Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are important sources of environmental pollution. Several commonly used techniques for the treatment of VOC are reviewed. Recovery techniques can be classified into absorption, adsorption, condensation and membrane separation. Destruction techniques include biodegradation, photocatalysis, low-temperature plasma and combustion. The basic principle, applicable conditions, advantages and disadvantages of the above technologies are discussed. By contrast, the rotational regenerative combustion method has a broad prospect. Suggestions on the improvement of rotary regenerative combustion technology are presented. The treatment of VOC requires comprehensive consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of various technologies.