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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2449-6499
Première publication
30 Dec 2014
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 3 (2013): Edition 1 (January 2013)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2449-6499
Première publication
30 Dec 2014
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Biologically Inspired Feature Detection Using Cascaded Correlations of off and on Channels

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

Flying insects are valuable animal models for elucidating computational processes underlying visual motion detection. For example, optical flow analysis by wide-field motion processing neurons in the insect visual system has been investigated from both behavioral and physiological perspectives [1]. This has resulted in useful computational models with diverse applications [2,3]. In addition, some insects must also extract the movement of their prey or conspecifics from their environment. Such insects have the ability to detect and interact with small moving targets, even amidst a swarm of others [4,5]. We use electrophysiological techniques to record from small target motion detector (STMD) neurons in the insect brain that are likely to subserve these behaviors. Inspired by such recordings, we previously proposed an ‘elementary’ small target motion detector (ESTMD) model that accounts for the spatial and temporal tuning of such neurons and even their ability to discriminate targets against cluttered surrounds [6-8]. However, other properties such as direction selectivity [9] and response facilitation for objects moving on extended trajectories [10] are not accounted for by this model. We therefore propose here two model variants that cascade an ESTMD model with a traditional motion detection model algorithm, the Hassenstein Reichardt ‘elementary motion detector’ (EMD) [11]. We show that these elaborations maintain the principal attributes of ESTMDs (i.e. spatiotemporal tuning and background clutter rejection) while also capturing the direction selectivity observed in some STMD neurons. By encapsulating the properties of biological STMD neurons we aim to develop computational models that can simulate the remarkable capabilities of insects in target discrimination and pursuit for applications in robotics and artificial vision systems.

Accès libre

Fast FCM with Spatial Neighborhood Information for Brain Mr Image Segmentation

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 15 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

Among different segmentation approaches Fuzzy c-Means clustering (FCM) is a welldeveloped algorithm for medical image segmentation. In emergency medical applications quick convergence of FCM is necessary. On the other hand spatial information is seldom exploited in standard FCM; therefore nuisance factors can simply affect it and cause misclassification. This paper aims to introduce a Fast FCM (FFCM) technique by incorporation of spatial neighborhood information which is exploited by a linear function on fuzzy membership. Applying proposed spatial Fast FCM (sFFCM), elapsed time is decreased and neighborhood spatial information is exploited in FFCM. Moreover, iteration numbers by proposed FFCM/sFFCM techniques are decreased efficiently. The FCM/FFCM techniques are examined on both simulated and real MR images. Furthermore, to considerably decrease of convergence time and iterations number, cluster centroids are initialized by an algorithm. Accuracy of the new approach is same as standard FCM. The quantitative assessments of presented FCM/FFCM techniques are evaluated by conventional validity functions. Experimental results demonstrate that sFFCM techniques efficiently handle noise interference and significantly decrease elapsed time.

Accès libre

Agent-Based Dispatching Enables Autonomous Groupage Traffic

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 27 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

The complexity and dynamics in groupage traffic require flexible, efficient, and adaptive planning and control processes. The general problem of allocating orders to vehicles can be mapped into the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). However, in practical applications additional requirements complicate the dispatching processes and require a proactive and reactive system behavior. To enable automated dispatching processes, this article presents a multiagent system where the decision making is shifted to autonomous, interacting, intelligent agents. Beside the communication protocols and the agent architecture, the focus is on the individual decision making of the agents which meets the specific requirements in groupage traffic. To evaluate the approach we apply multiagent-based simulation and model several scenarios of real world infrastructures with orders provided by our industrial partner. Moreover, a case study is conducted which covers the autonomous groupage traffic in the current processes of our industrial parter. The results reveal that agent-based dispatching meets the sophisticated requirements of groupage traffic. Furthermore, the decision making supports the combination of pickup and delivery tours efficiently while satisfying logistic request priorities, time windows, and capacity constraints.

Accès libre

Profiling Bell’s Palsy based on House-Brackmann Score

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 41 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

In this study, we propose to diagnose facial nerve palsy using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Emergent Self-Organizing Map (ESOM). This research seeks to analyze facial palsy domain using facial features and grade the degree of nerve damage based on the House-Brackmann score. Traditional diagnostic approaches involve a medical doctor recording a thorough history of a patient and determining the onset of paralysis, rate of progression and so on. The most important step is to assess the degree of voluntary movement of the facial nerves and document the grade of facial paralysis using House- Brackmann score. The significance of the work is the attempt to understand the diagnosis and grading processes using semi-supervised learning with the aim of automating the process. The value of the research is in identifying and documenting the limited literature seen in this area. The use of automated diagnosis and grading greatly reduces the duration of medical examination and increases the consistency, because many palsy images are stored to provide benchmark references for comparative purposes. The proposed automated diagnosis and grading are computationally efficient. This automated process makes it ideal for remote diagnosis and examination of facial palsy. The profiling of a large number of facial images are captured using mobile phones and digital cameras.

Accès libre

Dsmk-Means “Density-Based Split-And-Merge K-Means Clustering Algorithm”

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 51 - 71

Résumé

Abstract

Clustering is widely used to explore and understand large collections of data. K-means clustering method is one of the most popular approaches due to its ease of use and simplicity to implement. This paper introduces Density-based Split- and -Merge K-means clustering Algorithm (DSMK-means), which is developed to address stability problems of standard K-means clustering algorithm, and to improve the performance of clustering when dealing with datasets that contain clusters with different complex shapes and noise or outliers. Based on a set of many experiments, this paper concluded that developed algorithms “DSMK-means” are more capable of finding high accuracy results compared with other algorithms especially as they can process datasets containing clusters with different shapes, densities, or those with outliers and noise.

5 Articles
Accès libre

Biologically Inspired Feature Detection Using Cascaded Correlations of off and on Channels

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

Flying insects are valuable animal models for elucidating computational processes underlying visual motion detection. For example, optical flow analysis by wide-field motion processing neurons in the insect visual system has been investigated from both behavioral and physiological perspectives [1]. This has resulted in useful computational models with diverse applications [2,3]. In addition, some insects must also extract the movement of their prey or conspecifics from their environment. Such insects have the ability to detect and interact with small moving targets, even amidst a swarm of others [4,5]. We use electrophysiological techniques to record from small target motion detector (STMD) neurons in the insect brain that are likely to subserve these behaviors. Inspired by such recordings, we previously proposed an ‘elementary’ small target motion detector (ESTMD) model that accounts for the spatial and temporal tuning of such neurons and even their ability to discriminate targets against cluttered surrounds [6-8]. However, other properties such as direction selectivity [9] and response facilitation for objects moving on extended trajectories [10] are not accounted for by this model. We therefore propose here two model variants that cascade an ESTMD model with a traditional motion detection model algorithm, the Hassenstein Reichardt ‘elementary motion detector’ (EMD) [11]. We show that these elaborations maintain the principal attributes of ESTMDs (i.e. spatiotemporal tuning and background clutter rejection) while also capturing the direction selectivity observed in some STMD neurons. By encapsulating the properties of biological STMD neurons we aim to develop computational models that can simulate the remarkable capabilities of insects in target discrimination and pursuit for applications in robotics and artificial vision systems.

Accès libre

Fast FCM with Spatial Neighborhood Information for Brain Mr Image Segmentation

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 15 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

Among different segmentation approaches Fuzzy c-Means clustering (FCM) is a welldeveloped algorithm for medical image segmentation. In emergency medical applications quick convergence of FCM is necessary. On the other hand spatial information is seldom exploited in standard FCM; therefore nuisance factors can simply affect it and cause misclassification. This paper aims to introduce a Fast FCM (FFCM) technique by incorporation of spatial neighborhood information which is exploited by a linear function on fuzzy membership. Applying proposed spatial Fast FCM (sFFCM), elapsed time is decreased and neighborhood spatial information is exploited in FFCM. Moreover, iteration numbers by proposed FFCM/sFFCM techniques are decreased efficiently. The FCM/FFCM techniques are examined on both simulated and real MR images. Furthermore, to considerably decrease of convergence time and iterations number, cluster centroids are initialized by an algorithm. Accuracy of the new approach is same as standard FCM. The quantitative assessments of presented FCM/FFCM techniques are evaluated by conventional validity functions. Experimental results demonstrate that sFFCM techniques efficiently handle noise interference and significantly decrease elapsed time.

Accès libre

Agent-Based Dispatching Enables Autonomous Groupage Traffic

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 27 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

The complexity and dynamics in groupage traffic require flexible, efficient, and adaptive planning and control processes. The general problem of allocating orders to vehicles can be mapped into the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). However, in practical applications additional requirements complicate the dispatching processes and require a proactive and reactive system behavior. To enable automated dispatching processes, this article presents a multiagent system where the decision making is shifted to autonomous, interacting, intelligent agents. Beside the communication protocols and the agent architecture, the focus is on the individual decision making of the agents which meets the specific requirements in groupage traffic. To evaluate the approach we apply multiagent-based simulation and model several scenarios of real world infrastructures with orders provided by our industrial partner. Moreover, a case study is conducted which covers the autonomous groupage traffic in the current processes of our industrial parter. The results reveal that agent-based dispatching meets the sophisticated requirements of groupage traffic. Furthermore, the decision making supports the combination of pickup and delivery tours efficiently while satisfying logistic request priorities, time windows, and capacity constraints.

Accès libre

Profiling Bell’s Palsy based on House-Brackmann Score

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 41 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

In this study, we propose to diagnose facial nerve palsy using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Emergent Self-Organizing Map (ESOM). This research seeks to analyze facial palsy domain using facial features and grade the degree of nerve damage based on the House-Brackmann score. Traditional diagnostic approaches involve a medical doctor recording a thorough history of a patient and determining the onset of paralysis, rate of progression and so on. The most important step is to assess the degree of voluntary movement of the facial nerves and document the grade of facial paralysis using House- Brackmann score. The significance of the work is the attempt to understand the diagnosis and grading processes using semi-supervised learning with the aim of automating the process. The value of the research is in identifying and documenting the limited literature seen in this area. The use of automated diagnosis and grading greatly reduces the duration of medical examination and increases the consistency, because many palsy images are stored to provide benchmark references for comparative purposes. The proposed automated diagnosis and grading are computationally efficient. This automated process makes it ideal for remote diagnosis and examination of facial palsy. The profiling of a large number of facial images are captured using mobile phones and digital cameras.

Accès libre

Dsmk-Means “Density-Based Split-And-Merge K-Means Clustering Algorithm”

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 51 - 71

Résumé

Abstract

Clustering is widely used to explore and understand large collections of data. K-means clustering method is one of the most popular approaches due to its ease of use and simplicity to implement. This paper introduces Density-based Split- and -Merge K-means clustering Algorithm (DSMK-means), which is developed to address stability problems of standard K-means clustering algorithm, and to improve the performance of clustering when dealing with datasets that contain clusters with different complex shapes and noise or outliers. Based on a set of many experiments, this paper concluded that developed algorithms “DSMK-means” are more capable of finding high accuracy results compared with other algorithms especially as they can process datasets containing clusters with different shapes, densities, or those with outliers and noise.

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