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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-3405
First Published
24 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 44 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-3405
First Published
24 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Preface to the Special Issue on Philosophy in Computer Science

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 3 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

Fleck’s concept of thought style allows to realize the fact that in contemporary empirical sciences we deal with a computer thought style, as most research works are currently conducted with the use of computer-aided systems. In this article I support the thesis that contemporary research works are dominated by the computer research style. I refer to the findings of Fleck, Bolter, Castells, Crombie and Hacking.

Keywords

  • thought style
  • computer-aided research
  • computer research style
Open Access

The progress of science from a computational point of view: the drive towards ever higher solvability

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 11 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

This essay’s content is rendered by the titles of the successive sections. 1. Effective solvability versus intuitive solvability. — 2. Decidability, i.e. effective solvability, in predicate logic. The speedup phenomenon — 3. Contributions of the second-order logic to the problems of solvability — 4. The infinite progress of science in the light of Turing’s idea of the oracle. The term “oracle” is a technical counterpart of the notion of mathematical intuition.

A more detailed summary can be obtained through juxtaposing the textboxes labelled with letters A...F. Conclusion: in the progress of science an essential role is played by the feedback between intellectual intuitions (intuitive solvability) and algorithmic procedures (effective solvability).

Keywords

  • effective solvability
  • intuitive solvability
  • decidability
  • speedup
  • second-order logic
  • solvability
  • oracle
  • mathematical intuition
  • progress of science
  • algorithmic procedures
Open Access

From Computer Science to the Informational Worldview. Philosophical Interpretations of Some Computer Science Concepts

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 27 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In this article I defend the thesis that modern computer science has a significant philosophical potential, which is expressed in a form of worldview, called here informational worldview (IVW). It includes such theses like: a) each being contains a certain informational content (which may be revealed by computer science concepts, such as code or algorithm), b) the mind is an information processing system (which should be modeled by means of data processing systems), c) cognition is a type of computation. These (pre)philosophical theses are accepted in many sciences (e.g. in cognitive science), and this is both an expression and strengthening of the IWV. After a general discussion of the relations between philosophy, particular sciences and the worldview, and then the presentation of the basic assumptions and theses of the IWV, I analyze a certain specification of thesis b) expressed in the statement that “the mind is the Turing machine”. I distinguish three concepts of mind (static, variable and minimal) and explain how each of them is connected with the concept of the Turing machine.

Keywords

  • philosophy
  • informational worldview
  • information
  • computation
  • informatism
  • mind
  • Turing machine
Open Access

Deanthropomorphized Pancomputationalism and the Concept of Computing

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 45 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Pancomputationalism is quite a wide-ranging concept, but most of its variants, either implicitly or explicitly, rely on Turing’s conceptualizations of a computer and computing, which are obvious anthropomorphisms. This paper questions the concept of pancomputationalism based on Turing computing and asks what concept of computation can be used to avoid the constrains of anthropomorphisations.

Keywords

  • pancomputationalims
  • Turing machines
  • computer
  • antropomorphisation
  • computing
Open Access

Mappism: formalizing classical and artificial life views on mind and consciousness

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 55 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout centuries philosophers have attempted to understand the disparity between the conscious experience and the material world – i.e., the problem of consciousness and the apparent mind–body dualism. Achievements in the fields of biology, neurology, and information science in the last century granted us more insight into processes that govern our minds. While there are still many mysteries to be solved when it comes to fully understanding the inner workings of our brains, new discoveries suggest stepping away from the metaphysical philosophy of mind, and closer to the computational viewpoint. In light of the advent of strong artificial intelligence and the development of increasingly complex artificial life models and simulations, we need a well-defined, formal theory of consciousness. In order to facilitate this, in this work we introduce mappism. Mappism is a framework in which alternative views on consciousness can be formally expressed in a uniform way, thus allowing one to analyze and compare existing theories, and enforcing the use of the language of mathematics, i.e, explicit functions and variables. Using this framework, we describe classical and artificial life approaches to consciousness.

Keywords

  • mind
  • consciousness
  • mathematical modeling
  • simulation
  • perception
Open Access

Attitude Towards Humanoid Robots and the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 101 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of the presented study was to check whether the well-established measures concerning the attitude towards humanoid robots are good predictors for the uncanny valley effect. We present a study in which 12 computer rendered humanoid models were presented to our subjects. Their declared comfort level was cross-referenced with the Belief in Human Nature Uniqueness (BHNU) and the Negative Attitudes toward Robots that Display Human Traits (NARHT) scales. Subsequently, there was no evidence of a statistical significance between these scales and the existence of the uncanny valley phenomenon. However, correlations between expected stress level while human-robot interaction and both BHNU, as well as NARHT scales, were found. The study covered also the evaluation of the perceived robots’ characteristic and the emotional response to them.

Keywords

  • Uncanny Valley Hypothesis
  • human-likeness
  • computer-generated models
  • attitude towards robots
  • Belief in Human Nature Uniqueness (BHNU)
  • Negative Attitudes toward Robots that Display Human Traits (NARHT)
  • HRI
  • social robotics
Open Access

Analysis of facial expression movements and the phenomenon of frontal asymmetry as the basis for automation of the research of hidden cognitive attitudes. Some basic remarks

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 121 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this text is to show how, using the achievements of modern computer science, psychology and neurobiology, we can search for an answer to the question about the a priori mechanisms of shaping a phenomenal image of reality given by experience. This phenomenalism statement is very close to, so called, Bayesian model of mind by Karl Friesen. The author asks how in massive scale to reach the cognitive processes taking place without representation, outside the field of consciousness, which influence the formation of this model of the world. The result of the consideration is to be a neuromachine project whose task will be to automate and mass research of hidden cognitive attitudes. Its activity is to become a real alternative to opinion polls performed in the paradigm of the so-called declarative sociology, which do not provide results significantly reducing the risk of decision-making in management.

Keywords

  • hidden cognitive attitudes
  • analysis of facial expression movements
  • frontal asymmetry effect
  • phenomenalism
7 Articles
Open Access

Preface to the Special Issue on Philosophy in Computer Science

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 3 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

Fleck’s concept of thought style allows to realize the fact that in contemporary empirical sciences we deal with a computer thought style, as most research works are currently conducted with the use of computer-aided systems. In this article I support the thesis that contemporary research works are dominated by the computer research style. I refer to the findings of Fleck, Bolter, Castells, Crombie and Hacking.

Keywords

  • thought style
  • computer-aided research
  • computer research style
Open Access

The progress of science from a computational point of view: the drive towards ever higher solvability

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 11 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

This essay’s content is rendered by the titles of the successive sections. 1. Effective solvability versus intuitive solvability. — 2. Decidability, i.e. effective solvability, in predicate logic. The speedup phenomenon — 3. Contributions of the second-order logic to the problems of solvability — 4. The infinite progress of science in the light of Turing’s idea of the oracle. The term “oracle” is a technical counterpart of the notion of mathematical intuition.

A more detailed summary can be obtained through juxtaposing the textboxes labelled with letters A...F. Conclusion: in the progress of science an essential role is played by the feedback between intellectual intuitions (intuitive solvability) and algorithmic procedures (effective solvability).

Keywords

  • effective solvability
  • intuitive solvability
  • decidability
  • speedup
  • second-order logic
  • solvability
  • oracle
  • mathematical intuition
  • progress of science
  • algorithmic procedures
Open Access

From Computer Science to the Informational Worldview. Philosophical Interpretations of Some Computer Science Concepts

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 27 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In this article I defend the thesis that modern computer science has a significant philosophical potential, which is expressed in a form of worldview, called here informational worldview (IVW). It includes such theses like: a) each being contains a certain informational content (which may be revealed by computer science concepts, such as code or algorithm), b) the mind is an information processing system (which should be modeled by means of data processing systems), c) cognition is a type of computation. These (pre)philosophical theses are accepted in many sciences (e.g. in cognitive science), and this is both an expression and strengthening of the IWV. After a general discussion of the relations between philosophy, particular sciences and the worldview, and then the presentation of the basic assumptions and theses of the IWV, I analyze a certain specification of thesis b) expressed in the statement that “the mind is the Turing machine”. I distinguish three concepts of mind (static, variable and minimal) and explain how each of them is connected with the concept of the Turing machine.

Keywords

  • philosophy
  • informational worldview
  • information
  • computation
  • informatism
  • mind
  • Turing machine
Open Access

Deanthropomorphized Pancomputationalism and the Concept of Computing

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 45 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Pancomputationalism is quite a wide-ranging concept, but most of its variants, either implicitly or explicitly, rely on Turing’s conceptualizations of a computer and computing, which are obvious anthropomorphisms. This paper questions the concept of pancomputationalism based on Turing computing and asks what concept of computation can be used to avoid the constrains of anthropomorphisations.

Keywords

  • pancomputationalims
  • Turing machines
  • computer
  • antropomorphisation
  • computing
Open Access

Mappism: formalizing classical and artificial life views on mind and consciousness

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 55 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout centuries philosophers have attempted to understand the disparity between the conscious experience and the material world – i.e., the problem of consciousness and the apparent mind–body dualism. Achievements in the fields of biology, neurology, and information science in the last century granted us more insight into processes that govern our minds. While there are still many mysteries to be solved when it comes to fully understanding the inner workings of our brains, new discoveries suggest stepping away from the metaphysical philosophy of mind, and closer to the computational viewpoint. In light of the advent of strong artificial intelligence and the development of increasingly complex artificial life models and simulations, we need a well-defined, formal theory of consciousness. In order to facilitate this, in this work we introduce mappism. Mappism is a framework in which alternative views on consciousness can be formally expressed in a uniform way, thus allowing one to analyze and compare existing theories, and enforcing the use of the language of mathematics, i.e, explicit functions and variables. Using this framework, we describe classical and artificial life approaches to consciousness.

Keywords

  • mind
  • consciousness
  • mathematical modeling
  • simulation
  • perception
Open Access

Attitude Towards Humanoid Robots and the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 101 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The main aim of the presented study was to check whether the well-established measures concerning the attitude towards humanoid robots are good predictors for the uncanny valley effect. We present a study in which 12 computer rendered humanoid models were presented to our subjects. Their declared comfort level was cross-referenced with the Belief in Human Nature Uniqueness (BHNU) and the Negative Attitudes toward Robots that Display Human Traits (NARHT) scales. Subsequently, there was no evidence of a statistical significance between these scales and the existence of the uncanny valley phenomenon. However, correlations between expected stress level while human-robot interaction and both BHNU, as well as NARHT scales, were found. The study covered also the evaluation of the perceived robots’ characteristic and the emotional response to them.

Keywords

  • Uncanny Valley Hypothesis
  • human-likeness
  • computer-generated models
  • attitude towards robots
  • Belief in Human Nature Uniqueness (BHNU)
  • Negative Attitudes toward Robots that Display Human Traits (NARHT)
  • HRI
  • social robotics
Open Access

Analysis of facial expression movements and the phenomenon of frontal asymmetry as the basis for automation of the research of hidden cognitive attitudes. Some basic remarks

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 121 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this text is to show how, using the achievements of modern computer science, psychology and neurobiology, we can search for an answer to the question about the a priori mechanisms of shaping a phenomenal image of reality given by experience. This phenomenalism statement is very close to, so called, Bayesian model of mind by Karl Friesen. The author asks how in massive scale to reach the cognitive processes taking place without representation, outside the field of consciousness, which influence the formation of this model of the world. The result of the consideration is to be a neuromachine project whose task will be to automate and mass research of hidden cognitive attitudes. Its activity is to become a real alternative to opinion polls performed in the paradigm of the so-called declarative sociology, which do not provide results significantly reducing the risk of decision-making in management.

Keywords

  • hidden cognitive attitudes
  • analysis of facial expression movements
  • frontal asymmetry effect
  • phenomenalism

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