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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2001-5119
Première publication
01 Mar 2013
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 37 (2016): Edition 1 (June 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2001-5119
Première publication
01 Mar 2013
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
Accès libre

How to Describe and Measure Obstacles of Narrative Immersion in a Film?

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 1 - 17

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study is to describe and measure obstacles of narrative immersion in a film. Inspired by a literature review within both game research and film studies, we propose a circular model to describe the dynamic process of different levels of involvement viewers can be in while watching a film. The evaluation is based on a 3D animation short film we have developed to achieve total immersion among viewers. The methodological design involved an attempt to decrease viewers’ involvement in the animation film by using distractions during the viewing. The study follows a mixed method strategy combining observation, a questionnaire and a structured interview. The results revealed that viewers react very differently to the distractions. For some viewers, the animation film was not the perceptual focus, where others were totally immersed. The number of distractions was not dependent on whether the film was watched individually or in groups, and for all participants, the distractions occurred in certain rhythms.

Mots clés

  • immersion
  • narrative
  • emotion
  • short film
  • mixed methods
  • 3D
Accès libre

Parent-Pressure

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 29 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups of professionals: first, by teachers and librarians in the mid-fifties and, then, by intellectuals and performing artists in the late sixties. With a radically changed professional hegemony and a shifting media landscape, the role of media in children’s lives was described very differently during the period. However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms and values.

Mots clés

  • children’s media
  • enculturation
  • parenthood
  • Scandinavia
  • media history
  • public debates
Accès libre

Return of the Talking Heads

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 43 - 56

Résumé

Abstract

The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format. In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy.

Mots clés

  • dramaturgy
  • live interview
  • narrative
  • television journalism
  • television news item
  • television news report
Accès libre

The Social Media Experiences of Long-term Patients: Illness, Identity, and Participation

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 57 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The present article investigates the meanings of social media use for long-term patients, focusing on a group of Norwegian bloggers diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). This severe illness can confine patients to their homes for long periods of time, drastically reducing possibilities to participate on most social arenas and leaving Internet use as a rare opportunity for connection with the outside world. A qualitative analysis of interviews with ME bloggers investigates the meanings of social media use in this particular situation. Drawing on perspectives from research on patients’ Internet use, this phenomenon is analysed as management of identity narratives in the face of illness. However, the article further argues that the concept of participation provides a relevant supplementary perspective that highlights the societal and political relevance of these practices.

Mots clés

  • social media
  • participation
  • identity
  • narrative
  • illness
  • welfare state
Accès libre

The Dynamics of Sensemaking and Information Seeking in a Crisis Situation

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 71 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

The present article investigates two questions: What determines citizens’ use of different media to seek information in a crisis situation, and what influences their evaluation of the information found. The case analysed is a major fire at a chemical storage facility in the harbour of Halmstad in Sweden, where there was a risk of toxic fumes reaching the city and its approximately 60,000 inhabitants. The study is part of a larger project, financed by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and in this part, focus group interviews are analysed. The results point to an interaction between citizens’ perception of the world, the perceived information, and the development of how the situation is regarded, where sensemaking is the pivotal concept.

Mots clés

  • crisis communication
  • media use
  • sensemaking
  • focus groups
  • Halmstad
  • fire
Accès libre

High Stakes

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 85 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

Researchers are key sources of an increasing amount of research news in the media. Hitherto, the meagre empirical literature on researchers’ media performances has been divided in two strands: one indicating that researchers are generally motivated to report their research in the media, and the other paradoxically reporting negative experiences of and conflict with journalists. The aim of the present study was to explore Norwegian researchers’ motivations for participating in and experiences of journalistic interviews. We find that researchers’ main reason for seeking media coverage is that they want their findings to be of use to society. This makes it essential to avoid errors or misleading framing of the news report. Despite strong motivations to do so, the researchers experience that communicating through the media is stressful and that their motivations for seeking media attention are in conflict with the motives of some research journalists. The study reveals a link between researchers´ motivation for seeking media coverage and their experiences of conflict with journalists.

Mots clés

  • research communication
  • science communication
  • news sources
  • researchers in the media
  • sociology of science
Accès libre

Materialist Perspectives on Digital Technologies

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 119 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The present article brings critical media research and science and technology studies (STS) into dialogue with approaches to digital literacy and digital competencies in educational contexts. In particular, it focuses on material aspects of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as technical infrastructure, economic conditions, ecological consequences, and code-based as well as embodied forms of impact, and argues that digital applications and devices have ambiguous and often contradictory affordances and effects that need to be addressed in academic literature and pedagogical practice. The main objective is to inform on-going debates on the nature and content of digital literacy and digital competence from a critical materialist vantage point, and to facilitate learning and teaching about, rather than with, digital technologies by highlighting salient issue areas in need of continued critical attention.

Mots clés

  • digital media
  • digital competencies
  • media literacy
  • ICTs
  • education
  • materialism
  • STS
Accès libre

Book Reviews

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 133 - 142

Résumé

Accès libre

Aporetic Apparatus

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 143 - 155

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, we examine the epistemology of the camera today. In order to answer this question, we concentrate on three social and technological forms: the camera obscura, the photographic camera, and the digital camera.

On the one hand, the camera extends our human sensibilities and helps us to obtain knowledge of the world. On the other hand, it works as a device for delusion, bodily vision and spectacle. Historically, these two functions are meshed together in complicated ways and this establishes the paradoxical epistemology of the camera.

We argue that, even if contemporary debates about the truthfulness of the photographic image have persistently been tied to the digitisation of the photographic process, the very origin of these debates actually lies in the camera itself and its contradictory epistemology. The camera has worked, and still works, as an apparatus that relentlessly produces irresolvable ambiguity, aporia, between true knowledge and illusory vision.

Mots clés

  • camera
  • camera obscura
  • epistemology
  • photography
  • digital photography
  • visual culture
Accès libre

Data Journalists Using Facebook

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 156 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

On Facebook there are interest groups created by journalists, for journalists, that focus on the journalistic profession and work methods. One example is the Swedish group, “Datajournalistik” (in English, “Data Journalism”), which was created in 2012. This article builds on Granovetter’s theory on the strength of weak ties and is focused on the skill development process taking place in the group. A content analysis has been carried out of all posts that received comments in order to explore the social functions of the group. The results indicate both a significant need for knowledge exchange and a need for self-affirmation. At the time of the study, the group was unique in the Nordic countries and as such has played a major role in data journalism’s development process in the Nordic region.

Mots clés

  • data journalism
  • Facebook
  • network theory
10 Articles
Accès libre

How to Describe and Measure Obstacles of Narrative Immersion in a Film?

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 1 - 17

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study is to describe and measure obstacles of narrative immersion in a film. Inspired by a literature review within both game research and film studies, we propose a circular model to describe the dynamic process of different levels of involvement viewers can be in while watching a film. The evaluation is based on a 3D animation short film we have developed to achieve total immersion among viewers. The methodological design involved an attempt to decrease viewers’ involvement in the animation film by using distractions during the viewing. The study follows a mixed method strategy combining observation, a questionnaire and a structured interview. The results revealed that viewers react very differently to the distractions. For some viewers, the animation film was not the perceptual focus, where others were totally immersed. The number of distractions was not dependent on whether the film was watched individually or in groups, and for all participants, the distractions occurred in certain rhythms.

Mots clés

  • immersion
  • narrative
  • emotion
  • short film
  • mixed methods
  • 3D
Accès libre

Parent-Pressure

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 29 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups of professionals: first, by teachers and librarians in the mid-fifties and, then, by intellectuals and performing artists in the late sixties. With a radically changed professional hegemony and a shifting media landscape, the role of media in children’s lives was described very differently during the period. However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms and values.

Mots clés

  • children’s media
  • enculturation
  • parenthood
  • Scandinavia
  • media history
  • public debates
Accès libre

Return of the Talking Heads

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 43 - 56

Résumé

Abstract

The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format. In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy.

Mots clés

  • dramaturgy
  • live interview
  • narrative
  • television journalism
  • television news item
  • television news report
Accès libre

The Social Media Experiences of Long-term Patients: Illness, Identity, and Participation

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 57 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The present article investigates the meanings of social media use for long-term patients, focusing on a group of Norwegian bloggers diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). This severe illness can confine patients to their homes for long periods of time, drastically reducing possibilities to participate on most social arenas and leaving Internet use as a rare opportunity for connection with the outside world. A qualitative analysis of interviews with ME bloggers investigates the meanings of social media use in this particular situation. Drawing on perspectives from research on patients’ Internet use, this phenomenon is analysed as management of identity narratives in the face of illness. However, the article further argues that the concept of participation provides a relevant supplementary perspective that highlights the societal and political relevance of these practices.

Mots clés

  • social media
  • participation
  • identity
  • narrative
  • illness
  • welfare state
Accès libre

The Dynamics of Sensemaking and Information Seeking in a Crisis Situation

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 71 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

The present article investigates two questions: What determines citizens’ use of different media to seek information in a crisis situation, and what influences their evaluation of the information found. The case analysed is a major fire at a chemical storage facility in the harbour of Halmstad in Sweden, where there was a risk of toxic fumes reaching the city and its approximately 60,000 inhabitants. The study is part of a larger project, financed by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and in this part, focus group interviews are analysed. The results point to an interaction between citizens’ perception of the world, the perceived information, and the development of how the situation is regarded, where sensemaking is the pivotal concept.

Mots clés

  • crisis communication
  • media use
  • sensemaking
  • focus groups
  • Halmstad
  • fire
Accès libre

High Stakes

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 85 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

Researchers are key sources of an increasing amount of research news in the media. Hitherto, the meagre empirical literature on researchers’ media performances has been divided in two strands: one indicating that researchers are generally motivated to report their research in the media, and the other paradoxically reporting negative experiences of and conflict with journalists. The aim of the present study was to explore Norwegian researchers’ motivations for participating in and experiences of journalistic interviews. We find that researchers’ main reason for seeking media coverage is that they want their findings to be of use to society. This makes it essential to avoid errors or misleading framing of the news report. Despite strong motivations to do so, the researchers experience that communicating through the media is stressful and that their motivations for seeking media attention are in conflict with the motives of some research journalists. The study reveals a link between researchers´ motivation for seeking media coverage and their experiences of conflict with journalists.

Mots clés

  • research communication
  • science communication
  • news sources
  • researchers in the media
  • sociology of science
Accès libre

Materialist Perspectives on Digital Technologies

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 119 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The present article brings critical media research and science and technology studies (STS) into dialogue with approaches to digital literacy and digital competencies in educational contexts. In particular, it focuses on material aspects of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as technical infrastructure, economic conditions, ecological consequences, and code-based as well as embodied forms of impact, and argues that digital applications and devices have ambiguous and often contradictory affordances and effects that need to be addressed in academic literature and pedagogical practice. The main objective is to inform on-going debates on the nature and content of digital literacy and digital competence from a critical materialist vantage point, and to facilitate learning and teaching about, rather than with, digital technologies by highlighting salient issue areas in need of continued critical attention.

Mots clés

  • digital media
  • digital competencies
  • media literacy
  • ICTs
  • education
  • materialism
  • STS
Accès libre

Book Reviews

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 133 - 142

Résumé

Accès libre

Aporetic Apparatus

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 143 - 155

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, we examine the epistemology of the camera today. In order to answer this question, we concentrate on three social and technological forms: the camera obscura, the photographic camera, and the digital camera.

On the one hand, the camera extends our human sensibilities and helps us to obtain knowledge of the world. On the other hand, it works as a device for delusion, bodily vision and spectacle. Historically, these two functions are meshed together in complicated ways and this establishes the paradoxical epistemology of the camera.

We argue that, even if contemporary debates about the truthfulness of the photographic image have persistently been tied to the digitisation of the photographic process, the very origin of these debates actually lies in the camera itself and its contradictory epistemology. The camera has worked, and still works, as an apparatus that relentlessly produces irresolvable ambiguity, aporia, between true knowledge and illusory vision.

Mots clés

  • camera
  • camera obscura
  • epistemology
  • photography
  • digital photography
  • visual culture
Accès libre

Data Journalists Using Facebook

Publié en ligne: 15 Jun 2016
Pages: 156 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

On Facebook there are interest groups created by journalists, for journalists, that focus on the journalistic profession and work methods. One example is the Swedish group, “Datajournalistik” (in English, “Data Journalism”), which was created in 2012. This article builds on Granovetter’s theory on the strength of weak ties and is focused on the skill development process taking place in the group. A content analysis has been carried out of all posts that received comments in order to explore the social functions of the group. The results indicate both a significant need for knowledge exchange and a need for self-affirmation. At the time of the study, the group was unique in the Nordic countries and as such has played a major role in data journalism’s development process in the Nordic region.

Mots clés

  • data journalism
  • Facebook
  • network theory

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