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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2354-0079
Première publication
15 Apr 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 6 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2354-0079
Première publication
15 Apr 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles
Accès libre

A study on the groundwater of Peenya industrial area and its related elements in Bengaluru region of Karnataka State, India

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 1 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Groundwater samples were collected from the Peenya Industrial area of Bengaluru, India to test its quality, elemental composition and inherent bacterial population. Further analysis was done using GIS Based Geostatistical techniques to study the level of groundwater and to generate various maps of lineament, digital elevation, geomorphology, soil erosion, salt affected areas and water logging in this region. Physical and chemical parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids, pH, temperature, BOD, COD, metal ions present in the water samples were studied along with predominant microbial constituents. The Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness were far beyond the maximum concentration levels. Further analysis of the isolated bacteria was done using staining methods and biochemical tests. The results obtained showed that the area under study had wells ranging from shallow to deep heights of 30 to 80 meters, with a wide variety of 10-400 LPM; whereas the lineament map suggested that the area was bound with parallel ridges and joints. The geographical data represented pediplain complexes, anthropogenic terrains and water bodies. The area was found to go through a seasonal water logging and the soil loss was due to sheet erosion and rill erosion. It was also observed that the groundwater was contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, chromium etc. along with a diversified bacterial population.

Mots clés

  • industrial area groundwater
  • GIS
  • heavy metals
  • groundwater contaminants
Accès libre

A candle in the wind: An assessment of sanitation behavior among students of tertiary educational institutions in southwest Nigeria

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 13 - 21

Résumé

Abstract

This article examined sanitation behaviour among students’ of tertiary education institutions in southwest Nigeria. The study surveyed the behaviour of the students in the residential hostels across gender differences. A total of 125 students were selected for the survey using a systematic sampling technique. The study revealed that the majority 194 (96.8%) were below 28 years of age. Findings revealed that the number of occupants in a student room was higher than the number of students allocated to the room. Due to overpopulation in rooms within the hostels, the available sanitary installations are overstretched. The study found that the average per capita use of toilets and bathrooms in male and female hostels was 27 and 21 students respectively. The study reports on poor sanitation behaviour among the students in terms of washing of hands after defecation, hand cleaning materials used by the student after using the toilet, flushing the toilet after use, sanitary alternatives when the toilet is in a bad condition and cleaning of students’ rooms. It recommends a mind-set reorientation for the students about adequate sanitary behaviour through effective sanitation education and provision of adequate sanitary amenities to cater for the students residing in the hostels. The findings of this study will have implications for effective policy making on sanitation behaviour among students in tertiary education institutions with a similar background.

Mots clés

  • sanitation
  • behaviour
  • sanitary facilities
  • sanitation habits
  • amenities
  • Ile-Ife
Accès libre

Spruce tree-ring reductions in relation to air pollution and human diseases a case study from Southern Poland

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 22 - 28

Résumé

Abstract

The study was conducted in two small municipalities in Małopolskie voivodeship in Southern Poland. Both municipalities are located in mountain basins in the Western Beskids mountain range.Cores were taken from trees growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka in order to analyse the impact of contemporary air pollution on the health of tree stands. Annual tree rings developed during the era of high atmospheric pollution are usually narrower than the others. These municipalities were chosen due to their current air pollution problems despite their relatively small population.Local chronology, skeleton plots and calculated ring reductions were created for the sample trees. Temporal relationships between air pollution and a negative health reaction in trees and in people were also examined. To fulfil this objective the dates of occurrence of tree-ring reductions were compared with the concentration of particulates (PM10) in the atmosphere and also lung disease morbidity in the local population. Two periods of reduced annual tree rings were detected: first from the 1960s to the end of the 1980s (associated with industrial pollution) and more recently the years since 2003. Since 2003 reductions of annual tree rings have increased in parallel with increases in dust pollution. This reaction of trees to dust pollution was immediate. The negative reaction of trees preceded several years of increasing lung disease morbidity. This gives basic evidence to support the argument that tree ring reductions could be used as an early bioindicator for warning against the risk of air pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the periods of reduction in the annual growth of spruce growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka. In addition, potential associations were sought between the time of occurrence of these periods and changes in air pollution and human disease.

Mots clés

  • wood cores
  • dendrochronological data
  • Rabka-Zdrój
  • Sucha Beskidzka
Accès libre

The influence of mechanized farming and industrialization on the Oromo people, their traditional livelihood strategies and their environment in Ethiopia

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 29 - 39

Résumé

Abstract

This article discusses the influences of mechanized farming and industrialization on the Oromo traditional livelihood strategies and environment. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed for the study, specifically, observations, interviews, focus group discussions, case studies and surveys were used for data collection. The study revealed that, the traditional livelihood strategies of the Oromo and their environment are highly affected by mechanized farming and industrialization in the study area. These include the loss of crop land, the loss of pasture land, the loss of forest, the loss of water resources and other environmental damage. Moreover, it was found that people are not consulted in most cases about land expropriation for mechanized farming and industrialization; more often than not the community had no involvement at all. The whole process of land transfer was not disclosed to the local people and as a result, their traditional livelihood strategies were affected. The relationship between mechanized farming and industries, and local communities is not always harmonious. The community perceives industry and mechanized farming as their enemies. Consequently, mechanized farming and industries are kept safe by security forces. Correct environmental use by the local people in general and appropriate land use in particular is broken; fair water use is also ignored. Therefore, rather than favouring a few exploitative investors, the Government should empower the local community.

Mots clés

  • industrialization
  • mechanized farming
  • Oromo people
  • traditional livelihood
Accès libre

The problem associated with the spread of Sosnovskyi hogweed (Heracleum sosnovskyi), in the mountainous geosystems of the Ukrainian-Polish border

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 40 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

The article highlights the problem of spreading of the invasive species Heracleum sosnovskyi in mountainous geosystems in the border district of Turka in the Lviv region of Ukraine particularly along the border with Poland. The aim of the article was to investigate the areas covered and peculiarities of the spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi. The research methodology consisted of three consecutive steps: preparation, field work, and cameral. The following general scientific methods were used: system analysis and synthesis, comparison, ranking, and the special methods of geoecological studies: field, cartographic, drone survey and photofixation. During the field studies, we sampled seven model areas, representing mountain geosystems with different types of economic use and the presence of Heracleum sosnovskyi: - river valleys, uncultivated agricultural land, narrow strips along roads, abandoned territories. In one of the model areas, a drone survey was conducted, on the basis of which we charted a map presented in the article. We also analysed the stock data and the current state of distribution of the spread Heracleum sosnovskyi in village councils and in the region as a whole. The main problem with the uncontrolled spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi in Turka district is the lack of true data as to the extent of the environmental disaster and the absence of a systematic and planned fight control measures. The article describes the main recommendations for the effective control fight against of this invasive species using foreign experience.

Mots clés

  • Heracleum sosnovskyi
  • Ukraine-Poland borderland
  • invasive species
  • mountain geosystems
  • drone survey method
Accès libre

An economic evaluation of a forest park using the individual travel cost method (a case study of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in northern Iran)

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 48 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The true economic value of ecosystem services may not be reflected in market transactions, because there is no real transaction for ecosystem services in the market. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the cost of time and travel to define the value people place on something in the absence of a market price. This study estimates the recreational value of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in the north of Iran using the individual travel cost method. This method is considered to be a substitute approach for the market. The data required were collected using questionnaires. Therefore, 271 questionnaires were randomly distributed between the visitors of the recreational site in 2016. In this study, a linear function is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables including economic and social variables on the number of visits to estimate the recreational value of the forest park. Results showed that a consumer surplus of each person for their visit was 21500 Rials and the annual recreational value of the park was 78390595 Rials per ha. Furthermore, the variables such as travel expenses, income, distance, family size and visitor’s age are effective factors in the recreational use of the park. The results of this study can improve the quality of environmental services of the Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park and could expand the variety of services that they could supply based on the demand of the people.

Mots clés

  • economic valuation
  • non-market goods
  • forest park
  • individual travel cost method
Accès libre

Coping with sanitary hazards in hostels: The influence of student’s socioeconomic variability

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 56 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

Managing environmental hazards in any environment is imperative as they are harmful phenomena, objects, behaviours, conditions or human activities which may result in loss of life, injury and other health impacts. Therefore, this article assessed how students’ socioeconomic attributes affect their ability to cope with issues of sanitary hazards in tertiary public education institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study evaluated such relationships using a perceptual approach whereby socioeconomic characteristics of students and their responses to sanitary hazards were captured. Data were obtained through a questionnaire survey which was administered to each of the selected 367 students residing on campus in three tertiary institutions using probability sampling procedures. Data obtained were analysed using frequency distribution and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings revealed that students’ coping ability had significant variation with socioeconomic variability such as age of student (F (3,363)= 4.090, p = 0.007*), ethnicity (F (3,363)= 3.381, p = 0.018*) and childhood environment (F (2,364)= 7.207, p = 0.010*). Of which the effect size measures of these attributes as presented by the Eta-squared statistic indicated that each attribute of these socioeconomic variability [age (0.033), ethnicity (0.027) and childhood environment (0.038)] accounted for a medium magnitude of students’ coping ability. The study, however, concludes that students are in need of environmental sanitation education to provide the required health knowledge and safety precautions to ensure sanitary environments within the institutions.

Mots clés

  • sanitary hazards
  • sanitary behaviour
  • socioeconomic variables
  • coping ability
  • environmental health
7 Articles
Accès libre

A study on the groundwater of Peenya industrial area and its related elements in Bengaluru region of Karnataka State, India

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 1 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Groundwater samples were collected from the Peenya Industrial area of Bengaluru, India to test its quality, elemental composition and inherent bacterial population. Further analysis was done using GIS Based Geostatistical techniques to study the level of groundwater and to generate various maps of lineament, digital elevation, geomorphology, soil erosion, salt affected areas and water logging in this region. Physical and chemical parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids, pH, temperature, BOD, COD, metal ions present in the water samples were studied along with predominant microbial constituents. The Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness were far beyond the maximum concentration levels. Further analysis of the isolated bacteria was done using staining methods and biochemical tests. The results obtained showed that the area under study had wells ranging from shallow to deep heights of 30 to 80 meters, with a wide variety of 10-400 LPM; whereas the lineament map suggested that the area was bound with parallel ridges and joints. The geographical data represented pediplain complexes, anthropogenic terrains and water bodies. The area was found to go through a seasonal water logging and the soil loss was due to sheet erosion and rill erosion. It was also observed that the groundwater was contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, chromium etc. along with a diversified bacterial population.

Mots clés

  • industrial area groundwater
  • GIS
  • heavy metals
  • groundwater contaminants
Accès libre

A candle in the wind: An assessment of sanitation behavior among students of tertiary educational institutions in southwest Nigeria

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 13 - 21

Résumé

Abstract

This article examined sanitation behaviour among students’ of tertiary education institutions in southwest Nigeria. The study surveyed the behaviour of the students in the residential hostels across gender differences. A total of 125 students were selected for the survey using a systematic sampling technique. The study revealed that the majority 194 (96.8%) were below 28 years of age. Findings revealed that the number of occupants in a student room was higher than the number of students allocated to the room. Due to overpopulation in rooms within the hostels, the available sanitary installations are overstretched. The study found that the average per capita use of toilets and bathrooms in male and female hostels was 27 and 21 students respectively. The study reports on poor sanitation behaviour among the students in terms of washing of hands after defecation, hand cleaning materials used by the student after using the toilet, flushing the toilet after use, sanitary alternatives when the toilet is in a bad condition and cleaning of students’ rooms. It recommends a mind-set reorientation for the students about adequate sanitary behaviour through effective sanitation education and provision of adequate sanitary amenities to cater for the students residing in the hostels. The findings of this study will have implications for effective policy making on sanitation behaviour among students in tertiary education institutions with a similar background.

Mots clés

  • sanitation
  • behaviour
  • sanitary facilities
  • sanitation habits
  • amenities
  • Ile-Ife
Accès libre

Spruce tree-ring reductions in relation to air pollution and human diseases a case study from Southern Poland

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 22 - 28

Résumé

Abstract

The study was conducted in two small municipalities in Małopolskie voivodeship in Southern Poland. Both municipalities are located in mountain basins in the Western Beskids mountain range.Cores were taken from trees growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka in order to analyse the impact of contemporary air pollution on the health of tree stands. Annual tree rings developed during the era of high atmospheric pollution are usually narrower than the others. These municipalities were chosen due to their current air pollution problems despite their relatively small population.Local chronology, skeleton plots and calculated ring reductions were created for the sample trees. Temporal relationships between air pollution and a negative health reaction in trees and in people were also examined. To fulfil this objective the dates of occurrence of tree-ring reductions were compared with the concentration of particulates (PM10) in the atmosphere and also lung disease morbidity in the local population. Two periods of reduced annual tree rings were detected: first from the 1960s to the end of the 1980s (associated with industrial pollution) and more recently the years since 2003. Since 2003 reductions of annual tree rings have increased in parallel with increases in dust pollution. This reaction of trees to dust pollution was immediate. The negative reaction of trees preceded several years of increasing lung disease morbidity. This gives basic evidence to support the argument that tree ring reductions could be used as an early bioindicator for warning against the risk of air pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the periods of reduction in the annual growth of spruce growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka. In addition, potential associations were sought between the time of occurrence of these periods and changes in air pollution and human disease.

Mots clés

  • wood cores
  • dendrochronological data
  • Rabka-Zdrój
  • Sucha Beskidzka
Accès libre

The influence of mechanized farming and industrialization on the Oromo people, their traditional livelihood strategies and their environment in Ethiopia

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 29 - 39

Résumé

Abstract

This article discusses the influences of mechanized farming and industrialization on the Oromo traditional livelihood strategies and environment. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed for the study, specifically, observations, interviews, focus group discussions, case studies and surveys were used for data collection. The study revealed that, the traditional livelihood strategies of the Oromo and their environment are highly affected by mechanized farming and industrialization in the study area. These include the loss of crop land, the loss of pasture land, the loss of forest, the loss of water resources and other environmental damage. Moreover, it was found that people are not consulted in most cases about land expropriation for mechanized farming and industrialization; more often than not the community had no involvement at all. The whole process of land transfer was not disclosed to the local people and as a result, their traditional livelihood strategies were affected. The relationship between mechanized farming and industries, and local communities is not always harmonious. The community perceives industry and mechanized farming as their enemies. Consequently, mechanized farming and industries are kept safe by security forces. Correct environmental use by the local people in general and appropriate land use in particular is broken; fair water use is also ignored. Therefore, rather than favouring a few exploitative investors, the Government should empower the local community.

Mots clés

  • industrialization
  • mechanized farming
  • Oromo people
  • traditional livelihood
Accès libre

The problem associated with the spread of Sosnovskyi hogweed (Heracleum sosnovskyi), in the mountainous geosystems of the Ukrainian-Polish border

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 40 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

The article highlights the problem of spreading of the invasive species Heracleum sosnovskyi in mountainous geosystems in the border district of Turka in the Lviv region of Ukraine particularly along the border with Poland. The aim of the article was to investigate the areas covered and peculiarities of the spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi. The research methodology consisted of three consecutive steps: preparation, field work, and cameral. The following general scientific methods were used: system analysis and synthesis, comparison, ranking, and the special methods of geoecological studies: field, cartographic, drone survey and photofixation. During the field studies, we sampled seven model areas, representing mountain geosystems with different types of economic use and the presence of Heracleum sosnovskyi: - river valleys, uncultivated agricultural land, narrow strips along roads, abandoned territories. In one of the model areas, a drone survey was conducted, on the basis of which we charted a map presented in the article. We also analysed the stock data and the current state of distribution of the spread Heracleum sosnovskyi in village councils and in the region as a whole. The main problem with the uncontrolled spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi in Turka district is the lack of true data as to the extent of the environmental disaster and the absence of a systematic and planned fight control measures. The article describes the main recommendations for the effective control fight against of this invasive species using foreign experience.

Mots clés

  • Heracleum sosnovskyi
  • Ukraine-Poland borderland
  • invasive species
  • mountain geosystems
  • drone survey method
Accès libre

An economic evaluation of a forest park using the individual travel cost method (a case study of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in northern Iran)

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 48 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The true economic value of ecosystem services may not be reflected in market transactions, because there is no real transaction for ecosystem services in the market. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the cost of time and travel to define the value people place on something in the absence of a market price. This study estimates the recreational value of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in the north of Iran using the individual travel cost method. This method is considered to be a substitute approach for the market. The data required were collected using questionnaires. Therefore, 271 questionnaires were randomly distributed between the visitors of the recreational site in 2016. In this study, a linear function is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables including economic and social variables on the number of visits to estimate the recreational value of the forest park. Results showed that a consumer surplus of each person for their visit was 21500 Rials and the annual recreational value of the park was 78390595 Rials per ha. Furthermore, the variables such as travel expenses, income, distance, family size and visitor’s age are effective factors in the recreational use of the park. The results of this study can improve the quality of environmental services of the Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park and could expand the variety of services that they could supply based on the demand of the people.

Mots clés

  • economic valuation
  • non-market goods
  • forest park
  • individual travel cost method
Accès libre

Coping with sanitary hazards in hostels: The influence of student’s socioeconomic variability

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2018
Pages: 56 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

Managing environmental hazards in any environment is imperative as they are harmful phenomena, objects, behaviours, conditions or human activities which may result in loss of life, injury and other health impacts. Therefore, this article assessed how students’ socioeconomic attributes affect their ability to cope with issues of sanitary hazards in tertiary public education institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study evaluated such relationships using a perceptual approach whereby socioeconomic characteristics of students and their responses to sanitary hazards were captured. Data were obtained through a questionnaire survey which was administered to each of the selected 367 students residing on campus in three tertiary institutions using probability sampling procedures. Data obtained were analysed using frequency distribution and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings revealed that students’ coping ability had significant variation with socioeconomic variability such as age of student (F (3,363)= 4.090, p = 0.007*), ethnicity (F (3,363)= 3.381, p = 0.018*) and childhood environment (F (2,364)= 7.207, p = 0.010*). Of which the effect size measures of these attributes as presented by the Eta-squared statistic indicated that each attribute of these socioeconomic variability [age (0.033), ethnicity (0.027) and childhood environment (0.038)] accounted for a medium magnitude of students’ coping ability. The study, however, concludes that students are in need of environmental sanitation education to provide the required health knowledge and safety precautions to ensure sanitary environments within the institutions.

Mots clés

  • sanitary hazards
  • sanitary behaviour
  • socioeconomic variables
  • coping ability
  • environmental health

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