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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2354-0079
Première publication
15 Apr 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 8 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2354-0079
Première publication
15 Apr 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
Accès libre

Convergence and growth – conflicting goals of economics policy – A case study of Georgia

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

Over the years, it has been the subject of discussions whether efficiency-oriented interventions contribute to an equity distribution of wealth across regions and whether equity orientation is a source of inefficiency. While efficiency refers to the maximization of growth in the national economy, convergence-oriented policy is focused on equalizing the level of development at interregional level. The case of Georgia was studied as a developing country facing various challenges in terms of economic growth and regional divergence. This article provides an overview of the economic development trends taking place in the regions of Georgia and reveals the high level of divergence within the country. A logarithmic model was created and used to run simulations to predict the possible results of convergence-oriented policy in Georgia. In order to make the forecast we estimated GDP per capita and average growth rates in all the Georgian regions. Use of the model allowed us to answer two main questions: (1) If the last 5 and 10 year average growth rates are maintained, how long will it take for the poorest region to converge to the wealthiest one? (2) What should be the minimum growth rate in the poorest region for the upcoming 5, 10 and 20 years in order to converge to the wealthiest capital? Results of the calculations showed that convergence between regions can only be achieved by slowing down economic growth in relatively wealthier regions and by focusing on the development of the poorest ones. The results of the study revealed that the convergence process will be faster for the regions with medium or big cities and growth centres. Therefore, creating competitive growth centres would be a reasonable regional policy objective to promote fast economic growth and future convergence without redirecting the growth process from more developed areas to lagging ones.

Mots clés

  • divergence
  • convergence
  • growth
  • regions
  • economy
Accès libre

Risk assessment for groundwater in the region of municipal landfill systems in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland)

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 9 - 17

Résumé

Abstract

An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.

Mots clés

  • risk assessment
  • landfill
  • groundwater
  • leachates
  • Tychy
Accès libre

Socio-economic and environmental benefits of biofuel production development from agricultural waste in Ukraine

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 18 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • waste
  • alternative energy
  • biofuels
  • efficiency
Accès libre

Conservation, valuation and sustainable development issues of the Argan Tree Biosphere Reserve in Morocco

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 28 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The argan tree is a multi-purpose tree (fruit tree, medicinal, cosmetic, and pastoral plant) found in the semi-arid and arid regions of North Africa. It is under strong human pressure such as the impact of population growth, crop expansion, overgrazing, and wood and fruit exploitation that are also the main causes of desertification in the rest of the world. Over the years, interest in this beneficial tree and demand for its products have increased: especially with the increase in the price of argan oil, which is now one of the most expensive and much in demand oils in the world. This increase has led to many socio-political, economic and cultural changes at the national, regional and local levels, especially in farming behaviour and the habits of the local population. This bibliographic research was therefore conducted in order to analyse the various changes and their consequences on the planning, conservation, and management methods implemented in the argan tree area and their effects on the habits of the local population in order to ensure the sustainability of the Argan Tree Biosphere Reserve in Morocco. Indeed, the aims of this study were, firstly, to analyse the change dynamic of argan forest area in the ABR; and secondly, to investigate the impact of various socio-political, economic and cultural changes resulting from increased prices of argan oil on planning, conservation, and management methods of argan tree ecosystem and on the habits of the local population.

Mots clés

  • argan tree
  • human pressure
  • mutation
  • Argan Tree biosphere reserve
  • sustainable development
Accès libre

A study of the practices and processes and benefit sharing of limestone mining in the Banour-Shiva Mining Region in Himachal Pradesh, India

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 36 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.

Mots clés

  • limestone production
  • royality
  • benefit-sharing
  • socio-economic issues
Accès libre

Management of water resources sector to face climatic shocks in Algieria: A dynamic CGE model analysis

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 48 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

Climate change is a major global issue, which is becoming increasingly important on the international scene. As it has a direct impact on ecosystems and societies. Water is at the heart of these changes. The aim of this article was to capture all the microeconomic and macroeconomic effects of resource availability, and to propose a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that takes into account long-term changes in the availability of the primary resource (water supply) with regard to population growth (demand). The results show that the very negative effects on the economy of water shortages could be counteracted by the introduction of a marginal cost demand management policy. This makes it possible to better manage the scarcity of this resource. In fact, the model shows that when Algeria is facing water deficits, the marginal cost tariff policy reverses the trends of an economy that would maintain a tariff policy at average cost. Total investment increases, and total welfare deteriorates less. The drop in the price of water (input and final good), generated by the transition from an average cost pricing to a marginal cost pricing, generates an expansion of many sectors, and stimulates economic activity which reduces the rate of unemployment.

Mots clés

  • water resources
  • climate change
  • CGEM
  • SAM
  • Algeria
6 Articles
Accès libre

Convergence and growth – conflicting goals of economics policy – A case study of Georgia

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

Over the years, it has been the subject of discussions whether efficiency-oriented interventions contribute to an equity distribution of wealth across regions and whether equity orientation is a source of inefficiency. While efficiency refers to the maximization of growth in the national economy, convergence-oriented policy is focused on equalizing the level of development at interregional level. The case of Georgia was studied as a developing country facing various challenges in terms of economic growth and regional divergence. This article provides an overview of the economic development trends taking place in the regions of Georgia and reveals the high level of divergence within the country. A logarithmic model was created and used to run simulations to predict the possible results of convergence-oriented policy in Georgia. In order to make the forecast we estimated GDP per capita and average growth rates in all the Georgian regions. Use of the model allowed us to answer two main questions: (1) If the last 5 and 10 year average growth rates are maintained, how long will it take for the poorest region to converge to the wealthiest one? (2) What should be the minimum growth rate in the poorest region for the upcoming 5, 10 and 20 years in order to converge to the wealthiest capital? Results of the calculations showed that convergence between regions can only be achieved by slowing down economic growth in relatively wealthier regions and by focusing on the development of the poorest ones. The results of the study revealed that the convergence process will be faster for the regions with medium or big cities and growth centres. Therefore, creating competitive growth centres would be a reasonable regional policy objective to promote fast economic growth and future convergence without redirecting the growth process from more developed areas to lagging ones.

Mots clés

  • divergence
  • convergence
  • growth
  • regions
  • economy
Accès libre

Risk assessment for groundwater in the region of municipal landfill systems in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland)

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 9 - 17

Résumé

Abstract

An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.

Mots clés

  • risk assessment
  • landfill
  • groundwater
  • leachates
  • Tychy
Accès libre

Socio-economic and environmental benefits of biofuel production development from agricultural waste in Ukraine

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 18 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • waste
  • alternative energy
  • biofuels
  • efficiency
Accès libre

Conservation, valuation and sustainable development issues of the Argan Tree Biosphere Reserve in Morocco

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 28 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The argan tree is a multi-purpose tree (fruit tree, medicinal, cosmetic, and pastoral plant) found in the semi-arid and arid regions of North Africa. It is under strong human pressure such as the impact of population growth, crop expansion, overgrazing, and wood and fruit exploitation that are also the main causes of desertification in the rest of the world. Over the years, interest in this beneficial tree and demand for its products have increased: especially with the increase in the price of argan oil, which is now one of the most expensive and much in demand oils in the world. This increase has led to many socio-political, economic and cultural changes at the national, regional and local levels, especially in farming behaviour and the habits of the local population. This bibliographic research was therefore conducted in order to analyse the various changes and their consequences on the planning, conservation, and management methods implemented in the argan tree area and their effects on the habits of the local population in order to ensure the sustainability of the Argan Tree Biosphere Reserve in Morocco. Indeed, the aims of this study were, firstly, to analyse the change dynamic of argan forest area in the ABR; and secondly, to investigate the impact of various socio-political, economic and cultural changes resulting from increased prices of argan oil on planning, conservation, and management methods of argan tree ecosystem and on the habits of the local population.

Mots clés

  • argan tree
  • human pressure
  • mutation
  • Argan Tree biosphere reserve
  • sustainable development
Accès libre

A study of the practices and processes and benefit sharing of limestone mining in the Banour-Shiva Mining Region in Himachal Pradesh, India

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 36 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.

Mots clés

  • limestone production
  • royality
  • benefit-sharing
  • socio-economic issues
Accès libre

Management of water resources sector to face climatic shocks in Algieria: A dynamic CGE model analysis

Publié en ligne: 17 Mar 2020
Pages: 48 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

Climate change is a major global issue, which is becoming increasingly important on the international scene. As it has a direct impact on ecosystems and societies. Water is at the heart of these changes. The aim of this article was to capture all the microeconomic and macroeconomic effects of resource availability, and to propose a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that takes into account long-term changes in the availability of the primary resource (water supply) with regard to population growth (demand). The results show that the very negative effects on the economy of water shortages could be counteracted by the introduction of a marginal cost demand management policy. This makes it possible to better manage the scarcity of this resource. In fact, the model shows that when Algeria is facing water deficits, the marginal cost tariff policy reverses the trends of an economy that would maintain a tariff policy at average cost. Total investment increases, and total welfare deteriorates less. The drop in the price of water (input and final good), generated by the transition from an average cost pricing to a marginal cost pricing, generates an expansion of many sectors, and stimulates economic activity which reduces the rate of unemployment.

Mots clés

  • water resources
  • climate change
  • CGEM
  • SAM
  • Algeria

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