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Journal & Issues

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2729-7640
First Published
15 Nov 1996
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2729-7640
First Published
15 Nov 1996
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Editorial

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 1 - 3

Abstract

Open Access

Alpine huts: Architectural innovations and development in the High Tatras until the first half of the 20th century

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 4 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

For man, the mountain environment was a source of raw materials and a place of economic activity until the end of the 18th century. This paper examines how the exploration of mountain valleys lead from the first ascents to the peaks to today’s exploitation of the mountain environment. We are currently following efforts to protect the unique environment of the mountains and to preserve the architectural heritage of the 20th century. In the paper, we look at the architecture of the High Tatras of the first half of the 20th century, which is lost under the coatings of today. The article traces the line of innovation in the 20th century and examines the causes and consequences of the origin and development of architecture in the alpine environment, with a focus on changes in the paradigm of social thinking in the relationship between architecture and the original landscape. The subject of the paper is mapping of the architectural heritage embedded in the unique environment of the world natural heritage of alpine terrains in the High Tatras and the study of the settlement process with innovative technologies and materials that have enabled architecture to enter difficult terrains. As industrialization, mechanization and electrification have greatly simplified and streamlined the construction process, the work identifies not only the development of new design, technological and material solutions, but also the resilience of the environment to innovation. It focuses on the analysis of innovative progress and monitors its development in contact with the mountain architecture from the moment of planning, work implementation and possible construction changes. The work focuses on the typology of mountain huts and the process of their architectural design.

Keywords

  • alpine architecture
  • innovations
  • High Tatras
  • alpine hut
  • modernism
  • chalet
Open Access

Route options in inclusive museums: Case studies from Central Europe

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 12 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Museums are complex architectural works with many distinctive elements. One of the most significant museum features are routes or paths on which visitors circulate museums and perceive exhibitions. Children and people with special needs often have specific demands on physical accessibility of the surrounding environment, chronological arrangement of spaces and amount of information presented at a time. The arrangement of functional units in museum layouts affects wayfinding in space, understanding of the exhibition, as well as visitor guidance. The order in which people visit particular segments in a museum can also be described as one of the most important architectural and operational characteristics of this type of cultural buildings and areas. The article examines ways of arranging spaces in a museum building and the suitability of their application. These forms are evaluated based on various aspects; some of the created effects are studied, e.g. creation of a desired atmosphere. Existing concepts are compared and supplemented with other theoretical knowledge. The article aims to present variant suitable ways of composing routes that would meet the needs of different people, and bring them a quality leisure and educational experience from a museum tour. Various types of museum layout organisation and arrangement of exhibition spaces are illustrated with abstract schemes, as well as with specific case studies of five selected museums. The selection consists of architecturally exceptional and high-quality museums in Central Europe, which are able to attract a whole range of various groups of people including a younger audience. They are examples of both modern museums in this area and route planning options. The case studies highlight interesting local ideas, space concepts, routing methods, and also solutions for increasing inclusion of all visitors and children in particular.

Keywords

  • museum
  • children
  • tour route
  • inclusion
  • architecture
  • exhibition
  • sequence
Open Access

Microclimatic factors in urban development: The setup of an environmental observatory at the FAD STU

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 25 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The presented research focuses on energy (im)balance on both global and local scale. The main emphasis is placed on microclimatic factors directly affecting public urban spaces and related physical processes regarding the city that are closely linked to energy flows and result in the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs). As they are one of the main adverse effects of human activities, the paper introduces the classification of UHIs by types, describes the basic differences between the surface energy balance of rural and urban areas, and introduces climate-sensitive urban design as one of the possible ways of mitigating the undesirable anthropogenic impact on the climate change. The authors of the article present their own research, which predominantly focuses on the development of an environmental observatory situated on the rooftop of the building of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU in Bratislava (hereafter referred to as the FAD STU). They interpret the experimental operation of sensing probe 1 and the first results and measurement data on Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation (GHSI) and their post-processing. In addition, they describe the construction of sensing probe 2, which will provide more data on the total atmospheric precipitation, wind speed and its direction, presence of dust particles and carbon dioxide in the air, or spectral characteristics of incident and reflected solar radiation. Finally, the experimental operation of a thermal and micro- camera with fisheye lenses is described. These cameras are essential for measuring the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as one of the parameters used for the assessment of vegetation vitality, which also plays a key role in the formation of the UHI effect.

Keywords

  • city
  • urban heat island
  • urban microclimate
  • physical parameters
  • environmental observatory
  • sensing probe
  • FAD STU
Open Access

The impacts of climate change on urban structures in Slovak cities: Identifying vulnerable urban structures

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

In the coming decades, our cities will face extreme weather caused by climate change, which they will have to adopt. Adaptation of the urban environment is attracting the growing attention of planners, researchers, and policy makers in Slovakia and around the world. As essential for urban environment, the National Adaptation Strategy identified the adaptation at local level, which represents the participation of municipalities, supports the development of local adaptation strategies and subsequent implementation of actions that provide the cities with stronger sustainability and resilience. Within the last 8 years since the adoption of the national strategy, only 8 out of 141 Slovak cities in total elaborated an adaptation strategy that could be considered for further investigation. Consequently, this paper aims to broaden our knowledge of the two most significant impacts of climate change–heatwaves and floods–on urban structures in Slovak cities and validate the importance of spatial vulnerability analyses as a considerable tool for the expected unified national methodology for developing local adaptation strategies. The study examines analyses of spatial vulnerability to heat-waves in Hlohovec, Košice – Západ, and Trnava, and analyses of spatial vulnerability to floods in Hlohovec and Kežmarok, developed as part of vulnerability assessment within the framework of adaptation strategies of these cities. The analyses selected for comparison allow us to identify vulnerable urban structures and provide a deeper understanding of the causes of vulnerability in Slovakia, which is crucial for the development of adaptation strategies in the future and the building of resilience in Slovak cities. The article provides an exploratory spatial analysis of vulnerability hotspots. Based on the findings, it outlines the principles of spatial planning and urban structures that are resilient to the impacts of heatwaves and floods.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • urban adaptation
  • spatial vulnerability
  • spatial planning
  • sustainable development
Open Access

Pop-up architecture as a tool for popularizing theatre: Prototype No. 1

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 40 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

This article builds on previous research dealing with temporary theatres in the context of Europe and Slovakia, discusses the topic of pop-up pavilions in terms of architecture, their use in marketing and as a potential tool for reviving the theatre scene. Just as temporary architecture can activate neglected areas in the city and bring stimuli for a permanent change, we believe that it can be equally stimulating in the area of theatre. The Shed by Haworth Tompkins is one of the examples to demonstrate a possible positive contribution of such designs to a permanent theatre and its surroundings. Based on the analysis of similar examples and statistical data on the attendance of theatre performances, we decided to design and implement a prototype of a minimal theatre scene, which also provides wide variability and can be used beyond the time dedicated to theatre activities. In the design phase, we examine the limits of variability and explore the basics of kinetic architecture. In the second phase after the object is assembled and implemented, the subject of research will be its impact on the environment, the extent of user interaction with the object and the overall functionality of the object. The ambitions of our project do not reach as high as presented in The Shed. The aim was to test the possibilities and viability of a much smaller object, to document the cultural, educational, and even economic benefits, in domestic conditions of Slovakia. Thanks to The Program for the Support of Young Researchers of the Slovak University of Technology and The PUN (Universal Design Support) Project No. 321041APA3 financed by the European Social Fund, the object is currently in production, and later will be moved to the faculty premises, surface-threated and then assembled for the very first time. The prototype should be fully available by the end of the year 2022.

Keywords

  • architecture
  • theatre
  • pop-up
  • temporary
  • prototype
6 Articles
Open Access

Editorial

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 1 - 3

Abstract

Open Access

Alpine huts: Architectural innovations and development in the High Tatras until the first half of the 20th century

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 4 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

For man, the mountain environment was a source of raw materials and a place of economic activity until the end of the 18th century. This paper examines how the exploration of mountain valleys lead from the first ascents to the peaks to today’s exploitation of the mountain environment. We are currently following efforts to protect the unique environment of the mountains and to preserve the architectural heritage of the 20th century. In the paper, we look at the architecture of the High Tatras of the first half of the 20th century, which is lost under the coatings of today. The article traces the line of innovation in the 20th century and examines the causes and consequences of the origin and development of architecture in the alpine environment, with a focus on changes in the paradigm of social thinking in the relationship between architecture and the original landscape. The subject of the paper is mapping of the architectural heritage embedded in the unique environment of the world natural heritage of alpine terrains in the High Tatras and the study of the settlement process with innovative technologies and materials that have enabled architecture to enter difficult terrains. As industrialization, mechanization and electrification have greatly simplified and streamlined the construction process, the work identifies not only the development of new design, technological and material solutions, but also the resilience of the environment to innovation. It focuses on the analysis of innovative progress and monitors its development in contact with the mountain architecture from the moment of planning, work implementation and possible construction changes. The work focuses on the typology of mountain huts and the process of their architectural design.

Keywords

  • alpine architecture
  • innovations
  • High Tatras
  • alpine hut
  • modernism
  • chalet
Open Access

Route options in inclusive museums: Case studies from Central Europe

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 12 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Museums are complex architectural works with many distinctive elements. One of the most significant museum features are routes or paths on which visitors circulate museums and perceive exhibitions. Children and people with special needs often have specific demands on physical accessibility of the surrounding environment, chronological arrangement of spaces and amount of information presented at a time. The arrangement of functional units in museum layouts affects wayfinding in space, understanding of the exhibition, as well as visitor guidance. The order in which people visit particular segments in a museum can also be described as one of the most important architectural and operational characteristics of this type of cultural buildings and areas. The article examines ways of arranging spaces in a museum building and the suitability of their application. These forms are evaluated based on various aspects; some of the created effects are studied, e.g. creation of a desired atmosphere. Existing concepts are compared and supplemented with other theoretical knowledge. The article aims to present variant suitable ways of composing routes that would meet the needs of different people, and bring them a quality leisure and educational experience from a museum tour. Various types of museum layout organisation and arrangement of exhibition spaces are illustrated with abstract schemes, as well as with specific case studies of five selected museums. The selection consists of architecturally exceptional and high-quality museums in Central Europe, which are able to attract a whole range of various groups of people including a younger audience. They are examples of both modern museums in this area and route planning options. The case studies highlight interesting local ideas, space concepts, routing methods, and also solutions for increasing inclusion of all visitors and children in particular.

Keywords

  • museum
  • children
  • tour route
  • inclusion
  • architecture
  • exhibition
  • sequence
Open Access

Microclimatic factors in urban development: The setup of an environmental observatory at the FAD STU

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 25 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The presented research focuses on energy (im)balance on both global and local scale. The main emphasis is placed on microclimatic factors directly affecting public urban spaces and related physical processes regarding the city that are closely linked to energy flows and result in the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs). As they are one of the main adverse effects of human activities, the paper introduces the classification of UHIs by types, describes the basic differences between the surface energy balance of rural and urban areas, and introduces climate-sensitive urban design as one of the possible ways of mitigating the undesirable anthropogenic impact on the climate change. The authors of the article present their own research, which predominantly focuses on the development of an environmental observatory situated on the rooftop of the building of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU in Bratislava (hereafter referred to as the FAD STU). They interpret the experimental operation of sensing probe 1 and the first results and measurement data on Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation (GHSI) and their post-processing. In addition, they describe the construction of sensing probe 2, which will provide more data on the total atmospheric precipitation, wind speed and its direction, presence of dust particles and carbon dioxide in the air, or spectral characteristics of incident and reflected solar radiation. Finally, the experimental operation of a thermal and micro- camera with fisheye lenses is described. These cameras are essential for measuring the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as one of the parameters used for the assessment of vegetation vitality, which also plays a key role in the formation of the UHI effect.

Keywords

  • city
  • urban heat island
  • urban microclimate
  • physical parameters
  • environmental observatory
  • sensing probe
  • FAD STU
Open Access

The impacts of climate change on urban structures in Slovak cities: Identifying vulnerable urban structures

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

In the coming decades, our cities will face extreme weather caused by climate change, which they will have to adopt. Adaptation of the urban environment is attracting the growing attention of planners, researchers, and policy makers in Slovakia and around the world. As essential for urban environment, the National Adaptation Strategy identified the adaptation at local level, which represents the participation of municipalities, supports the development of local adaptation strategies and subsequent implementation of actions that provide the cities with stronger sustainability and resilience. Within the last 8 years since the adoption of the national strategy, only 8 out of 141 Slovak cities in total elaborated an adaptation strategy that could be considered for further investigation. Consequently, this paper aims to broaden our knowledge of the two most significant impacts of climate change–heatwaves and floods–on urban structures in Slovak cities and validate the importance of spatial vulnerability analyses as a considerable tool for the expected unified national methodology for developing local adaptation strategies. The study examines analyses of spatial vulnerability to heat-waves in Hlohovec, Košice – Západ, and Trnava, and analyses of spatial vulnerability to floods in Hlohovec and Kežmarok, developed as part of vulnerability assessment within the framework of adaptation strategies of these cities. The analyses selected for comparison allow us to identify vulnerable urban structures and provide a deeper understanding of the causes of vulnerability in Slovakia, which is crucial for the development of adaptation strategies in the future and the building of resilience in Slovak cities. The article provides an exploratory spatial analysis of vulnerability hotspots. Based on the findings, it outlines the principles of spatial planning and urban structures that are resilient to the impacts of heatwaves and floods.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • urban adaptation
  • spatial vulnerability
  • spatial planning
  • sustainable development
Open Access

Pop-up architecture as a tool for popularizing theatre: Prototype No. 1

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: 40 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

This article builds on previous research dealing with temporary theatres in the context of Europe and Slovakia, discusses the topic of pop-up pavilions in terms of architecture, their use in marketing and as a potential tool for reviving the theatre scene. Just as temporary architecture can activate neglected areas in the city and bring stimuli for a permanent change, we believe that it can be equally stimulating in the area of theatre. The Shed by Haworth Tompkins is one of the examples to demonstrate a possible positive contribution of such designs to a permanent theatre and its surroundings. Based on the analysis of similar examples and statistical data on the attendance of theatre performances, we decided to design and implement a prototype of a minimal theatre scene, which also provides wide variability and can be used beyond the time dedicated to theatre activities. In the design phase, we examine the limits of variability and explore the basics of kinetic architecture. In the second phase after the object is assembled and implemented, the subject of research will be its impact on the environment, the extent of user interaction with the object and the overall functionality of the object. The ambitions of our project do not reach as high as presented in The Shed. The aim was to test the possibilities and viability of a much smaller object, to document the cultural, educational, and even economic benefits, in domestic conditions of Slovakia. Thanks to The Program for the Support of Young Researchers of the Slovak University of Technology and The PUN (Universal Design Support) Project No. 321041APA3 financed by the European Social Fund, the object is currently in production, and later will be moved to the faculty premises, surface-threated and then assembled for the very first time. The prototype should be fully available by the end of the year 2022.

Keywords

  • architecture
  • theatre
  • pop-up
  • temporary
  • prototype

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