Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 41 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 40 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 39 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 38 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 37 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 36 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 35 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 33 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1337-947X
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 41 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1337-947X
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Physicochemical Water Quality Indicators in the Neretva River Basin (B&H) With Reference to Ecological Conditions for Endemic Salmonids

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Due to its natural features, the Neretva River has been interesting throughout its stream for the construction of energy facilities, as well as its tributaries Rama, Trebišnica, Tihaljina, Lištica. Jablanica (1955), HPP Rama (1968), CHE Čapljina (1979), HPP Salakovac (1981), HPP Grabovica (1982), HPP Mostar (1987), HPP Peć Mlini, HPP Mostarsko blato have been built on the Neretva River and its tributaries. HPP. The aim of this paper is to determine the state of chemical and physical parameters of water in reservoirs and streams, as well as the parameters of the aquatic environment in which endemic salmonids previously lived and the possibility of revitalization of these watercourses. The ecological conditions of the Neretva reservoirs for the life of Neretva-endemic fish and the similarity to the conditions in the natural course of Neretva before the construction of the dam were examined. The research was conducted during 2017 and 2018 at several locations in the Neretva river basin (reservoirs and streams).

Keywords

  • water quality
  • Neretva river basin
  • ecological conditions
Open Access

Water Quality and Zooplankton Assessment of Iyiakwu River, Southeast Nigeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 9 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

Water quality and zooplankton assessment of a rural river in Southeast Nigeria was carried out between May 2019 and October 2019 in three stations in relation to anthropogenic activities. The major anthropogenic activity in the river was indiscriminate sand mining. The water samples were collected and analyzed using standard sampling and analytical procedures while zooplankton samples were collected using filtration method. pH and dissolved oxygen values were lower than acceptable limits while some of the biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded the acceptable limit. A total of 447 individuals from 25 zooplankton taxa and three major taxonomic groups were recorded. Copepoda was the dominant group (158 individuals/L), followed by Rotifera (147 individuals/L) and Cladocera (142 individuals/L). Spatially, station 1 had the highest abundance (159 individuals/L), followed by station 3 (152 individuals/L) and station 2 (136 individuals/L). The biodiversity indices (Shannon–Weiner and Margalef) were low while Evenness was high when compared with their respective ranges. This study has shown that the combined effects of season, sand mining and other activities have not adversely affected the water quality and zooplankton community. However, the community structure of the zooplankton groups gave an indication of a moderately polluted environment; attributable to the effects of season and human activities in the watershed. Sand mining is a major activity in the river and needs to be regulated to forestall any adverse effect on the water quality and biota in future as observed elsewhere.

Keywords

  • water quality
  • sand mining
  • zooplankton
  • biodiversity
  • CCA
Open Access

Soil Fauna of Ranibari Community Forest, Kathmandu, Nepal

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Ranibari Community Forest (RCF) is the important forest patch present within the highly urbanized Kathmandu Valley with information gaps on soil fauna. This study aimed to explore the soil meso and macrofauna of the forest. Fourteen random quadrats (1 × 1 m2) were laid within seven blocks. Leaf litter samples and soil cores were collected, screened, sieved, and searched under a white sheet, once a fortnight from May to November 2019. The results showed that the diversity, abundance, and richness of soil fauna were the highest in the summer season (H´ = 2.897, abundance = 1,973, S = 84) dominated by Collembola. The Soil Biological Quality Index (QBS-ar) value was also found to be the highest in summer (QBS-ar = 417) and successively decreased in succeeding seasons. Soil fauna was diverse and evenly distributed in soil layers throughout the seasons, but the abundance was greater in leaf litters, particularly in summer. Fauna like Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Haplotaxida, and Isopoda were seen to be affected negatively by soil temperature in summer and autumn seasons. Soil moisture content was found to be positively correlated with immature insects, earthworms, and millipedes in the rainy and autumn seasons. Besides, the pH of the soil was seen to affect Diplura only in the autumn season. The relation of fauna with the physicochemical parameters (temperature, moisture, and pH) and also with other taxa showed their ecological roles and adaptation to a specific microclimate.

Keywords

  • diversity
  • macrofauna
  • mesofauna
  • QBS-ar
Open Access

Temporal Dynamics of Soil Invertebrate Communities in a Vineyard Under Treatment with Pesticides

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 26 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Phytosanitary treatments with pesticides are widely used to control pests and diseases in vineyards. An important part of the dispersed pesticide reaches the soil, affecting the fauna, producing quantitative and qualitative changes in the edaphic population’s structure and physiological activities. This study aims to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the soil macro and mesofauna through different pesticide treatment periods, where fungicides are the dominant pest control agent. A field experiment was carried out in Boumerdes, a specific viticultural region in Algeria. Soil samples were taken during three periods, before, during, and after treatment with pesticides, using the quadrat method at three soil depths. During these three periods, the soil macro and mesofauna were observed and compared. The results showed significant differences in the composition of invertebrate communities that tended to disappear during pesticide application. The structure and diversity of 11 invertebrate classes, including Collembola, changed along the treatment gradient. The effects of sampling periods on occurrence, abundance, and taxon richness were consistently negative. These indices were significantly lower after pesticide application. Therefore, we can suppose that climatic factors and pesticide treatements are the main factors affecting the activity and density of all classes of invertebrates, but these effects vary between the functional groups of soil biota.

Keywords

  • arthropods
  • collembolan
  • community structure
  • non-target effects
  • soil fauna
  • viticulture
Open Access

Invertebrates Investigation in Apple Orchard, Dorset Golden Variety, in Tizi-Ouzou Region of North Algeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

This work concerns the inventory of invertebrates in the apple tree plot of Dorset golden variety in Tizi-Ouzou area by using four methods of trapping (Barber traps, coloured traps, sweep net and butterflies net) during the study period from July 2015 until June 2016. This study allowed us to collect 214 species belonging to 96 families, 18 orders and five classes of invertebrates. Ecological indices make it possible to account for the qualitative and quantitative diversity of invertebrates present in the environment. The objective of this inventory is to identify potential predators and parasites of infested pests to apple tree cultivation by emphasising on the different trophic regimes of species.

Keywords

  • inventory
  • invertebrates
  • Tizi-Ouzou
  • golden Dorset
  • apple tree
Open Access

Temporal Variation in Pollinators’ Visitation of Lantana camara in a Tropical Urban Landscape: Does Butterfly Abundance and Richness Drive the Fruit Set?

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 46 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Pollinator richness, abundance and visitation frequency may be affected by the abundance of floral resources and abiotic factors, influencing plant reproductive success. We analysed whether the diversity, abundance and frequency of butterfly visitation on Lantana camara vary across the year in a tropical urban landscape and whether this variation in butterfly community influences plant’s reproductive success. A two-period survey, referred to here as rainier and drier seasons, was carried out in 12 spatially independent plants. Five pollination treatments were applied: single visit, hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and open pollination (control). A total of 15,749 flowers were used for fruit production analysis. Butterfly richness, abundance and the reproductive success of L. camara increased in the drier season. Open pollination was ninefold more reproductively successful during the drier season. Fruit production of hand cross-pollinated plants was threefold higher than open-pollinated plants during the rainier season. No significant difference was found between these treatments in the drier season, attesting the highest abundance of pollination during this period. We provide evidence that changes in the pollinator community affect fruit production. The increase in pollinator diversity allows different visitors to pollinate the plant, increasing fruit set through functional complementarity. This effort establishes baseline data of plant–pollinator interactions for further long-term investigations across different weather seasons. The understanding of L. camara and butterflies’ synergism will support conservation measures of pollinator populations.

Keywords

  • Lepidoptera
  • Verbenaceae
  • plant–pollinator interactions
  • fruit set
  • Amazon
Open Access

The Influence of Urbanization on Mammal Diversity and their Population Patterns: A Case Study of Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 57 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The article provides a survey of the mammalian fauna and ecology in different habitats across the city of Tashkent that vary in the degree of urbanization. The current mammalian fauna of Tashkent is represented by 32 species; during the city’s development, 9 species have disappeared from the place, either through an anthropogenic impact or having been forced out by alien species. The urban mammalian fauna has increased through arrival of five new invasive species. With the ongoing urbanization, the species diversity of small-sized mammals is decreasing, while their numbers are growing, resulting in simplification of the structure of small mammals’ urban communities and lowering of their biodiversity. The urbanization does not impact the age and sex structure of the house mouse population noticeably. The urban population shows a productivity 1.7 times higher than the wild populations, which is a compensatory response to the relatively high embryonic mortality that is almost totally absent in natural populations. Differences in the morphophysiological indicators of the house mouse synanthropic population and those of populations in the wild are an adaptive response to anthropogenic impact, which appears in the form of more rapid growth, a higher metabolism, exchange of energies, and overall stress load on the rodents in urban biocoenoses. The study showed that the skulls of urban animals grow more rapidly than those of wild mice, while their proportions change following the development pattern of juvenile mice, which suggests that individuals from the Tashkent population can be referred to as rapidly growing animals, with outdoor individuals showing greater relative cranial parameters.

Keywords

  • urban ecosystems
  • mammals
  • synanthropic species
  • morphophysiological indicators
  • cranial features
Open Access

Phenology and Diurnal Behaviour of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea at Oglat Eddaira (Ain Ben Khlil) Wetland, Southwest of Algeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 70 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The ecological study (phenology and daytime budget) of ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Anatidae) at Lake Oglat Eddaira (Ain Ben Khlil), Southwest of Algeria, was carried out for three consecutive years from August 2017 to July 2020. While ruddy shelduck has the status of a sedentary species, it was found all year round, persisting at low numbers in mid-summer months (July–August). The numbers of ruddy shelduck began to increase from the first decade of September with the arrival of the wintering and breeding populations. High numbers of ruddy shelduck were mainly recorded between late January and early March. During our monitoring, the balance sheet of the rhythms of daytime activities was dominated by feeding in water and on banks (68%), followed by preening (16.77%), swimming (9.85%,), sleeping (4.67%) and flying (1.22%). Therefore, we can conclude that Oglat Eddaira wetland plays the role of a diurnal grazing ground for this Anatidae.

Keywords

  • phenology
  • daytime budget
  • Oglat Eddaira
Open Access

The Ornithological Zoning of the Azov–Black Sea Dry Steppe Enclave of Europe

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 78 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The scheme of ornithological zoning of the Azov–Black Sea dry steppe enclave of Europe has been presented in the article based on domination of individual ornithological complexes, depending on the landscape structure of the territory. This enclave is a unique region due to its utmost western location and moderate continental climate. Its typical natural features and factors of their formation have been determined. The anthropogenic transformations of region have been characterized, and peculiarities of landscape changes have been caused by them. It has been found that the agro-landscapes are dominated in the Azov–Black Sea dry steppe enclave by the area. The schemes of physical–geographical zoning have been determined, which are suitable for ornithological zoning of the region; the dependence of composition of ornithological fauna on predominant landscapes has been revealed. On this basis, the scheme of ornithological zoning of the mentioned region has been proposed. The flat interfluve-steppe, stony-steppe, sandy-steppe, floodplain-river, and liman-marine ornithological areas have been singled out and have been characterized. The main differences in the ornithological regions are correlations of predominant and codominant ornithological faunistic complexes, which depend on the area landscapes and natural and anthropogenic transformation of their components; they are relief, soil, water bodies, and vegetation.

Keywords

  • landscapes of dry steppe Ukraine
  • landscape zoning
  • anthropogenic changes of landscapes
  • ornithological faunistic complexes
  • predominant species of bird
  • ornithological zoning
Open Access

New Investigation and Challenge for Spatiotemporal Drought Monitoring Using Bottom-Up Precipitation Dataset (SM2RAIN-ASCAT) and NDVI in Moroccan Arid and Semi-Arid Rangelands

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 90 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Remotely sensed soil moisture products showed sensitivity to vegetation cover density and soil typology at regional dryland level. In these regions, drought monitoring is significantly performed using soil moisture index and rainfall data. Recently, rainfall and soil moisture observations have increasingly become available. This has hampered scientific progress as regards characterization of land surface processes not just in meteorology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a newly developed precipitation dataset, SM2RAIN (Advanced SCATterometer (SM2RAIN-ASCAT), and NDVI (eMODIS-TERRA) in monitoring drought events over diverse rangeland regions of Morocco. Results indicated that the highest polynomial correlation coefficient and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) between SM2RAIN-ASCAT and NDVI were found in a 10-year period from 2007 to 2017 in all rangelands (R = 0.81; RMSE = 0.05). This relationship was strong for degraded rangeland, where there were strong positive correlation coefficients for NDVI and SM2RAIN (R = 0.99). High correlations were found for sparse and moderate correlations for shrub rangeland (R = 0.82 and 0.61, respectively). The anomalies maps showed a very good similarity between SM2RAIN and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The results revealed that the SM2RAIN-ASCAT and NDVI product could accurately predict drought events in arid and semi-arid rangelands.

Keywords

  • new investigation of bottom-up precipitation dataset (SM2RAIN-ASCAT) and NDVI
  • spatiotemporal drought
  • monitoring rangelands
10 Articles
Open Access

Physicochemical Water Quality Indicators in the Neretva River Basin (B&H) With Reference to Ecological Conditions for Endemic Salmonids

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Due to its natural features, the Neretva River has been interesting throughout its stream for the construction of energy facilities, as well as its tributaries Rama, Trebišnica, Tihaljina, Lištica. Jablanica (1955), HPP Rama (1968), CHE Čapljina (1979), HPP Salakovac (1981), HPP Grabovica (1982), HPP Mostar (1987), HPP Peć Mlini, HPP Mostarsko blato have been built on the Neretva River and its tributaries. HPP. The aim of this paper is to determine the state of chemical and physical parameters of water in reservoirs and streams, as well as the parameters of the aquatic environment in which endemic salmonids previously lived and the possibility of revitalization of these watercourses. The ecological conditions of the Neretva reservoirs for the life of Neretva-endemic fish and the similarity to the conditions in the natural course of Neretva before the construction of the dam were examined. The research was conducted during 2017 and 2018 at several locations in the Neretva river basin (reservoirs and streams).

Keywords

  • water quality
  • Neretva river basin
  • ecological conditions
Open Access

Water Quality and Zooplankton Assessment of Iyiakwu River, Southeast Nigeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 9 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

Water quality and zooplankton assessment of a rural river in Southeast Nigeria was carried out between May 2019 and October 2019 in three stations in relation to anthropogenic activities. The major anthropogenic activity in the river was indiscriminate sand mining. The water samples were collected and analyzed using standard sampling and analytical procedures while zooplankton samples were collected using filtration method. pH and dissolved oxygen values were lower than acceptable limits while some of the biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded the acceptable limit. A total of 447 individuals from 25 zooplankton taxa and three major taxonomic groups were recorded. Copepoda was the dominant group (158 individuals/L), followed by Rotifera (147 individuals/L) and Cladocera (142 individuals/L). Spatially, station 1 had the highest abundance (159 individuals/L), followed by station 3 (152 individuals/L) and station 2 (136 individuals/L). The biodiversity indices (Shannon–Weiner and Margalef) were low while Evenness was high when compared with their respective ranges. This study has shown that the combined effects of season, sand mining and other activities have not adversely affected the water quality and zooplankton community. However, the community structure of the zooplankton groups gave an indication of a moderately polluted environment; attributable to the effects of season and human activities in the watershed. Sand mining is a major activity in the river and needs to be regulated to forestall any adverse effect on the water quality and biota in future as observed elsewhere.

Keywords

  • water quality
  • sand mining
  • zooplankton
  • biodiversity
  • CCA
Open Access

Soil Fauna of Ranibari Community Forest, Kathmandu, Nepal

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Ranibari Community Forest (RCF) is the important forest patch present within the highly urbanized Kathmandu Valley with information gaps on soil fauna. This study aimed to explore the soil meso and macrofauna of the forest. Fourteen random quadrats (1 × 1 m2) were laid within seven blocks. Leaf litter samples and soil cores were collected, screened, sieved, and searched under a white sheet, once a fortnight from May to November 2019. The results showed that the diversity, abundance, and richness of soil fauna were the highest in the summer season (H´ = 2.897, abundance = 1,973, S = 84) dominated by Collembola. The Soil Biological Quality Index (QBS-ar) value was also found to be the highest in summer (QBS-ar = 417) and successively decreased in succeeding seasons. Soil fauna was diverse and evenly distributed in soil layers throughout the seasons, but the abundance was greater in leaf litters, particularly in summer. Fauna like Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Haplotaxida, and Isopoda were seen to be affected negatively by soil temperature in summer and autumn seasons. Soil moisture content was found to be positively correlated with immature insects, earthworms, and millipedes in the rainy and autumn seasons. Besides, the pH of the soil was seen to affect Diplura only in the autumn season. The relation of fauna with the physicochemical parameters (temperature, moisture, and pH) and also with other taxa showed their ecological roles and adaptation to a specific microclimate.

Keywords

  • diversity
  • macrofauna
  • mesofauna
  • QBS-ar
Open Access

Temporal Dynamics of Soil Invertebrate Communities in a Vineyard Under Treatment with Pesticides

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 26 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Phytosanitary treatments with pesticides are widely used to control pests and diseases in vineyards. An important part of the dispersed pesticide reaches the soil, affecting the fauna, producing quantitative and qualitative changes in the edaphic population’s structure and physiological activities. This study aims to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the soil macro and mesofauna through different pesticide treatment periods, where fungicides are the dominant pest control agent. A field experiment was carried out in Boumerdes, a specific viticultural region in Algeria. Soil samples were taken during three periods, before, during, and after treatment with pesticides, using the quadrat method at three soil depths. During these three periods, the soil macro and mesofauna were observed and compared. The results showed significant differences in the composition of invertebrate communities that tended to disappear during pesticide application. The structure and diversity of 11 invertebrate classes, including Collembola, changed along the treatment gradient. The effects of sampling periods on occurrence, abundance, and taxon richness were consistently negative. These indices were significantly lower after pesticide application. Therefore, we can suppose that climatic factors and pesticide treatements are the main factors affecting the activity and density of all classes of invertebrates, but these effects vary between the functional groups of soil biota.

Keywords

  • arthropods
  • collembolan
  • community structure
  • non-target effects
  • soil fauna
  • viticulture
Open Access

Invertebrates Investigation in Apple Orchard, Dorset Golden Variety, in Tizi-Ouzou Region of North Algeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

This work concerns the inventory of invertebrates in the apple tree plot of Dorset golden variety in Tizi-Ouzou area by using four methods of trapping (Barber traps, coloured traps, sweep net and butterflies net) during the study period from July 2015 until June 2016. This study allowed us to collect 214 species belonging to 96 families, 18 orders and five classes of invertebrates. Ecological indices make it possible to account for the qualitative and quantitative diversity of invertebrates present in the environment. The objective of this inventory is to identify potential predators and parasites of infested pests to apple tree cultivation by emphasising on the different trophic regimes of species.

Keywords

  • inventory
  • invertebrates
  • Tizi-Ouzou
  • golden Dorset
  • apple tree
Open Access

Temporal Variation in Pollinators’ Visitation of Lantana camara in a Tropical Urban Landscape: Does Butterfly Abundance and Richness Drive the Fruit Set?

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 46 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Pollinator richness, abundance and visitation frequency may be affected by the abundance of floral resources and abiotic factors, influencing plant reproductive success. We analysed whether the diversity, abundance and frequency of butterfly visitation on Lantana camara vary across the year in a tropical urban landscape and whether this variation in butterfly community influences plant’s reproductive success. A two-period survey, referred to here as rainier and drier seasons, was carried out in 12 spatially independent plants. Five pollination treatments were applied: single visit, hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and open pollination (control). A total of 15,749 flowers were used for fruit production analysis. Butterfly richness, abundance and the reproductive success of L. camara increased in the drier season. Open pollination was ninefold more reproductively successful during the drier season. Fruit production of hand cross-pollinated plants was threefold higher than open-pollinated plants during the rainier season. No significant difference was found between these treatments in the drier season, attesting the highest abundance of pollination during this period. We provide evidence that changes in the pollinator community affect fruit production. The increase in pollinator diversity allows different visitors to pollinate the plant, increasing fruit set through functional complementarity. This effort establishes baseline data of plant–pollinator interactions for further long-term investigations across different weather seasons. The understanding of L. camara and butterflies’ synergism will support conservation measures of pollinator populations.

Keywords

  • Lepidoptera
  • Verbenaceae
  • plant–pollinator interactions
  • fruit set
  • Amazon
Open Access

The Influence of Urbanization on Mammal Diversity and their Population Patterns: A Case Study of Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 57 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The article provides a survey of the mammalian fauna and ecology in different habitats across the city of Tashkent that vary in the degree of urbanization. The current mammalian fauna of Tashkent is represented by 32 species; during the city’s development, 9 species have disappeared from the place, either through an anthropogenic impact or having been forced out by alien species. The urban mammalian fauna has increased through arrival of five new invasive species. With the ongoing urbanization, the species diversity of small-sized mammals is decreasing, while their numbers are growing, resulting in simplification of the structure of small mammals’ urban communities and lowering of their biodiversity. The urbanization does not impact the age and sex structure of the house mouse population noticeably. The urban population shows a productivity 1.7 times higher than the wild populations, which is a compensatory response to the relatively high embryonic mortality that is almost totally absent in natural populations. Differences in the morphophysiological indicators of the house mouse synanthropic population and those of populations in the wild are an adaptive response to anthropogenic impact, which appears in the form of more rapid growth, a higher metabolism, exchange of energies, and overall stress load on the rodents in urban biocoenoses. The study showed that the skulls of urban animals grow more rapidly than those of wild mice, while their proportions change following the development pattern of juvenile mice, which suggests that individuals from the Tashkent population can be referred to as rapidly growing animals, with outdoor individuals showing greater relative cranial parameters.

Keywords

  • urban ecosystems
  • mammals
  • synanthropic species
  • morphophysiological indicators
  • cranial features
Open Access

Phenology and Diurnal Behaviour of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea at Oglat Eddaira (Ain Ben Khlil) Wetland, Southwest of Algeria

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 70 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The ecological study (phenology and daytime budget) of ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Anatidae) at Lake Oglat Eddaira (Ain Ben Khlil), Southwest of Algeria, was carried out for three consecutive years from August 2017 to July 2020. While ruddy shelduck has the status of a sedentary species, it was found all year round, persisting at low numbers in mid-summer months (July–August). The numbers of ruddy shelduck began to increase from the first decade of September with the arrival of the wintering and breeding populations. High numbers of ruddy shelduck were mainly recorded between late January and early March. During our monitoring, the balance sheet of the rhythms of daytime activities was dominated by feeding in water and on banks (68%), followed by preening (16.77%), swimming (9.85%,), sleeping (4.67%) and flying (1.22%). Therefore, we can conclude that Oglat Eddaira wetland plays the role of a diurnal grazing ground for this Anatidae.

Keywords

  • phenology
  • daytime budget
  • Oglat Eddaira
Open Access

The Ornithological Zoning of the Azov–Black Sea Dry Steppe Enclave of Europe

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 78 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The scheme of ornithological zoning of the Azov–Black Sea dry steppe enclave of Europe has been presented in the article based on domination of individual ornithological complexes, depending on the landscape structure of the territory. This enclave is a unique region due to its utmost western location and moderate continental climate. Its typical natural features and factors of their formation have been determined. The anthropogenic transformations of region have been characterized, and peculiarities of landscape changes have been caused by them. It has been found that the agro-landscapes are dominated in the Azov–Black Sea dry steppe enclave by the area. The schemes of physical–geographical zoning have been determined, which are suitable for ornithological zoning of the region; the dependence of composition of ornithological fauna on predominant landscapes has been revealed. On this basis, the scheme of ornithological zoning of the mentioned region has been proposed. The flat interfluve-steppe, stony-steppe, sandy-steppe, floodplain-river, and liman-marine ornithological areas have been singled out and have been characterized. The main differences in the ornithological regions are correlations of predominant and codominant ornithological faunistic complexes, which depend on the area landscapes and natural and anthropogenic transformation of their components; they are relief, soil, water bodies, and vegetation.

Keywords

  • landscapes of dry steppe Ukraine
  • landscape zoning
  • anthropogenic changes of landscapes
  • ornithological faunistic complexes
  • predominant species of bird
  • ornithological zoning
Open Access

New Investigation and Challenge for Spatiotemporal Drought Monitoring Using Bottom-Up Precipitation Dataset (SM2RAIN-ASCAT) and NDVI in Moroccan Arid and Semi-Arid Rangelands

Published Online: 22 Apr 2022
Page range: 90 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Remotely sensed soil moisture products showed sensitivity to vegetation cover density and soil typology at regional dryland level. In these regions, drought monitoring is significantly performed using soil moisture index and rainfall data. Recently, rainfall and soil moisture observations have increasingly become available. This has hampered scientific progress as regards characterization of land surface processes not just in meteorology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a newly developed precipitation dataset, SM2RAIN (Advanced SCATterometer (SM2RAIN-ASCAT), and NDVI (eMODIS-TERRA) in monitoring drought events over diverse rangeland regions of Morocco. Results indicated that the highest polynomial correlation coefficient and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) between SM2RAIN-ASCAT and NDVI were found in a 10-year period from 2007 to 2017 in all rangelands (R = 0.81; RMSE = 0.05). This relationship was strong for degraded rangeland, where there were strong positive correlation coefficients for NDVI and SM2RAIN (R = 0.99). High correlations were found for sparse and moderate correlations for shrub rangeland (R = 0.82 and 0.61, respectively). The anomalies maps showed a very good similarity between SM2RAIN and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The results revealed that the SM2RAIN-ASCAT and NDVI product could accurately predict drought events in arid and semi-arid rangelands.

Keywords

  • new investigation of bottom-up precipitation dataset (SM2RAIN-ASCAT) and NDVI
  • spatiotemporal drought
  • monitoring rangelands

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