Water plays an irreplaceable role in people's daily life. It is the basic element supporting the survival of all things. Water can be used for drinking, cleaning, transportation, etc., especially for agricultural irrigation, which requires more and more water resources. However, the current shortage of water resources has reached an unprecedented level and has become an important bottleneck hindering economic development [1]. Experts warn that in the face of the increasingly serious shortage of water resources, the battle for water is about to intensify. The crisis of water resources has become an issue of concern all over the world.

After a long time of exploration and research, people finally found that using scientific and technological means to alleviate the crisis will be the main way out. The utilization rate of irrigation water in China is only 45%. With the continuous adjustment of China's agricultural structure, improving the utilization rate of water has attracted the attention of experts and scholars. It is urgent to promote effective water-saving irrigation technology, which is an important strategy to solve the problem of agricultural drought and water shortage according to the current situation of water use in China.

Drip irrigation is an irrigation method that uses special pipeline system and equipment to send low-pressure water to the soil at the root of crops through the orifice or dripper on the capillary with a diameter of about 10mm. Drip irrigation is only around the roots of crops, not large-area and aimless irrigation. Therefore, it can effectively save water resources and improve water utilization. Drip irrigation has the advantages of saving water and fertilizer, maintaining soil structure and improving crop quality. Drip irrigation equipment has the advantages of simple use, convenient maintenance and many applicable occasions. It is widely used in both greenhouse and field crops [2]. Intelligent irrigation system can supply the water lost by crops regularly, quantitatively and accurately. It not only improves labor efficiency, but also saves cost. Therefore, the development of intelligent irrigation system is another important way of water-saving irrigation. The organic combination of automatic control technology and drip irrigation technology is of great significance to improve the automation level of water-saving irrigation and the economic benefits of agricultural investment. Therefore, the research and development of intelligent drip irrigation control system with low cost, convenient use and strong system function is a very meaningful work.

Water saving agriculture has experienced decades of development. Especially in some developed countries, water-saving irrigation has a wide range of use and a high degree of scale. The United States, France, Britain, Japan, Israel and other developed countries have adopted advanced water-saving irrigation systems to monitor and predict the water use in irrigation areas, and adopt remote sensing technology to monitor crop growth and implement dynamic management ". These countries have mature schemes for the research of irrigation control system, and have successively developed multi-functional and cost-effective water-saving irrigators. Israel, known as an agricultural technology power, is a leader in the field of water-saving irrigation. The water-saving irrigation equipment produced and developed by Israel is widely used in field planting, greenhouse, orchard and other fields. The automatic control system promoted by Israel in the country can directly send water and fertilizer to the roots of crops regularly and quantitatively, and the utilization rate of water resources can reach 90%. The intelligent irrigation system produced by Israel is widely used in occasions with large irrigation area. It uses advanced technology to realize intelligent irrigation. The system can automatically and accurately implement irrigation work from any distance through different communication methods, such as direct cable connection communication, telephone communication or radio transmission [3]. The United States, Japan and other countries have also developed their own automatic irrigation products, which are widely used. The EPS-MC controller in the United States is divided into six models, which can control up to 120 solenoid valves and set four control procedures, which can be opened many times in a day. The controller has good application effect, especially in greenhouse, and can realize timely irrigation. There are many factors affecting the amount of irrigation, such as soil moisture, plant transpiration, air humidity, etc. in the 1980s, the United States developed an irrigation control system based on monitoring soil moisture. In the 1990s, the United States further developed an irrigation control system that can monitor soil information and air humidity, which improved the previous design. Subsequently, Azari MD and others applied the pressure sensor to the irrigation control feedback system to measure soil moisture [4]. Uygan D and others summarized the 15 year underground drip irrigation of tomato and other crops conducted by the American Institute of water management, and showed that underground drip irrigation can improve crop yield and water use efficiency, and high-frequency irrigation can reduce deep infiltration. Computer control is widely used in water-saving irrigation in Japan, and the monitoring system mostly adopts distributed structure. A central management machine is used to centrally monitor the water pump and pipeline, and wireless communication is used between the extension and the central management machine [5]. Surendran U and others believe that this control mode facilitates the remote operation of users and makes the system more practical. Australia has also successfully developed a series of irrigation controllers. The buried humidity sensor can send back the information about soil moisture to the host computer. Some sensor systems can determine the irrigation interval of plants by detecting the diameter changes of plant stems and fruits [6]. This computerized mode is accurate and convenient, which not only saves labor but also improves work efficiency. It is mainly used in small-area irrigation occasions such as household irrigation. In short, the automation level of water-saving irrigation has become more and more mature. After long-term research and practice, it has developed in two directions: micro controller and large-scale distributed control system. At the same time, advanced monitoring technology is adopted to form a relatively perfect water-saving irrigation automation system.

The content of post project evaluation mainly includes: the construction of index system, the selection of evaluation methods and the establishment of evaluation model. The specific operation process is to select the evaluation indicators describing some characteristics of the evaluation object from different aspects according to the characteristics of the object to be evaluated, then screen and merge the evaluation indicators according to different evaluation purposes, establish the index system, and then determine the weight value of the indicators according to the influence of different indicators on the research object. Finally, a mathematical model is established to synthesize multiple evaluation index values into an overall comprehensive evaluation value. The logic process diagram of post evaluation is shown in Figure 1.

The post evaluation of the construction process of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation project is to systematically summarize and review the whole process of project construction after the completion of the project in accordance with the current relevant regulations and systems, and analyze and measure the work performance of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation project based on various documents, reports and records produced during the formation and operation of the project. Summarize the experience and lessons in decision-making and project construction management, find out the deviation between the actual situation and the predicted situation, analyze the reasonable degree of deviation and the reasons for the deviation, and put forward practical countermeasures and measures, so as to accumulate experience for strengthening the preliminary work and further improving the project management of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects in the future. The post evaluation of the construction process shall cover the contents of each stage of the project from decision-making to completion, and can reflect the characteristics of the main links of each stage. According to the project construction cycle, the content of post construction evaluation is divided into three aspects: project approval decision evaluation, preliminary work evaluation and construction implementation evaluation. Through the evaluation and analysis of indicators in these three stages, the construction of post construction evaluation index system is completed [7]. After the construction of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation project is completed, it is a very important task to make it run well and manage effectively, and all departments and institutions also attach great importance to this work. In 2002, the office of the State Council transmitted the opinions of the State Economic Reform Commission on the implementation of the reform of water conservancy project management system (State Office (2002) 45) and comprehensively deployed the reform of water conservancy project management system. The Ministry of water resources also proposed to fully complete the task of water conservancy project management system reform by 2008, and all localities are promoting it in an all-round way, and pay close attention to the implementation of “two fixed positions” (fixed posts and fixed personnel) and “two fees” (basic expenditure funds for public welfare personnel and project maintenance and maintenance funds). Project operation management stage refers to the process of project delivery, production and project scrapping. It is a process of realizing and giving full play to the comprehensive benefits of the project and plays an important role in the whole project process. Good operation and management can bring the benefits of the project into play for a long time, continuously create and increase income for the masses, and promote the sustainable development of agriculture and the preservation and efficiency of state-owned assets. Post evaluation of operation management is the re evaluation of the actual operation management status and investment benefits in the project operation management stage. It is an indispensable content in the post evaluation of the project. It mainly includes five contents: operation management organization evaluation, management fund evaluation, water management evaluation, operation status evaluation and management quality evaluation. The economic post evaluation of engineering project is to re evaluate the economic benefits after the project is put into operation, calculate the actual economic benefits of the project, compare them with the evaluation indicators in the design report, and find out the deviation and the causes of the deviation. The economic post evaluation of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects mainly includes national economic post evaluation, effect evaluation and financial post evaluation. Different from large-scale water conservancy and electric power projects, high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects are infrastructure projects with strong public welfare. The construction scale is relatively small and the profitability of the projects is generally low. Some projects also need to be supported by national or local governments through policy subsidies or preferential policies such as tax reduction or exemption. Its benefits are mainly reflected in local development, regional stability and other social aspects. Therefore, the post evaluation of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects should focus on the national economic post evaluation and effect evaluation, and only use the financial post evaluation results for analysis and reference or do not do the financial post evaluation. If the main body of the project is an independent economic accounting unit, such as companies, enterprises and large Grain Growers, the financial evaluation can also be carried out. In the post economic evaluation, the regional differences of the project should also be considered, and some evaluation indexes reflecting the personality and characteristics of the project should be supplemented, such as average investment per mu, investment payback period, etc., so as to make the evaluation conclusion more scientific and reasonable. The post impact assessment of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation project is to analyze the impact of the project construction on the technical economy, society and natural environment of the project area, mainly including three aspects: post assessment of technical impact, post assessment of social impact and post assessment of environmental impact. Objective and sustainability evaluation is a forward-looking evaluation, including objective evaluation and sustainability evaluation. Objective evaluation mainly analyzes the degree of achievement and adaptability of objectives. Sustainability evaluation is based on the perspective of post project evaluation. The analysis is to analyze the possibility of project survival and development from the aspects of technology, management, finance, policy and environmental protection, whether the project objectives and expected benefits can be realized, as well as the necessary conditions and risks. The goal of high efficiency and water saving irrigation project and the main research indicators of sustainability post evaluation. Index weight reflects the importance of different aspects of the evaluation object. It is a comprehensive measure of the subjective evaluation and objective reflection of the relative importance of the index in the evaluation problem. In the index system, the influence side and importance of each index are different. Therefore, the weight coefficient of each index should also be given different values according to its importance and the amount of information. The weight coefficient has a great impact on the evaluation results, and its rationality also plays an important role in the rationality of the evaluation results. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate weight determination method to ensure that the weight coefficient is scientific, objective and suitable for the evaluation project. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of various weight determination methods (see Table 1), and combined with the characteristics of post evaluation of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects, an appropriate weight determination method is selected [8].

Weight Determination Method Comparison Table

Weight determination method | advantage | shortcoming |
---|---|---|

Analytic Hierarchy Process | The analysis idea is clear and the data used is less | ① When the order of judgment matrix n > 3, the judgment matrix may not be a consistent matrix; ② Large amount of calculation |

Fuzzy Cluster Analysis | ① The ambiguity and uncertainty of each attribute of the sample are considered; ② The classification of sample data has good convergence | ① When the sample size is large, it is difficult to obtain the results; ② Only the weight of classified indicators can be obtained, so it is inconvenient to determine the weight of single indicators. |

Delphi method | Considering the relative importance of indicators and the authority coefficient of experts, it is more rigorous and perfect | It takes a lot of manpower and material resources, and it takes a long time to get the results, which is inconvenient |

Entropy weight method | It has wide adaptability and can be used to determine the weight of any aspect, and can also be combined with other methods to determine the indicator weight. | ① It is too sensitive to abnormal data, and the calculated weight value of non important indicators may be too large; ② Lack of horizontal ratio between indicators |

Relative comparison | Simple and practical, easy to promote | ① When there are many indicators, the workload of comparison is large; ② It is greatly affected by subjective factors. |

In order to carry out the post evaluation of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects as soon as possible, the method of determining the weight should be fast and simple, and should be suitable for the current situation of the technical level of grass-roots industry departments and the statistical data that can be collected. In the process of development, we should follow the principle of guidance for improvement, popularization first and then improvement. The work should be carried out first. In the process of development, it will develop with the continuous improvement of the technical and business level of the industry. Considering the above, the relative comparison method is used to calculate the weight after the evaluation of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects. This method is simple and intuitive, easy to apply, and there is no limit to the number of elements in the same level. In view of the shortcomings of this method in many indicators and large workload, the index system is divided into five parts and used one by one. In view of the disadvantage that the indicators are greatly affected by subjectivity, when determining the weight, the relative comparison method is applied. Firstly, a number of experts from different units, different levels and different positions are consulted. Based on the assignment of statistical experts, the index weight is analyzed and determined one by one. At present, there are many evaluation methods applied to project post evaluation, comprehensively considering the advantages and disadvantages of investigation and data collection method, comparison method, success degree method, logical framework method, trend extrapolation method, grey prediction method, linear weighted comprehensive evaluation method and other methods (see Table 2). According to the characteristics of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects and the constructed evaluation index system, the post evaluation methods used in each evaluation model are finally selected (see Table 3).

Comparison of evaluation methods

Evaluation method | Advantage | Shortcoming |
---|---|---|

Investigation and data collection method | Wide range of applications, the survey form can be adjusted according to different survey contents | Compare the consumption of time, money and manpower |

Contrast method | Through comparison, the general situation of the real economic, social and environmental benefits of the project can be determined, so as to easily judge the role and impact of the project on economy, technology, society and environment | Most of the conclusions are the deviation degree of each evaluation index, so it is impossible to find out the key factors affecting the project, let alone analyze the causes of the deviation |

Success degree method | The principle and operation of the method are simple and easy to understand, the conclusion is clear, and it is easy for decision-makers to grasp the overall evaluation conclusion of the project | It is greatly influenced by the subjective factors of the evaluators, with more qualitative analysis and less quantitative analysis |

Logical framework method | It clearly shows the intention of the project design, facilitates the analysis of the causal relationship between the evaluation levels, and helps the evaluator master the key factors and problems of the project. | It requires high level of detail and accuracy of data, excessively compares with the original target, ignores the actual possible changes, and is limited by the scope of post evaluation |

Trend extrapolation | It can predict the future development trend of the project and quantitatively predict some functional characteristics | Relatively mechanical, difficult to master, and high requirements for information quality |

Grey prediction method | Consider and reflect the unknown and uncertain factors in the project, in line with objective facts | The operation is complex, the determination of weight is very subjective, the evaluation results tend to be uniform and the resolution is not high |

System dynamics method | It can easily deal with various nonlinear problems and time-varying phenomena. It is also suitable for long-term and dynamic simulation analysis and research | The theory is profound, the modeling is difficult, the accuracy of medium and short-term prediction and distribution problems is poor, and the accuracy of simple software is poor, which is easy to go astray |

Analytic hierarchy process | It is simple and practical, systematic and requires less quantitative data information | When there are many indicators, the statistical workload is large, the precise algorithm of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is complex, and there are many qualitative components. |

Linear weighted synthesis method | Simple calculation and strong operability | The weight coefficient has a significant impact on the evaluation results |

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method | Avoid the disadvantages of discontinuous classification and reflect the uncertainty existing in the project | The determination of index weight vector is highly subjective, and the determination of membership function varies from person to person, so there is no systematic method |

Post-evaluation methods for high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects

Evaluation process | Main assessment methods used |
---|---|

Post construction evaluation | Survey data method and comparative method (process evaluation method) |

Post-operation management evaluation | Investigation data method and comparison method (process evaluation method) |

post-economic evaluation | Linear survey method, data interpolation method, benefit evaluation method |

Post impact assessment | Survey data method and comparative method (systematic review method) |

Objective and sustainability post evaluation | Survey data method and comparative method (impact assessment method and systematic review method) |

Comprehensive post evaluation | Linear Weighted Synthesis and Success |

There are many projects involved in the project post evaluation. The whole process includes six links: Post Evaluation of construction process, post evaluation of operation management, post evaluation of economy, post evaluation of impact, post evaluation of objectives and sustainability and evaluation of project success. Each evaluation link has different processing processes, whether in the selection of evaluation indicators, or in the establishment of evaluation standard system and evaluation method system. Therefore, this paper will establish a single evaluation model for the first five links of the whole project post evaluation, and evaluate each single post evaluation system separately. Finally, according to the established project success evaluation model, the evaluation results of each single post evaluation are comprehensively processed to obtain the final evaluation results [9].

The “four systems” in construction projects refer to the project legal person responsibility system, project construction supervision system, bidding and contracting system and contract management system. The closer the index is to 1, the better the implementation effect of the “four systems”. It can be calculated by the following formula (1):

The change rate of actual total investment reflects the deviation degree between actual investment and planned investment. When the index > 0, the actual investment of the project exceeds the planned investment, otherwise it is less than the planned investment. It can be calculated by the following formula (2):

Project scale change rate project scale change rate reflects the deviation degree of the comparison between the actual project scale and the planned project scale. Here, it mainly refers to the change rate of the actual irrigation area and the planned irrigation area. It can be calculated by the following formula (3):

Actual construction period change rate actual construction period change rate refers to the deviation degree of the comparison between the actual construction period and the planned construction period. When the index > 0, it means that the actual construction period is shorter than the planned construction period. On the contrary, the actual construction period is longer than the planned construction period. It can be calculated by the following formula (4):

The engineering design change rate of the project refers to the ratio of the engineering quantity applied for changing the design to the total engineering quantity during the construction of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation project, which reflects whether the survey and design of the project is reasonable and comprehensive, and whether the construction technology is scientific and advanced. Design changes mainly occur in the late design stage and construction stage [10]. The main reasons for design changes are: ① The design team is inexperienced and thoughtless, resulting in major changes in the design scheme; ② Unreasonable design schedule, resulting in excessive overlap between design cycle and procurement cycle; ③ The design change caused by the inconsistency between the equipment data provided by the manufacturer and the design documents is not the design reason; ④ Before starting the design, the owner and the design team failed to communicate timely and accurately, resulting in design changes in the later stage, which is not the cause of the design; ⑤ Design changes caused by design errors or procurement problems found in the construction stage.

Management quality evaluation: in the management quality evaluation, we should grasp the main contradiction, mainly analyze and evaluate the project management unit's regular maintenance and regular maintenance of fixed assets of the project and the inspection and management of project benefits. The standard degree of engineering design ability is used to measure the irrigation quality after the project is completed and put into operation. Good management should keep the design function of the project unchanged. In the evaluation process, the influencing factors of the index should be compared one by one and comprehensively evaluated according to the engineering design scheme and production report. The good degree of management mainly analyzes and evaluates the maintenance and repair of various buildings and equipment in the project area. After the project is put into operation, the original appearance shall be maintained through the maintenance of various buildings and equipment, the original scale and standard shall not be changed, and regular inspection and maintenance are required. When local defects are found, they shall be handled in time to maintain the benign operation of the project. Benefit monitoring and management unified organization, unified standards and standardized project benefit monitoring and management can accurately measure the success or failure of the project and further guide the operation of the project and the design and construction of the project to be built.

Two principles should be followed when comparing indicators: (1) determine the weight according to the amount of information [11]. The index weight value with more information is large, on the contrary, the index weight value with less information is small. For example, economic indicators have more information than environmental impact indicators, so the weight of economic indicators is greater than that of environmental impact indicators. (2) The weight is determined according to the importance of the index. The more important the index, the greater the weight value. For example, in engineering projects, post construction management is more important than the power in the construction process. As the saying goes, three construction and seven management. Although the quality of engineering construction is an important factor affecting the benefits of the project, post construction management is the key factor for the sustainable benefits of the project [12]. Dujiangyan, an ancient water conservancy project in China, has still played a great role in irrigation and drainage, thanks to the implementation of scientific and complete maintenance, water distribution and other management systems year after year. In order to facilitate comparison, the most commonly used method of relative index comparison - adjacent index comparison method is selected to weight the evaluation index. The adjacent index comparison method is a weighting method that first qualitatively sorts the evaluation indexes, and then quantitatively assigns values (compares and judges the assignment between adjacent indexes in turn).

The preliminary work evaluation includes six indicators: the level of feasibility study, the quality of survey work and survey documents, the quality of planning and design and the level of design scheme, the quality of bidding work, the quality of bidding work and the implementation of construction conditions. According to the ascending order of the amount of information and importance, it is the quality of bidding work < the quality of bidding work < the implementation of construction conditions < the level of feasibility study < the quality of survey work and survey documents < the quality of planning and design and the level of design scheme. The construction implementation evaluation includes seven indexes: the implementation rate of the “four systems” of the construction project, the change rate of the actual total investment, the change rate of the project scale, the change rate of the actual construction period, the change rate of the project design, the rate of the project quality reaching the standard, and the completion acceptance. According to the ascending order of the amount of information and importance, the change rate of the actual construction period < the implementation rate of the “four systems” of the construction project < the change rate of the actual total investment < the change rate of the project scale < the completion acceptance < the change rate of the project design < the rate of project quality compliance. During the post construction evaluation, the evaluation indicators are divided into qualitative indicators and quantitative indicators. For qualitative indicators, refer to the interpretation of indicators, and give the index score according to the relevant collected data and the evaluation standard table on the basis of fully mastering their meaning. For the calculable qualitative index, the index value is calculated according to the calculation formula given in the index introduction and the collected data, and the index score is obtained by comparing with the evaluation standard table; Count the score of each index, and calculate the average value as the final score of the index. Add the scores of each index to obtain the final score of post construction evaluation [13]. According to the score results, make a qualitative evaluation on the construction process of the project and put forward improvements.

Project success evaluation is a summary evaluation, which makes a qualitative conclusion on the success of the project from the overall perspective of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation project. It is based on the completion of post evaluation of construction process, post evaluation of operation management, post evaluation of economy, post evaluation of impact, post evaluation of objectives and sustainability [14]. Through the success evaluation, it is finally necessary to judge whether the project initiation decision and planning design are reasonable, whether the economic and social benefits meet the design requirements, summarize the experience and lessons of project construction and management, put forward improvement measures and suggestions for its shortcomings and deficiencies, and provide experience for similar construction projects in the future. The project success evaluation adopts the linear weighted synthesis method and the success degree method to construct its evaluation model. For high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects, due to the characteristics of small area, less investment, short construction period, large number, wide distribution and mostly managed by farmers or individuals, the linear weighted comprehensive method is used to calculate the total score, which is simple and easy to operate. The success degree method is used for summary evaluation. The results are clear at a glance and the specific construction method of the model [15].

Developing efficient and water-saving irrigation projects is not only in line with the fundamental requirements of the economic development of the new socialist countryside, but also an important measure to solve the shortage and uneven distribution of water resources; At the same time, it is conducive to adjusting the agricultural planting structure, increasing agricultural output and farmers' income. The post evaluation of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects can fully understand the whole process of project construction management, analyze the economic, social and ecological benefits of the project, predict the sustainability of the project, and evaluate the correctness of project construction decisions, so as to provide reference for the construction and management of similar projects in the future. Based on the theory of post project evaluation, combined with the characteristics of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation and the combination of theoretical research and case verification, this paper discusses the post evaluation technology of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation from the establishment of post evaluation index system and evaluation model of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation project. On the basis of summarizing the background and future development of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects, combined with the current situation of post evaluation of such projects in China, this paper expounds the necessity and significance of post evaluation of high-efficiency and water-saving irrigation projects. This paper summarizes the development process and theoretical methods of post project evaluation, and summarizes the commonly used post project evaluation methods.

#### Comparison of evaluation methods

Evaluation method | Advantage | Shortcoming |
---|---|---|

Investigation and data collection method | Wide range of applications, the survey form can be adjusted according to different survey contents | Compare the consumption of time, money and manpower |

Contrast method | Through comparison, the general situation of the real economic, social and environmental benefits of the project can be determined, so as to easily judge the role and impact of the project on economy, technology, society and environment | Most of the conclusions are the deviation degree of each evaluation index, so it is impossible to find out the key factors affecting the project, let alone analyze the causes of the deviation |

Success degree method | The principle and operation of the method are simple and easy to understand, the conclusion is clear, and it is easy for decision-makers to grasp the overall evaluation conclusion of the project | It is greatly influenced by the subjective factors of the evaluators, with more qualitative analysis and less quantitative analysis |

Logical framework method | It clearly shows the intention of the project design, facilitates the analysis of the causal relationship between the evaluation levels, and helps the evaluator master the key factors and problems of the project. | It requires high level of detail and accuracy of data, excessively compares with the original target, ignores the actual possible changes, and is limited by the scope of post evaluation |

Trend extrapolation | It can predict the future development trend of the project and quantitatively predict some functional characteristics | Relatively mechanical, difficult to master, and high requirements for information quality |

Grey prediction method | Consider and reflect the unknown and uncertain factors in the project, in line with objective facts | The operation is complex, the determination of weight is very subjective, the evaluation results tend to be uniform and the resolution is not high |

System dynamics method | It can easily deal with various nonlinear problems and time-varying phenomena. It is also suitable for long-term and dynamic simulation analysis and research | The theory is profound, the modeling is difficult, the accuracy of medium and short-term prediction and distribution problems is poor, and the accuracy of simple software is poor, which is easy to go astray |

Analytic hierarchy process | It is simple and practical, systematic and requires less quantitative data information | When there are many indicators, the statistical workload is large, the precise algorithm of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is complex, and there are many qualitative components. |

Linear weighted synthesis method | Simple calculation and strong operability | The weight coefficient has a significant impact on the evaluation results |

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method | Avoid the disadvantages of discontinuous classification and reflect the uncertainty existing in the project | The determination of index weight vector is highly subjective, and the determination of membership function varies from person to person, so there is no systematic method |

#### Weight Determination Method Comparison Table

Weight determination method | advantage | shortcoming |
---|---|---|

Analytic Hierarchy Process | The analysis idea is clear and the data used is less | ① When the order of judgment matrix n > 3, the judgment matrix may not be a consistent matrix; ② Large amount of calculation |

Fuzzy Cluster Analysis | ① The ambiguity and uncertainty of each attribute of the sample are considered; ② The classification of sample data has good convergence | ① When the sample size is large, it is difficult to obtain the results; ② Only the weight of classified indicators can be obtained, so it is inconvenient to determine the weight of single indicators. |

Delphi method | Considering the relative importance of indicators and the authority coefficient of experts, it is more rigorous and perfect | It takes a lot of manpower and material resources, and it takes a long time to get the results, which is inconvenient |

Entropy weight method | It has wide adaptability and can be used to determine the weight of any aspect, and can also be combined with other methods to determine the indicator weight. | ① It is too sensitive to abnormal data, and the calculated weight value of non important indicators may be too large; ② Lack of horizontal ratio between indicators |

Relative comparison | Simple and practical, easy to promote | ① When there are many indicators, the workload of comparison is large; ② It is greatly affected by subjective factors. |

#### Post-evaluation methods for high-efficiency water-saving irrigation projects

Evaluation process | Main assessment methods used |
---|---|

Post construction evaluation | Survey data method and comparative method (process evaluation method) |

Post-operation management evaluation | Investigation data method and comparison method (process evaluation method) |

post-economic evaluation | Linear survey method, data interpolation method, benefit evaluation method |

Post impact assessment | Survey data method and comparative method (systematic review method) |

Objective and sustainability post evaluation | Survey data method and comparative method (impact assessment method and systematic review method) |

Comprehensive post evaluation | Linear Weighted Synthesis and Success |

_{2} emissions from summer maize fields under deficit irrigation[J]. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2020, 27(4):1–8._{2} emissions from summer maize fields under deficit irrigation

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universities based on remote wireless network communication Research on the control of quantitative economic management variables under the numerical method based on stochastic ordinary differential equations Network monitoring and processing accuracy of big data acquisition based on mathematical model of fractional differential equation System dynamics model of output of ball mill Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel Design of Morlet wavelet neural network to solve the non-linear influenza disease system Motion about equilibrium points in the Jupiter-Europa system with oblateness Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Ultra-short-term power forecast of photovoltaic power station based on VMD–LSTM model optimised by SSA Optimal preview repetitive control for impulse-free continuous-time descriptor systems Development of main functional modules for MVB and its application in rail transit Analysis of agricultural economic development and optimisation measures under the strategy of rural revitalisation Study on the impact of forest fire prevention policy on the health of forest resources Value Creation of Real Estate Company Spin-off Property Service Company Listing Selection by differential mortality rates Digital model creation and image meticulous processing based on variational partial differential equation The modelling and implementation of the virtual 3D animation scene based on the geometric centre-of-mass algorithm The policy efficiency evaluation of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regional government guidance fund based on the entropy method The transfer of stylised artistic images in eye movement experiments based on fuzzy differential equations Research on behavioural differences in the processing of tenant listing information: An eye-movement experiment Innovation of Economic Management Risk Control in Retailer Supply Chain Based on Differential Equation Model A review of the treatment techniques of VOC Some classes of complete permutation polynomials in the form of ( x ^{pm}−x +δ )^{s}+ax ^{pm}+bx overF _{p2m}The consistency method of linguistic information and other four preference information in group decision-making Statistical Model of College Ideological and Political Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on the driving principle and guiding strategy of the public's collaborative supervision of the sharing economy in my country Research on the willingness of Forest Land’s Management Rights transfer under the Beijing Forestry Development Nonlinear Differential Equation in Anti-aging Test of Polymer Nanomaterials A mathematical model of the fractional differential method for structural design dynamics simulation of lower limb force movement step structure based on Sanda movement Fractal structure of magnetic island in tokamak plasma Mechanics of Building Structural Materials Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Analysis Numerical calculation and study of differential equations of muscle movement velocity based on martial articulation body ligament tension Study on the maximum value of flight distance based on the fractional differential equation for calculating the best path of shot put The Mental Health Education Management of Higher Vocational Students Based on Fractional Differential Equations Sports intensity and energy consumption based on fractional linear regression equation Application of regression function model based on panel data in financial risk management of bank resource allocation University Ideological and Political Learning Model Based on Statistical Memory Curve Mathematical Equation Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpus Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Modeling of fractional differential equation in cloud computing image fusion algorithm Study on Establishment and Improvement Strategy of Aviation Equipment Research on Financial Risk Early Warning of Listed Companies Based on Stochastic Effect Mode Nonlinear strategic human resource management based on organisational mathematical model Conventional Algorithms in Sports Training Based on Fractional Differential Equations Dynamic Nonlinear System Based on Complex System Theory in the Development of Vocational Education The Algorithm Accuracy of Mathematical Model to Improve the Transmission Speed of E-commerce Platform The Security of Database Network Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Electric Vehicle Mechanical Transmission System Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Practice System of Physics and Electronics Courses in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Economic Model of Rural Supply and Demand Under the Data Analysis Function Based on Ordered Probit 3D Modeling System of Indoor Environment Art Landscape Design under Statistical Equation Electronic Information Security Model of Nonlinear Differential Equations The Optimization Model of College Students' Physical Exercise Motivation and Self-control Ability Based on the Mathematical Model of Probability Theory A new variety from Sichuan, China— Paris polyphylla var.nullopetalina (Trilliaceae)Impact of ASEAN-China free trade area on fishery value chain based on difference-in-difference method Spatial–temporal graph neural network based on node attention A contrastive study on the production of double vowels in Mandarin Mathematical analysis of civil litigation and empirical research of corporate governance Health monitoring of Bridges based on multifractal theory Health status diagnosis of the bridges based on multi-fractal de-trend fluctuation analysis Application and risk assessment of the energy performance contracting model in energy conservation of public buildings Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of envelope enclosure performance in the dry-hot and dry-cold areas TOPSIS missile target selection method supported by the posterior probability of target recognition The incentive contract of subject librarians in university library under the non-linear task importance Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation Empirical analysis of the economic absolute income hypothesis based on mathematical statistics Realization of Book Collaborative Filtering Personalized Recommendation System Based on Linear Regression Equation Study on Interactive Relations between Enterprise Social Media and Decision Style Based on a vector Autoregressive Model Research on Dynamics of Flexible Multibody System with Deployable Antenna Based on Static Lagrangian Function The Optimization of Mathematics Teaching Models in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Study on spatial planning and design of learning commons in university libraries based on fuzzy matrix model The Stability Model of Piano Tone Tuning Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Construction and application of automobile user portrait based on k-mean clustering model The Homework Model of Screening English Teaching Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on a method of completeness index based on complex model Fake online review recognition algorithm and optimisation research based on deep learning Research on the sustainable development and renewal of Macao inner harbour under the background of digitisation Support design of main retracement passage in fully mechanised coal mining face based on numerical simulation Study on the crushing mechanism and parameters of the two-flow crusher Interaction design of financial insurance products under the Era of AIoT Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East ARMA analysis of the green innovation technology of core enterprises under the ecosystem – Time series data Image design and interaction technology based on Fourier inverse transform Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling Research on China interregional industrial transformation slowdown and influencing factors of industrial transformation based on numerical simulation The medical health venture capital network community structure, information dissemination and the cognitive proximity The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations A generative design method of building layout generated by path Analysis of the causes of the influence of the industrial economy on the social economy based on multiple linear regression equation Research of neural network for weld penetration control Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Research on predictive control of students’ performance in PE classes based on the mathematical model of multiple linear regression equation Beam control method for multi-array antennas based on improved genetic algorithm The 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of B-theory for numerical method of functional differential equations in the analysis of fair value in financial accounting Research on the influence of fuzzy mathematics simulation model in the development of Wushu market Study on audio-visual family restoration of children with mental disorders based on the mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of differential equation Difference-in-differences test for micro effect of technological finance cooperation pilot in China Application of multi-attribute decision-making methods based on normal random variables in supply chain risk management Exploration on the collaborative relationship between government, industry, and university from the perspective of collaborative innovation The impact of financial repression on manufacturing upgrade based on fractional Fourier transform and probability AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification Validity and reliability analysis of the Chinese version of planned happenstance career inventory based on mathematical statistics Visual positioning system for marine industrial robot assembly based on complex variable function Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses Calculating university education model based on finite element fractional differential equations and macro-control analysis Educational research on mathematics differential equation to simulate the model of children's mental health prevention and control system Analysis of enterprise management technology and innovation based on multilinear regression model Verifying the validity of the whole person model of mental health education activities in colleges based on differential equation RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Determination of the minimum distance between vibration source and fibre under existing optical vibration signals: a study Nonlinear differential equations based on the B-S-M model in the pricing of derivatives in financial markets Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation MCM of Student’s Physical Health Based on Mathematical Cone Sports health quantification method and system implementation based on multiple thermal physiology simulation Research on visual optimization design of machine–machine interface for mechanical industrial equipment based on nonlinear partial equations Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Optimisation of Modelling of Finite Element Differential Equations with Modern Art Design Theory Mathematical function data model analysis and synthesis system based on short-term human movement Human gait modelling and tracking based on motion functionalisation The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Financial Accounting Measurement Model Based on Numerical Analysis of Rigid Normal Differential Equation and Rigid Functional Equation Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Differential equation model of financial market stability based on Internet big data 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Children’s cognitive function and mental health based on finite element nonlinear mathematical model Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp -groupsThe internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H _{2}-N_{2}atmosphereAlgorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model