female Identity in Francesca (2009)

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 96 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the premise that intra-EU migration has generated a repertoire of representations, narratives and stances in Romanian public imagination, within a transnational context, the present article explores an area that has attracted little scholarly attention to date: Romanian New Cinema films that tackle this theme. The analysis focuses on “Francescaˮ (Bobby Păunescu, 2009), a film centred on a female character who is on the verge of deciding whether to emigrate or not. It examines how female identity and agency are shaped in connection to symbolic constructions of the “West” as a destination space for Romanian migrants, through modalities of expression specific to the New Romanian Cinema.

Keywords

  • intra-EU migration
  • New Romanian Cinema
  • Romanian migration to Italy
  • symbolic construction
  • women migrants
Open Access

Empowering Women Through Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in East Java, Indonesia

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 113 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyzes the practices of two NGOs aiming to empower women through entrepreneurship in the province of East Java with the capital city Surabaya, Indonesia. Both NGOs have similar goals: to improve the well-being of women as well as to empower them in their households, communities and businesses; however, they differ in methodologies. Thus, it is thought-provoking to compare the ways and means applied by both NGOs to empower women. Their methodologies are presented and analyzed in order to capture their strengths and weaknesses, following a qualitative study that was carried out in two villages in the surrounding areas of Surabaya, Indonesia.

Keywords

  • Indonesia
  • microenterprises
  • NGOs
  • women empowerment
Open Access

Power and Ridicule – Elena CeauȘescu in Communist Humour

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 129 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

Although one of the most influential figures of Romanian Communism, Elena Ceaușescu has been the subject of a rather limited literature exploring her historical figure. I intend to revisit the political humour of Romanian communism in order to reveal the manners and strategies employed by this type of folklore in affirming the hyperbolized clichés that defined the dictator’s wife in the public mind of that age. I also intend to bring into discussion the common traditional prejudice that blamed Elena Ceaușescu for her husband’s catastrophic politics that impoverished and isolated Romania in the Eastern Bloc.

Keywords

  • dictatorsʼ wives
  • Elena Ceaușescu
  • female communist leaders
  • political humour
  • post-communism
  • Romanian communism
Open Access

Grieving those Who Still Live: Loss Experienced by Parents of Transgender Children

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 142 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Transgender identity can be defined as the self-awareness of a discrepancy between the assigned sex at birth and the personal gender identity of an individual. This study assumed the constructionist perspective, focused on the influence of culture on sex-typing and the representations of gender in child development. This research considers how parents of transgender children emotionally handled the transition. Being faced with a child’s transgender identity may cause an emotional experience similar to mourning, in particular, ambiguous loss (Coolhart, Ritenour & Grodzinski 2018, McGuire et al. 2016, Norwood 2013). In this qualitative research, 97 associations dealing with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) issues were contacted to recruit participants from three different countries: Italy, Spain and U.S.A. The sample includes 18 parents of trangender people who completed an ad hoc questionnaire. A brief standard story was constructed about an experience of sexual transition, followed by some questions on the experience of parental mourning during the transgender transition of their children. The corpora were analysed in the three original languages, and the analysis was performed with Atlas.ti. From the qualitative analysis of the texts that describe parents’ experience, three fundamental elements emerged. The first is inherent to the mourning orientation to loss and the fear of death; the second to the disenfranchisement of mourning and transgender identity between family and society; and the third illustrates the final restorative outcome of mourning.

Keywords

  • children’s transgender identity
  • dual process model
  • grief
  • parents’ loss
  • qualitative research
Open Access

Fan Culture and Masculinity: Identity Construction of Persib Supporters

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 163 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

Linking the local practices that are used to build an apparently shared identity and generate personal and group attachment towards ʽPersibʼ, a local football club in West Java Indonesia, we examine ʽbobotohʼ that use football and football fan clubs as means of creating an in-group–out-group identity. We examine concepts of fandom, identity construction and masculinity to demonstrate how the bias becomes a unifying element that can provoke conflicts. We argue that ʽbobotohʼ and ʽPersibʼ become one of the most central sites of masculine performance in West Java and socialize Sundanese boys into values, attitudes, and skills valorised as masculine to help facilitate their acceptance into social groups.

Keywords

  • bobotoh
  • football
  • identity
  • masculinity
  • Persib
Open Access

Fatima Agnaou. 2004. Gender, Literacy, and Empowerment in Morocco. New York: Routledge, 212 pp, ISBN 0-203-48917-9

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 179 - 181

Abstract

Open Access

Aliraza Javaid. Masculinities, Sexualities and Love. London and New York: Routledge, 2019, 177p. ISBN 978-0-8153-8065-8 (hbk), ISBN 978-1-351-21271-7 (ebk).

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 182 - 186

Abstract

Open Access

Jane Austen: Glose, înțelesuri, interpretări. Coordonator Mihaela Mudure. Cluj Napoca: Casa Cărții de Știință, 2019, 247p. ISBN: 978-606-17-1175-8.

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 187 - 193

Abstract

15 Articles
Open Access

Female Gender Marginality in the Imperial Roman World: Affinity Between Women and Slaves in their Shared Stereotypes and Penetrability

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The concepts of sex and gender existed in the imperial Roman world. Although there existed a sliding scale of sex and gender, gender was largely pre-determined at the time of one’s birth based on one’s sexual anatomy and concurrently, gender acculturation of the male and the female began. It was a conventional notion that women were marginal compared to freeborn men by the virtue of gender. Although the Romans improved the legal independence of free women, Greco-Roman literary evidence harbors various theoretical positions regarding female social marginality and submission, which were largely associated with slaves, and also underscores the paradox that female position of authority was only meant to be negotiated with the position of subordination. This article deals with the issue of female gender marginality and enculturation of female servility in the imperial Roman world. Various Roman literary traditions link women to slaves in their shared stereotypes and evidence that women and slaves were seen to share affinity for vulnerable penetrability in the face of the male sexual and domestic violence.

Keywords

  • affinity between women and slaves
  • female social marginality
  • gender disparity
  • sex and gender
  • sexual and domestic abuse
Open Access

The Witch(ES) of Aiaia: Gender, Immortality and the Chronotope in Madeline Miller’s Circe

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 27 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores Madeline Miller’s Circe from the perspective of Bakhtin’s concept of the chronotope, the inseparability of space and time in fiction. The article focuses on the chronotopes of the road, the idyll and the threshold in the novel, and how these intersect with its themes of gender and immortality. The island of Aiaia acts as a threshold, transforming all who cross it. Circe’s life on the island, however, is a repetitive idyll; only at the end of the novel does she become a traveller on the road herself rather than just a stop on the way.

Keywords

  • Chronotope
  • gender
  • idyll
  • immortality
  • road
  • threshold
Open Access

Lady into Fox (David Garnett, 1922): Un-Weaving a Tailor-Made Gender or Re-Taming the Shrew?

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 39 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

One day, while going for a walk with her husband, the young Mrs Tebrick turns into a fox. At first, they both try to keep things the way they were. The lady-fox dresses, drinks tea and plays cards with her husband until she breaks herself free of conventions and opts for a wild life in the forest which Mr Tebrick apparently accepts, claiming an unchanged marital love. One wonders though whether this metamorphosis sincerely unwinds the tailor-made gender Mrs Tebrick had to endorse in her marriage and whether Mr Tebrick’s full freedom of speech honestly echoes an agonistic discourse revealing injustice, a courageous parrhesiastic protest against compulsory gendered structures, Parrhesia being, according to Foucault, a “transhistorical possibility we have” to speak up against the powerful. In other words: Is David Garnett critically re-gendering “The Shrew”, un-weaving a tailor-made gender, or simply re-taming her anew for a XXth century readership?

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Melancholia
  • Metamorphosis
  • inner Nomadism
  • Subversiveness
Open Access

When Children Look at Us

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 48 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

“Hideous Kinky” presents the story of an English mother travelling in Morocco with her two daughters. As expected, this exotic journey is about the woman’s pursuit of spiritual enlightenment. Less expected, the story is narrated by her youngest daughter who constantly denies the story to the reader. Starting from the issue of unreliable homodiegetic narration, this paper proposes to analyse the effects of missing information in the text, and the reader’s subsequent responsibility for filling the gaps and disambiguating the story. As a method, the essay establishes connections between its theoretical investigations and Esther Freud’s novel.

Keywords

  • gap
  • homodiegesis
  • interpretation
  • narrator
  • unreliability
Open Access

Constructing Womanhood in Zimbabwean Literature: Noviolet Bulawayo and Petina Gappah

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 58 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Literature written in English in the former British colonies of Southern Africa has attracted the public’s attention after the publication of Michael Chapman’s “Southern African Literaturesˮ (1996). The paper analyses the writings of two Zimbabwean authors - NoViolet Bulawayo (Elizabeth Zandile Tshele) and Petina Gappah – taking into account African feminist discourses.

Keywords

  • identity
  • language
  • women’s voices
  • Zimbabwe
Open Access

Women Figures in George Macdonald’s and J.R.R. Tolkien’s Fantasy Writings

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 69 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

It is an undisputed fact that George MacDonald’s fantasy books were among J.R.R. Tolkien’s many sources of inspiration when writing his Middle-earth epic. Among these, “The Princess and the Goblinˮ and “The Princess and Curdieˮ attracted my attention, through the figures of some interesting women who appear in both of them. This paper endeavours to draw a comparison between Tolkien’s outstanding female characters in “The Lord of the Ringsˮ and the earlier versions of the same feminine archetypes in the two MacDonald books, noting both points of similarity and differences, as well as the strong effect these women have upon other characters in the stories.

Keywords

  • faith
  • initiation
  • innocence
  • power
  • wisdom
  • women
Open Access

The Feminisation of Tradition. The Case of the Ukrainian Minority in Poland

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 83 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Research on the Ukrainian minority in Poland was conducted from a feminocentric perspective to break the masculinised perception of this minority. Multiple data in the research have demonstrated that over a span of three generations Ukrainian families have turned from patriarchal into matriarchal ones. Currently it is women who preserve and invent tradition, both in the private and the public sphere. This is an effect of the cultural change and of the disappearance of jobs previously done by men. The contemporary tradition of the minority as a whole rests on tasks and values previously ascribed to women.

Keywords

  • feminisation of tradition
  • invented tradition
  • Ukrainian minority in Poland
  • matriarchalisation of family
  • masculinity crisis
Open Access

“Should I Stay or Should I Go?” The Promise of Europe and Female Identity in Francesca (2009)

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 96 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the premise that intra-EU migration has generated a repertoire of representations, narratives and stances in Romanian public imagination, within a transnational context, the present article explores an area that has attracted little scholarly attention to date: Romanian New Cinema films that tackle this theme. The analysis focuses on “Francescaˮ (Bobby Păunescu, 2009), a film centred on a female character who is on the verge of deciding whether to emigrate or not. It examines how female identity and agency are shaped in connection to symbolic constructions of the “West” as a destination space for Romanian migrants, through modalities of expression specific to the New Romanian Cinema.

Keywords

  • intra-EU migration
  • New Romanian Cinema
  • Romanian migration to Italy
  • symbolic construction
  • women migrants
Open Access

Empowering Women Through Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in East Java, Indonesia

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 113 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyzes the practices of two NGOs aiming to empower women through entrepreneurship in the province of East Java with the capital city Surabaya, Indonesia. Both NGOs have similar goals: to improve the well-being of women as well as to empower them in their households, communities and businesses; however, they differ in methodologies. Thus, it is thought-provoking to compare the ways and means applied by both NGOs to empower women. Their methodologies are presented and analyzed in order to capture their strengths and weaknesses, following a qualitative study that was carried out in two villages in the surrounding areas of Surabaya, Indonesia.

Keywords

  • Indonesia
  • microenterprises
  • NGOs
  • women empowerment
Open Access

Power and Ridicule – Elena CeauȘescu in Communist Humour

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 129 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

Although one of the most influential figures of Romanian Communism, Elena Ceaușescu has been the subject of a rather limited literature exploring her historical figure. I intend to revisit the political humour of Romanian communism in order to reveal the manners and strategies employed by this type of folklore in affirming the hyperbolized clichés that defined the dictator’s wife in the public mind of that age. I also intend to bring into discussion the common traditional prejudice that blamed Elena Ceaușescu for her husband’s catastrophic politics that impoverished and isolated Romania in the Eastern Bloc.

Keywords

  • dictatorsʼ wives
  • Elena Ceaușescu
  • female communist leaders
  • political humour
  • post-communism
  • Romanian communism
Open Access

Grieving those Who Still Live: Loss Experienced by Parents of Transgender Children

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 142 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Transgender identity can be defined as the self-awareness of a discrepancy between the assigned sex at birth and the personal gender identity of an individual. This study assumed the constructionist perspective, focused on the influence of culture on sex-typing and the representations of gender in child development. This research considers how parents of transgender children emotionally handled the transition. Being faced with a child’s transgender identity may cause an emotional experience similar to mourning, in particular, ambiguous loss (Coolhart, Ritenour & Grodzinski 2018, McGuire et al. 2016, Norwood 2013). In this qualitative research, 97 associations dealing with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) issues were contacted to recruit participants from three different countries: Italy, Spain and U.S.A. The sample includes 18 parents of trangender people who completed an ad hoc questionnaire. A brief standard story was constructed about an experience of sexual transition, followed by some questions on the experience of parental mourning during the transgender transition of their children. The corpora were analysed in the three original languages, and the analysis was performed with Atlas.ti. From the qualitative analysis of the texts that describe parents’ experience, three fundamental elements emerged. The first is inherent to the mourning orientation to loss and the fear of death; the second to the disenfranchisement of mourning and transgender identity between family and society; and the third illustrates the final restorative outcome of mourning.

Keywords

  • children’s transgender identity
  • dual process model
  • grief
  • parents’ loss
  • qualitative research
Open Access

Fan Culture and Masculinity: Identity Construction of Persib Supporters

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 163 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

Linking the local practices that are used to build an apparently shared identity and generate personal and group attachment towards ʽPersibʼ, a local football club in West Java Indonesia, we examine ʽbobotohʼ that use football and football fan clubs as means of creating an in-group–out-group identity. We examine concepts of fandom, identity construction and masculinity to demonstrate how the bias becomes a unifying element that can provoke conflicts. We argue that ʽbobotohʼ and ʽPersibʼ become one of the most central sites of masculine performance in West Java and socialize Sundanese boys into values, attitudes, and skills valorised as masculine to help facilitate their acceptance into social groups.

Keywords

  • bobotoh
  • football
  • identity
  • masculinity
  • Persib
Open Access

Fatima Agnaou. 2004. Gender, Literacy, and Empowerment in Morocco. New York: Routledge, 212 pp, ISBN 0-203-48917-9

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 179 - 181

Abstract

Open Access

Aliraza Javaid. Masculinities, Sexualities and Love. London and New York: Routledge, 2019, 177p. ISBN 978-0-8153-8065-8 (hbk), ISBN 978-1-351-21271-7 (ebk).

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 182 - 186

Abstract

Open Access

Jane Austen: Glose, înțelesuri, interpretări. Coordonator Mihaela Mudure. Cluj Napoca: Casa Cărții de Știință, 2019, 247p. ISBN: 978-606-17-1175-8.

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Page range: 187 - 193

Abstract

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