In recent years, influenced by the deepening reform of colleges teaching English in China, teaching English for college students has gradually been favoured and promoted. At present, many universities still use traditional English teaching methods. The traditional English teaching method only allows college students to learn basic grammar and vocabulary, without the ability of independent learning. Given these problems, this paper first proposes a framework for cultivating college students’ autonomous learning ability in English teaching based on output-based education (OBE) theory. Then, the OBE theory is introduced in detail. At the same time, the framework is applied in a university. After a semester of study, the results are combined with teachers’ and college students’ questionnaire surveys. Finally, after the questionnaire results and analysis, the framework proposed in this paper is better than other traditional English teaching methods. The experiment also shows that it not only improves the adaptability of college students’ English teaching but also improves their independent learning ability while learning English.