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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4139
Première publication
03 Jun 2011
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 18 (2018): Edition 2 (August 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4139
Première publication
03 Jun 2011
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Appearance of Clostridium difficile infections in health care institutions in Slovakia and in the district of martin

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 5 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Decrease of nonspecific imunity in patients and the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics form appropriate conditions for the appearance of medically severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) - enterocolitis that can have the characteristics of community or hospital acquired infection (HAI). The aim of our work is to identify the trend of their incidence in Slovakia and to define the risk groups according to age and department of hospitalisation.

Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis and comparison of the appearance of CDI was performed within the groups of patients hospitalised in health care institutions in the SR and those in the district of Martin during the period of years 2010 to 2017. The data of reported cases were taken from the Epidemiological information system of the Slovak Republic (EPIS SR), the source of demografic data was the National Center of Health Information.

Resuts: Analysis shows an important increase of incidence of CDI during years 2010 to 2017. Diseases had predominantly health care associated – nosocomial – character targeting mostly older patients (65+ - 24/10 000 in the Slovak Republic and 62/10,000 in the county of Martin) and less infants (7/10,000 and 11/10,000 repectively).

Conclusion: The results of our analyses are consistent with literature data about CDI enterocolitis and show their serious health and social impact in our society.

Mots clés

  • hospital aquired infections
  • age groups
  • hospital departments
Accès libre

Sunbeds use – tanning pattern and UV protective behaviour of adults of the Turiec Region

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 13 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Recent worldwide researches dealing with artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation have noticed an increased incidence of skin cancer, conjunctivitis, or decreased immunity. Melanoma is the most serious disease that may be caused by sunbeds.

Goal: The main goal of the study was to coherently process public health issues of sunbeds and find out a level of information and attitude of adult population in the Turiec Region.

Material and method: In the II. half of 2016 we carried out a questionnaire survey focused on information and attitude of adult population towards sunbeds and their negative effect on humans. The total sample consisted of 121 adult participants (74 females and 47 males) from the Turiec Region.

Results: The age range of participants was 36 ± 6.5 years and the age range of sunbed users was 31 ± 4.8 (x ± SD). From the total sample of 121 participants 34 (28.1%) visit sunbed and 87 (71.9%) do not. Sunbeds are visited more by women (85.3%), but men (p 0.05) take longer sunbaths than women. Women (p 0.05) were more informed about their phototype than men. Only 51 (42.2%) of participants were aware of their skin phototype and better informed were participants with higher education. From the survey only 13 (38.2%) participants used the combination of protective sunglasses and sunscreens.

Conclusion: The results show that visitors of sunbeds had a higher level of information than non-visitors. A negative aspect is that the participants didn’t know the phototype of their skin and didn’t use all protective aids. Most participants said that information on sunbed are inadequate. From the public health view it is very important to focus on prevention, spread information about diseases influenced by artificial source of UV radiation, and educate the population.

Mots clés

  • sunbeds
  • malignant melanoma
  • health protection
  • skin phototype
Accès libre

Possible impact of automotive industry on the health of working population

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 20 - 26

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Slovakia. Overall, there are more than 200,000 people employed in this sector. The work in automotive industry is monotonous and repetitive with excessive number of movements of upper extremities.

Methods: In this retrospective study the development of specific occupational diseases in Slovak automotive industry was analyzed. The frequency and occurrence of major occupational diseases in the period from 1987 to 2017 was analyzed, including major causes and factors which influence the rise and development of these occupational diseases (the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities, noise-related diseases). Data on occupational diseases cases were retrieved from the National Registry of occupational diseases.

Results: Diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities have been at the first place in the order of all admitted occupational diseases in the Slovak Republic since 1997. The total number of notified occupational diseases in respective years shows a declining trend whereas the number of diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities as well as evaluations of suspected occupational diseases has the rising trend. Between 1987 and 2017 a total of 20,370 new cases were recorded, of which 4,707 (23.10%) were diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities and 2,150 (10.55%) were noise-related occupational diseases.

Conclusions: The automotive industry offers a lot of job opportunities. On the other hand, it is characterized by a type of working activity that poses a considerable risk to employees.

Mots clés

  • occupational medicine
  • automotive industry
  • carpal tunnel syndrome
  • noise
  • workplace
Accès libre

Measurement of Low-level radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the human environment

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 27 - 33

Résumé

Abstract

In recent years there has been an increase in development of electromagnetic (EM) technology in the telecommunication industry, resulting in an increase in human non-ionizing exposure. This fact has initiated a number of scientific studies on possible health effects of EM fields on human organism. Totally four representative microenvironments were investigated for RF EM fields distribution, namely: city center, residential area, rural area, and extra-village area. Each microenvironment was measured 20 times in accordance with the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The extra-village measurements were taken as the base values that reflect the E-field intensities with the lowest amplitudes. The statistical analysis revealed notable statistical significance (p < 0.001) in almost all measured frequency bands except the Wi-Fi where the p-values were less than 0.05 for the city center and residential area but not significant for rural area. The highest total E-field intensity was measured in the residential area (approximately 1.85 V/m). All measured values were below the legal limits of the Slovak Republic and ICNIRP safety guidelines. However, the ICNIRP safety limits were written in 1998 considering only the thermal effects of RF radiation. They were updated in 2009 without any changes in the limits and still recommend 27.5 – 61 V/m (2 – 10 W/m2) for the RF frequency band of 400–2,000 MHz. The BioInitiative Report of 2012 established the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30–60 μW/m2 (approximately 0.1 – 0.15 V/m). Thus, all measured values were above the scientifically derived limits.

Mots clés

  • base transceiver station
  • environment exposure
  • mobile communication
  • cell phone
Accès libre

On-treatment platelet reactivity in the era of new ADP receptor blockers: data from a real-world clinical practice

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 34 - 39

Résumé

Abstract

Objectives: Several studies have questioned the need for platelet function testing in patients treated with new ADP receptor blockers (ADPRB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) among acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with newer ADPRB.

Methods: A prospective study enrolling 44 acute previously ADPRB naive STEMI patients (31 men, 13 women) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) was performed. Among the studied population 23 patients received prasugrel and 21 patients received ticagrelor. Antiplatelet response was tested with light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) flow cytometry assay. Samples were taken prior to coronary angiography (sample 1) and on the day after this procedure (sample 2).

Results: The mean platelet aggregation after induction with ADP was 51.7 ± 24.8% in sample 1 and 25.3 ± 20.1% in sample 2. An examination of VASP-P showed a mean platelet reactivity index of 56.8 ± 25.7% in sample 1 and 23.8 ± 23.1% in sample 2, respectively. The study identified 11.4% of patients in sample 2 as ADP receptor blocker non-responders. No significant differences were found between prasugrel-treated to ticagrelor-treated patients.

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated HTPR among acute STEMI patients treated with newer ADPRB.

Mots clés

  • High on-treatment platelet reactivity
  • tailored antiplatelet therapy
  • prasugrel
  • ticagrelor
  • acute myocardial infarction
5 Articles
Accès libre

Appearance of Clostridium difficile infections in health care institutions in Slovakia and in the district of martin

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 5 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Decrease of nonspecific imunity in patients and the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics form appropriate conditions for the appearance of medically severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) - enterocolitis that can have the characteristics of community or hospital acquired infection (HAI). The aim of our work is to identify the trend of their incidence in Slovakia and to define the risk groups according to age and department of hospitalisation.

Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis and comparison of the appearance of CDI was performed within the groups of patients hospitalised in health care institutions in the SR and those in the district of Martin during the period of years 2010 to 2017. The data of reported cases were taken from the Epidemiological information system of the Slovak Republic (EPIS SR), the source of demografic data was the National Center of Health Information.

Resuts: Analysis shows an important increase of incidence of CDI during years 2010 to 2017. Diseases had predominantly health care associated – nosocomial – character targeting mostly older patients (65+ - 24/10 000 in the Slovak Republic and 62/10,000 in the county of Martin) and less infants (7/10,000 and 11/10,000 repectively).

Conclusion: The results of our analyses are consistent with literature data about CDI enterocolitis and show their serious health and social impact in our society.

Mots clés

  • hospital aquired infections
  • age groups
  • hospital departments
Accès libre

Sunbeds use – tanning pattern and UV protective behaviour of adults of the Turiec Region

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 13 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Recent worldwide researches dealing with artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation have noticed an increased incidence of skin cancer, conjunctivitis, or decreased immunity. Melanoma is the most serious disease that may be caused by sunbeds.

Goal: The main goal of the study was to coherently process public health issues of sunbeds and find out a level of information and attitude of adult population in the Turiec Region.

Material and method: In the II. half of 2016 we carried out a questionnaire survey focused on information and attitude of adult population towards sunbeds and their negative effect on humans. The total sample consisted of 121 adult participants (74 females and 47 males) from the Turiec Region.

Results: The age range of participants was 36 ± 6.5 years and the age range of sunbed users was 31 ± 4.8 (x ± SD). From the total sample of 121 participants 34 (28.1%) visit sunbed and 87 (71.9%) do not. Sunbeds are visited more by women (85.3%), but men (p 0.05) take longer sunbaths than women. Women (p 0.05) were more informed about their phototype than men. Only 51 (42.2%) of participants were aware of their skin phototype and better informed were participants with higher education. From the survey only 13 (38.2%) participants used the combination of protective sunglasses and sunscreens.

Conclusion: The results show that visitors of sunbeds had a higher level of information than non-visitors. A negative aspect is that the participants didn’t know the phototype of their skin and didn’t use all protective aids. Most participants said that information on sunbed are inadequate. From the public health view it is very important to focus on prevention, spread information about diseases influenced by artificial source of UV radiation, and educate the population.

Mots clés

  • sunbeds
  • malignant melanoma
  • health protection
  • skin phototype
Accès libre

Possible impact of automotive industry on the health of working population

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 20 - 26

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Slovakia. Overall, there are more than 200,000 people employed in this sector. The work in automotive industry is monotonous and repetitive with excessive number of movements of upper extremities.

Methods: In this retrospective study the development of specific occupational diseases in Slovak automotive industry was analyzed. The frequency and occurrence of major occupational diseases in the period from 1987 to 2017 was analyzed, including major causes and factors which influence the rise and development of these occupational diseases (the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities, noise-related diseases). Data on occupational diseases cases were retrieved from the National Registry of occupational diseases.

Results: Diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities have been at the first place in the order of all admitted occupational diseases in the Slovak Republic since 1997. The total number of notified occupational diseases in respective years shows a declining trend whereas the number of diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities as well as evaluations of suspected occupational diseases has the rising trend. Between 1987 and 2017 a total of 20,370 new cases were recorded, of which 4,707 (23.10%) were diseases due to the long-term excessive unilateral load of upper extremities and 2,150 (10.55%) were noise-related occupational diseases.

Conclusions: The automotive industry offers a lot of job opportunities. On the other hand, it is characterized by a type of working activity that poses a considerable risk to employees.

Mots clés

  • occupational medicine
  • automotive industry
  • carpal tunnel syndrome
  • noise
  • workplace
Accès libre

Measurement of Low-level radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the human environment

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 27 - 33

Résumé

Abstract

In recent years there has been an increase in development of electromagnetic (EM) technology in the telecommunication industry, resulting in an increase in human non-ionizing exposure. This fact has initiated a number of scientific studies on possible health effects of EM fields on human organism. Totally four representative microenvironments were investigated for RF EM fields distribution, namely: city center, residential area, rural area, and extra-village area. Each microenvironment was measured 20 times in accordance with the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The extra-village measurements were taken as the base values that reflect the E-field intensities with the lowest amplitudes. The statistical analysis revealed notable statistical significance (p < 0.001) in almost all measured frequency bands except the Wi-Fi where the p-values were less than 0.05 for the city center and residential area but not significant for rural area. The highest total E-field intensity was measured in the residential area (approximately 1.85 V/m). All measured values were below the legal limits of the Slovak Republic and ICNIRP safety guidelines. However, the ICNIRP safety limits were written in 1998 considering only the thermal effects of RF radiation. They were updated in 2009 without any changes in the limits and still recommend 27.5 – 61 V/m (2 – 10 W/m2) for the RF frequency band of 400–2,000 MHz. The BioInitiative Report of 2012 established the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30–60 μW/m2 (approximately 0.1 – 0.15 V/m). Thus, all measured values were above the scientifically derived limits.

Mots clés

  • base transceiver station
  • environment exposure
  • mobile communication
  • cell phone
Accès libre

On-treatment platelet reactivity in the era of new ADP receptor blockers: data from a real-world clinical practice

Publié en ligne: 07 Dec 2018
Pages: 34 - 39

Résumé

Abstract

Objectives: Several studies have questioned the need for platelet function testing in patients treated with new ADP receptor blockers (ADPRB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) among acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with newer ADPRB.

Methods: A prospective study enrolling 44 acute previously ADPRB naive STEMI patients (31 men, 13 women) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) was performed. Among the studied population 23 patients received prasugrel and 21 patients received ticagrelor. Antiplatelet response was tested with light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) flow cytometry assay. Samples were taken prior to coronary angiography (sample 1) and on the day after this procedure (sample 2).

Results: The mean platelet aggregation after induction with ADP was 51.7 ± 24.8% in sample 1 and 25.3 ± 20.1% in sample 2. An examination of VASP-P showed a mean platelet reactivity index of 56.8 ± 25.7% in sample 1 and 23.8 ± 23.1% in sample 2, respectively. The study identified 11.4% of patients in sample 2 as ADP receptor blocker non-responders. No significant differences were found between prasugrel-treated to ticagrelor-treated patients.

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated HTPR among acute STEMI patients treated with newer ADPRB.

Mots clés

  • High on-treatment platelet reactivity
  • tailored antiplatelet therapy
  • prasugrel
  • ticagrelor
  • acute myocardial infarction

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