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Volume 17 (2022): Edition 1 (June 2022)

Volume 16 (2021): Edition 2 (December 2021)

Volume 16 (2021): Edition 1 (July 2021)

Volume 15 (2020): Edition 2 (December 2020)

Volume 15 (2020): Edition 1 (July 2020)

Volume 14 (2019): Edition 2 (December 2019)

Volume 14 (2019): Edition 1 (July 2019)

Volume 13 (2018): Edition 1 (December 2018)

Volume 12 (2017): Edition 2 (December 2017)

Volume 12 (2017): Edition 1 (June 2017)

Volume 11 (2015): Edition 2 (December 2015)

Volume 11 (2015): Edition 1 (December 2015)

Volume 10 (2014): Edition 1 (September 2014)

Volume 9 (2013): Edition 2 (December 2013)

Volume 9 (2013): Edition 1 (September 2013)

Volume 8 (2012): Edition 2 (December 2012)

Volume 8 (2011): Edition 1 (December 2011)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1857-8462
Première publication
01 Jul 2005
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 13 (2018): Edition 1 (December 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1857-8462
Première publication
01 Jul 2005
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
Accès libre

Editorial Foreward

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 1 - 1

Résumé

Accès libre

Habsburg’s Only Colony? Bosnia-Herzegovina and Austriahungary, 1878-1918

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 2 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

It has always been a mantra of Habsburg history that Austria-Hungary never had colonies. This article investigates why Bosnia-Herzegovina can be regarded as such indeed, developing a check list of factors from critical colonial history, showing that it is a Eurocentric view actually that prevents us from recognizing colonialism on European soil.

Accès libre

Roma Rights and Discrimination Based on Ethnicity in Sweden (Göteborg, Vänersborg, Stockholm and Trollhätan)

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 15 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

This article is about the rights of the Roma in Sweden and the level of discrimination that Roma are facing. The aims and objectives of the article is theoretical and practical understanding of the situation of the Roma and their human rights through our research and analysis of reports from international organizations, civil society organizations, deep interviews and data from the collected 57 questionnaires. The data is collected during the two study visits in November 2016 and February 2017. The article sumarises the actual situation of the Roma in Sweden and shows new data I have collected while visiting Göteborg, Stockholm, Vänersborg and Trollhättan. I did 4 deep interviews with representatives from Civil Right Defenders, Kronan School and members from UNHCR Sweden. The interviews were composed out of 22 questions about the current condition of Roma in Sweden, implemented projects for improving the Roma human rights, discrimination, police harasment, Roma register, legal remedies against discrimination, financial benefits if persuing education, non-governmental organization working for and with Roma, equitable representation of Roma in the state bodies, affirmative actions (positive discrimination), Romani political parties, allocated funds for projects improving the Romani situation, system of minority right protection, equality of Roma among the Swedish citizens. The questionnaire about discrimination is composed out of 15 questions about the forms of discrimination, feeling or witnesing discrimination, discrimination in delivering services, discrimination in employment, and reporting discrimination.

Mots clés

  • Roma
  • human rights
  • Sweden
  • discrimination
  • Göteborg
Accès libre

The Political Consequences of Brexit for the United Kingdom and the European Union

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 30 - 43

Résumé

Abstract

The date 23 June 2016 brought in front of the United Kingdom and the European Union a very serious challenge named Brexit. In the June 23, 2016 referendum, the British voted to leave one of the most unique international organizations in the world, thus putting the EU in front of the UK’s request for the activation of Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which the EU is facing for the first time. Brexit is opening new chapters in the history of the UK, while the EU is engaging with the procedures of the voluntary withdrawal of an important member state, which is known about its high political and military role in the world. Some experts of international relations and European studies say that Brexit will have much more consequences for the UK, some for the EU, but truth is that Brexit will be accompanied with many consequences for both of its protagonists. Its risks are very serious so they may result with the dissolution of the UK. Meanwhile, the increase of euroscepticism within the EU’s member states, with particular emphasis the presence of Eurosceptic voices in its most important members is at a very worrying level. Based on these facts, the knowledge about the real meaning of Brexit is necessary. Therefore, the main focus of this research lies in the classification of the main political consequences of Brexit for the UK and the EU.

Mots clés

  • Brexit
  • United Kingdom
  • European Union
  • Article 50
  • Euroscepticism
Accès libre

Argumentation – Evidentiary Procedure in Criminal Proceedings

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 43 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

The continuous increase in criminal activities in all countries, namely the offences which undermine the interests of contemporary societies, call for the need to fight them in a more successful manner. In this way, the country through its mechanisms detects the criminal offences, the criminal liability and imposes the meritorious sanction to the perpetrators of such criminal offences, in full compliance with the danger caused by them. However, the court and other parties in the proceedings (Prosecution, Lawyer, Victim’s Advocate) in any case before the sanction is imposed, are involved in a complicated evidentiary proceedings related to the grounded suspicion that such offence was a criminal offence, the special mitigating and aggravating circumstances, that the person involved was conscious, that he committed the offence intentionally or negligently, his mental state, etc. All these have to be supported by facts through conclusive pieces of evidence. In parallel with the overall development of science and technology, the evidentiary procedure has evolved and it provides a greater possibility to argue our facts. This paper shall make efforts to highlight some of the most important issues related to the evidentiary procedure, such as: What is the evidence? What evidence should be provided in a certain criminal case? What is the importance of the evidence in a criminal matter? What should be the credibility and the evidentiary value of a piece of evidence? The research done in this paper shall apply the analytical method and the paper shall also include the conclusions that were reached as well as the recommendations.

Mots clés

  • Evidence
  • procedure
  • truth
  • trial
  • sanction
  • etc
Accès libre

Ethno-Centric or Market-Centric Societies? Bilingualism vs Ethnocentrism in the Balkans

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 53 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

This paper reflects on the interaction that language and economy have in society versus an ethnocentric approach that sees other languages as challenges instead of an opportunity. The paper analyses the role that bilingualism has in the economy and how economy can impact the promotion of flexible language policies in order to open new markets. Throughout the discourse a strong focus is placed on the dilemma: can language impact and make economy beneficial? The study aims to explore how multicultural societies which often have one dominant language can benefit by opening language diversity to the business habitat with a specific focus on particular linguistic and economic developments in the Balkans after the fall of Yugoslavia. In the second part this global issues are analyzed in the local context. The study brings examples from Macedonia on how the private sector is much more advanced and innovative compared to the state institution. During this discourse few corporations active in Macedonia are analyzed in order to size the positive impact that flexible usage of language has on the economy and how state institutions can replicate this positive model. Other factors such as culture and the neurolinguistics studies have been considered as well.

Mots clés

  • Language and economy
  • neurolinguistics
  • linguistic benefits
  • unequal distribution of language
  • Macedonia
Accès libre

A Critical Analysis of Interpersonal Communication in Modern Times of the Concept “ Looking Glass Self (1902) ” By Charles Horton Cooley

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 62 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

Influence of other’s assessments on individuals in society and their reaction is an amusing topic, given Cooley’s Looking Glass Self concept concerning this, simultaneously being the subject of this critical analysis. The fact manifesting an opinion that an individual’s true self changes due to other perceptions is often subjected to various critical considerations, creating the impression that in reality the concept is infeasible. The purpose is determining the “hole” in the third component, proving that the true self is occasionally susceptible to constant change, depending on other’s perceptions and the individual himself. Regarding the methodology, several methods were used to prove the critical attitude towards this topic. Applications of comparative analysis, descriptive and historical methods are present. Our result is concluding the individual develops a certain attitude influenced by different experiences, being crucial to whether he will be ready to change his true self or not.

Mots clés

  • perception
  • society
  • true self
  • ideal self
  • change
Accès libre

The Benefits and Risks of Digital Diplomacy

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 75 - 89

Résumé

Abstract

As a product of globalization and as a fruit of new public diplomacy, digital diplomacy is considered one of the major trends of the twenty-first century in diplomatic communication. Being under the influence of the extraordinary advances in ICT, the internet and social media, the way of realization and presentation of diplomacy has been radically changed and is increasingly removed from the traditional diplomatic elements. The importance of digital diplomacy is based on the usage of ICT, the internet and social media, which at the same time represent its base, for the strengthening of the diplomatic relations. Therefore, knowledge about the role and importance of digital diplomacy is indispensable. This paper will offer information on the definition, goals, evolution and effectiveness of the digital diplomacy. Meanwhile, the main focus of the research lies in the classification of its benefits and risks. For international actors is more than clear how useful is exploitation of digital diplomacy benefits for achieving their goals in the international arena. However, the process of digitization is unseparated from cyber risks, as well as the freedom of the internet and social media is abused for various purposes that state and non-state actors may have. Although coupled with benefits on the one hand and risks on the other hand, the risks of digital diplomacy are still covered by benefits, making digital diplomacy a key element for the realization of diplomatic activities. Based on all the information over the features of the topic, the primary goal of the paper is to provide sufficient arguments for verifying the abovementioned hypothesis, which is also the general hypothesis of the paper.

Mots clés

  • Digital diplomacy
  • globalization
  • international relations
  • benefits
  • risks
Accès libre

Language and Hate Speech Aspects in the Public Sphere Case Study: Republic of Macedonia

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 90 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The issue of hate speech is widely present in the Balkan Peninsula and although it has a serious impact in inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations, it has never been addressed properly by the academia or the judicial systems. This paper aims to outline the main principles that define hate speech from the linguistic and legal perspective. Throughout the paper several international cases of hate speech are cited along with the measures that western European countries take in order to minimize the level of stereotypes and public discrimination. In the second part, the paper brings examples from degrading hate speech cases coming from public figures in Macedonia. In addition, a few comparative cases from the international practice have been cited in order to perceive if an egalitarian society is possible in Macedonia from the aspect of language usage without the hatred constituents by aiming to develop an acceptable public discourse for all.

Mots clés

  • Hate speech
  • ethnic tension
  • egalitarian society
  • Macedonia
Accès libre

Turkey’ s Empowerment and Tendencies for Islamic Core State

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 97 - 109

Résumé

Abstract

The end of the Cold War changed the world order. This change created opportunities for a short time to have an international hegemony to switch to international polycentrism. Huntington had anticipated and explained a confrontation and remake of the international order. This author explains that Islam as a civilization does not have a core state like other civilizations. Turkey today is one of these countries which is trying to take this role of the core state for Islamic civilization. The creation of the core state for Islamic civilization, and the making of all world civilizations with core states, pushed the world into the “civil-centrism” international detachment. However, Turkey as a core for Islam civilization, to the nuclearisation of Turkey can be done with the blessing and assistance of the “West”. Creating these civil-centrist centres also makes it possible to achieve peace and agreements in the global interest more easily.

Mots clés

  • Turkey
  • world order
  • core state
  • civilization
  • Lausanne agreement
  • civil-centrism
  • Huntington
10 Articles
Accès libre

Editorial Foreward

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 1 - 1

Résumé

Accès libre

Habsburg’s Only Colony? Bosnia-Herzegovina and Austriahungary, 1878-1918

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 2 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

It has always been a mantra of Habsburg history that Austria-Hungary never had colonies. This article investigates why Bosnia-Herzegovina can be regarded as such indeed, developing a check list of factors from critical colonial history, showing that it is a Eurocentric view actually that prevents us from recognizing colonialism on European soil.

Accès libre

Roma Rights and Discrimination Based on Ethnicity in Sweden (Göteborg, Vänersborg, Stockholm and Trollhätan)

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 15 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

This article is about the rights of the Roma in Sweden and the level of discrimination that Roma are facing. The aims and objectives of the article is theoretical and practical understanding of the situation of the Roma and their human rights through our research and analysis of reports from international organizations, civil society organizations, deep interviews and data from the collected 57 questionnaires. The data is collected during the two study visits in November 2016 and February 2017. The article sumarises the actual situation of the Roma in Sweden and shows new data I have collected while visiting Göteborg, Stockholm, Vänersborg and Trollhättan. I did 4 deep interviews with representatives from Civil Right Defenders, Kronan School and members from UNHCR Sweden. The interviews were composed out of 22 questions about the current condition of Roma in Sweden, implemented projects for improving the Roma human rights, discrimination, police harasment, Roma register, legal remedies against discrimination, financial benefits if persuing education, non-governmental organization working for and with Roma, equitable representation of Roma in the state bodies, affirmative actions (positive discrimination), Romani political parties, allocated funds for projects improving the Romani situation, system of minority right protection, equality of Roma among the Swedish citizens. The questionnaire about discrimination is composed out of 15 questions about the forms of discrimination, feeling or witnesing discrimination, discrimination in delivering services, discrimination in employment, and reporting discrimination.

Mots clés

  • Roma
  • human rights
  • Sweden
  • discrimination
  • Göteborg
Accès libre

The Political Consequences of Brexit for the United Kingdom and the European Union

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 30 - 43

Résumé

Abstract

The date 23 June 2016 brought in front of the United Kingdom and the European Union a very serious challenge named Brexit. In the June 23, 2016 referendum, the British voted to leave one of the most unique international organizations in the world, thus putting the EU in front of the UK’s request for the activation of Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which the EU is facing for the first time. Brexit is opening new chapters in the history of the UK, while the EU is engaging with the procedures of the voluntary withdrawal of an important member state, which is known about its high political and military role in the world. Some experts of international relations and European studies say that Brexit will have much more consequences for the UK, some for the EU, but truth is that Brexit will be accompanied with many consequences for both of its protagonists. Its risks are very serious so they may result with the dissolution of the UK. Meanwhile, the increase of euroscepticism within the EU’s member states, with particular emphasis the presence of Eurosceptic voices in its most important members is at a very worrying level. Based on these facts, the knowledge about the real meaning of Brexit is necessary. Therefore, the main focus of this research lies in the classification of the main political consequences of Brexit for the UK and the EU.

Mots clés

  • Brexit
  • United Kingdom
  • European Union
  • Article 50
  • Euroscepticism
Accès libre

Argumentation – Evidentiary Procedure in Criminal Proceedings

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 43 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

The continuous increase in criminal activities in all countries, namely the offences which undermine the interests of contemporary societies, call for the need to fight them in a more successful manner. In this way, the country through its mechanisms detects the criminal offences, the criminal liability and imposes the meritorious sanction to the perpetrators of such criminal offences, in full compliance with the danger caused by them. However, the court and other parties in the proceedings (Prosecution, Lawyer, Victim’s Advocate) in any case before the sanction is imposed, are involved in a complicated evidentiary proceedings related to the grounded suspicion that such offence was a criminal offence, the special mitigating and aggravating circumstances, that the person involved was conscious, that he committed the offence intentionally or negligently, his mental state, etc. All these have to be supported by facts through conclusive pieces of evidence. In parallel with the overall development of science and technology, the evidentiary procedure has evolved and it provides a greater possibility to argue our facts. This paper shall make efforts to highlight some of the most important issues related to the evidentiary procedure, such as: What is the evidence? What evidence should be provided in a certain criminal case? What is the importance of the evidence in a criminal matter? What should be the credibility and the evidentiary value of a piece of evidence? The research done in this paper shall apply the analytical method and the paper shall also include the conclusions that were reached as well as the recommendations.

Mots clés

  • Evidence
  • procedure
  • truth
  • trial
  • sanction
  • etc
Accès libre

Ethno-Centric or Market-Centric Societies? Bilingualism vs Ethnocentrism in the Balkans

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 53 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

This paper reflects on the interaction that language and economy have in society versus an ethnocentric approach that sees other languages as challenges instead of an opportunity. The paper analyses the role that bilingualism has in the economy and how economy can impact the promotion of flexible language policies in order to open new markets. Throughout the discourse a strong focus is placed on the dilemma: can language impact and make economy beneficial? The study aims to explore how multicultural societies which often have one dominant language can benefit by opening language diversity to the business habitat with a specific focus on particular linguistic and economic developments in the Balkans after the fall of Yugoslavia. In the second part this global issues are analyzed in the local context. The study brings examples from Macedonia on how the private sector is much more advanced and innovative compared to the state institution. During this discourse few corporations active in Macedonia are analyzed in order to size the positive impact that flexible usage of language has on the economy and how state institutions can replicate this positive model. Other factors such as culture and the neurolinguistics studies have been considered as well.

Mots clés

  • Language and economy
  • neurolinguistics
  • linguistic benefits
  • unequal distribution of language
  • Macedonia
Accès libre

A Critical Analysis of Interpersonal Communication in Modern Times of the Concept “ Looking Glass Self (1902) ” By Charles Horton Cooley

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 62 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

Influence of other’s assessments on individuals in society and their reaction is an amusing topic, given Cooley’s Looking Glass Self concept concerning this, simultaneously being the subject of this critical analysis. The fact manifesting an opinion that an individual’s true self changes due to other perceptions is often subjected to various critical considerations, creating the impression that in reality the concept is infeasible. The purpose is determining the “hole” in the third component, proving that the true self is occasionally susceptible to constant change, depending on other’s perceptions and the individual himself. Regarding the methodology, several methods were used to prove the critical attitude towards this topic. Applications of comparative analysis, descriptive and historical methods are present. Our result is concluding the individual develops a certain attitude influenced by different experiences, being crucial to whether he will be ready to change his true self or not.

Mots clés

  • perception
  • society
  • true self
  • ideal self
  • change
Accès libre

The Benefits and Risks of Digital Diplomacy

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 75 - 89

Résumé

Abstract

As a product of globalization and as a fruit of new public diplomacy, digital diplomacy is considered one of the major trends of the twenty-first century in diplomatic communication. Being under the influence of the extraordinary advances in ICT, the internet and social media, the way of realization and presentation of diplomacy has been radically changed and is increasingly removed from the traditional diplomatic elements. The importance of digital diplomacy is based on the usage of ICT, the internet and social media, which at the same time represent its base, for the strengthening of the diplomatic relations. Therefore, knowledge about the role and importance of digital diplomacy is indispensable. This paper will offer information on the definition, goals, evolution and effectiveness of the digital diplomacy. Meanwhile, the main focus of the research lies in the classification of its benefits and risks. For international actors is more than clear how useful is exploitation of digital diplomacy benefits for achieving their goals in the international arena. However, the process of digitization is unseparated from cyber risks, as well as the freedom of the internet and social media is abused for various purposes that state and non-state actors may have. Although coupled with benefits on the one hand and risks on the other hand, the risks of digital diplomacy are still covered by benefits, making digital diplomacy a key element for the realization of diplomatic activities. Based on all the information over the features of the topic, the primary goal of the paper is to provide sufficient arguments for verifying the abovementioned hypothesis, which is also the general hypothesis of the paper.

Mots clés

  • Digital diplomacy
  • globalization
  • international relations
  • benefits
  • risks
Accès libre

Language and Hate Speech Aspects in the Public Sphere Case Study: Republic of Macedonia

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 90 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The issue of hate speech is widely present in the Balkan Peninsula and although it has a serious impact in inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations, it has never been addressed properly by the academia or the judicial systems. This paper aims to outline the main principles that define hate speech from the linguistic and legal perspective. Throughout the paper several international cases of hate speech are cited along with the measures that western European countries take in order to minimize the level of stereotypes and public discrimination. In the second part, the paper brings examples from degrading hate speech cases coming from public figures in Macedonia. In addition, a few comparative cases from the international practice have been cited in order to perceive if an egalitarian society is possible in Macedonia from the aspect of language usage without the hatred constituents by aiming to develop an acceptable public discourse for all.

Mots clés

  • Hate speech
  • ethnic tension
  • egalitarian society
  • Macedonia
Accès libre

Turkey’ s Empowerment and Tendencies for Islamic Core State

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2019
Pages: 97 - 109

Résumé

Abstract

The end of the Cold War changed the world order. This change created opportunities for a short time to have an international hegemony to switch to international polycentrism. Huntington had anticipated and explained a confrontation and remake of the international order. This author explains that Islam as a civilization does not have a core state like other civilizations. Turkey today is one of these countries which is trying to take this role of the core state for Islamic civilization. The creation of the core state for Islamic civilization, and the making of all world civilizations with core states, pushed the world into the “civil-centrism” international detachment. However, Turkey as a core for Islam civilization, to the nuclearisation of Turkey can be done with the blessing and assistance of the “West”. Creating these civil-centrist centres also makes it possible to achieve peace and agreements in the global interest more easily.

Mots clés

  • Turkey
  • world order
  • core state
  • civilization
  • Lausanne agreement
  • civil-centrism
  • Huntington

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