In general, volatile organic compounds (VOC) refer to a class of organic compounds with boiling points in the range of 50–260°C . They mainly include benzene, alkanes, hydrocarbons, esters etc. VOC are widely distributed and can be found ubiquitously across several industries. The main sources of VOC emissions are industrial sources, such as petroleum refining, chemical production, medical and pharmaceutical, food processing, paint production, paper and ink printing industries. Among these, the petrochemical industry accounts for the largest proportion of organic emissions.
VOC are complex and often have a foul odour. Most VOC are flammable and explosive. High volatility is their remarkable characteristic. These compounds are major precursors for the production of PM2.5. Owing to the action of VOC, there is an increase in the rate of destruction of the ozone layer. The ecological environment is affected in some way. The emission of VOC can even lead to climate change and acid rain . The presence of VOC also poses a threat to humans, animals and plants. They can not only come into direct contact with the skin or mucous membranes but also adhere to the surface of the body in many ways. Long-term exposure to them can result in chronic diseases, cancer and other life-threatening conditions. The existence of all these effects makes them an important target for environmental pollution control.
The serious impact of air pollution on human health is a long-term concern . The management of VOC has become a focus of global attention. Countries, organisations, industries and relevant researchers are taking action. China has promulgated a series of laws and regulations regarding the emission of VOC. In 2017, the ‘Thirteenth Five-Year’ VOC Pollution Prevention and Control Work Plan was released. ‘Determination of VOC Release in Coatings’ was released in August 2019 and is scheduled to be implemented on 1 July 2020. In December 2019, the China Environmental Testing Centre formulated the ‘Technical Regulations for Continuous and Automatic Monitoring Quality Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air of the National Ambient Air Testing Network (Trial)’. From the above actions, it can be observed that the current situation concerning the deleterious health consequences and environmental degradation caused by VOC is serious, thus prompting regulatory bodies to impose increasingly stringent emission standards.
With the advancement of technology and the improvement of research, the knowledge of volatile organic exhaust gases has been greatly broadened and the level of understanding of them has been further deepened. Management of VOC is a hotly studied topic due to the widespread cognisation. People have developed a variety of treatment technologies. They can be separated into two categories: recovery technology and destruction technology. Recovery technologies can be classified into absorption, adsorption, condensation, membrane separation etc. Destruction technologies mainly embrace combustion, photocatalysis, biodegradation, low-temperature plasma etc. The combustion method can be subdivided into direct combustion, catalytic combustion, porous media combustion and regenerative combustion. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The application depends on temperature, composition and concentration of VOC, emission volume flow rate, space limitations, economic value and operating costs .
In this paper, the research progress of the several technologies mentioned above is reviewed. The basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of various processes are briefly introduced. In addition, the rotary regenerative oxidation technology is highlighted. Finally, the future direction of development is put forward.
Absorption methods can usually be classified into physical absorption and chemical absorption methods. It is well known that different types of gases show distinct solubility in the same absorbent. The physical absorption method takes advantage of this fact to selectively absorb harmful gases, thereby purifying the exhaust gas. The chemical method uses the chemical reaction between the waste gas and the absorbent to absorb the waste gas. Comparatively, the physical absorption method is more extensive.
The physical absorption method requires a number of factors to be taken into consideration, such as the type of absorbent and the choice of absorption device. There are three main types of general absorbents: oil-based absorbents (e.g. non-polar mineral oils such as diesel, oil wash etc.), water complex absorbents (e.g. water-oil wash, water-alkali etc.) and high boiling point organic solvents (e.g. phthalates, adipates etc.) [5, 6]. Some special adsorbents are also being investigated. Briefly, the choice of absorbent should be considered in terms of safety, effectiveness, cost and environmentally friendly performance. Common absorption devices include plate columns, packed columns and spray towers.
Absorption is a more mature technology, which has the advantages of simple operation, low investment and low maintenance costs. It is suitable for the treatment of high concentration of organic exhaust gas at room temperature. The method still faces many problems in the selection and development of absorbent and the optimisation of absorption equipment, which needs to be further explored.
Adsorption can adsorb VOC gas molecules selectively, using the inherent characteristics of the adsorbents to purify and treat the waste gas containing VOC. Depending on the characteristics of adsorbent regeneration, it can be classified into two types: regenerated adsorption and non-regenerated adsorption; in terms of adsorption principles, these two types cover physical adsorption and chemical adsorption, respectively. The former is mainly deployed in treatment with organic waste gas, while the latter is mostly used for wastewater treatment. Based on the process conditions, adsorption methods can be categorised into temperature swing adsorption (TSA); pressure swing adsorption (PSA); temperature and PSA; and electric swing adsorption .
The choice of the adsorbent is crucial to the adsorption effect. The adsorbent usually selects materials with large specific surface areas, high selectivity, loose structure and long service life, which are beneficial in terms of enhancing the adsorption effect. Most of the commonly used adsorbents are porous materials, such as activated carbon, zeolite molecular sieves, metal–organic framework materials, alumina and resins [8, 9]. Currently, activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent in organic waste gas treatment , which is attributed to its advantages such as strong adsorption capacity, large surface area and easy access. However, it has little effect in environments with high humidity or high temperature, and even some safety hazards. Molecular sieves also have certain advantages in exhaust gas treatment, such as good stability, high adsorption activity and hydrophobicity. It is a porous crystalline aluminosilicate material with pore structures . Its adsorption process is mostly physical.
The adsorption method is simple and has a good purification effect. However, there are shortcomings such as adsorbent poisoning and secondary pollution. This method is effective for low concentration and high flow rate organic exhaust gas but is not suitable for high temperature, high humidity and high concentration exhaust gas cleaning.
Condensation is one of the simplest methods of exhaust gas treatment. Condensation converts VOC to liquid at lower temperatures or higher pressures, thereby recovering large amounts of VOC . The saturated vapour pressure is related to the type of gas and the temperature at which it is applied. Industries usually use lower system temperature or higher system pressure to separate and purify organic exhaust gas.
Cooling units and refrigerants are critical to the treatment of exhaust gases by condensation. Currently, condensation is mainly divided into surface condensation and contact condensation – and the corresponding condensing units are surface condensers and contact condensers. Refrigerant is an industrial substance used for heat exchange. Refrigerants are usually selected from working fluids having high refrigeration efficiency, high thermal conductivity and high exothermic coefficient.
Condensation is simple when treating high concentrations and high boiling point organic exhaust gas. Theoretically, it is highly effective. If the method is used alone to treat components with low freezing points and low concentration, the system pressure needs to be significantly increased or the system temperature needs to be drastically reduced. The great change in the operating environment is a challenge to the equipment. The method has a high cost and consumes a lot of energy. Therefore, the condensation method is commonly used to treat high concentrations of valuable VOC .
Research on membranes has been performed since the 18th century and has been gradually applied in the industrial field since the 1960s of the last century. With the development of science and technology as well as the continuous improvement of the research level, membrane separation technology has been applied more and more widely. It has made significant contributions to wastewater treatment, food processing, pharmaceutical production and petrochemical refining.
The membrane has selective permeability. Under the push of external force, membrane separation technology can separate and purify organic waste gas. It is well known that the diffusion rate in the same solvent is related to the type of gas; membrane separation technology mainly makes use of this feature and the inherent characteristics of membranes to realise the needed purification. Exhaust gas emission standards are met and then discharged. There are various types of membranes. Generally, based on the separation mechanism and application scope, they can be grouped into microfiltration membranes, ultrafiltration membranes, nanofiltration membranes, reverse osmosis membranes, pervaporation membranes and ion exchange membranes .
Corresponding to the classification of membranes, relatively mature membrane separation technologies include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The driving force of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis is the pressure difference. Driven by pressure, the solvent is facilitated to flow smoothly. Electrodialysis is driven by a voltage differential and allows only ions to pass through.
Membrane separation technology is a relatively advanced treatment technology. It possesses the significant advantages of simple operation, high efficiency and wide application range. It is energy efficient because no thermal driving force is required to separate the mixture [13, 14]. However, the cost of the membrane is high. The membrane separation method has poor stability and can cause membrane contamination problems. The technology is appropriate for treating VOC with low flow rates and high concentrations.
Biodegradation is a new technology. Research on the use of this technology to treat VOC began as early as the mid-to-late 20th century. By taking advantage of the unique physiological functions and characteristics of living organisms, harmful substances in VOC are degraded into inorganic substances such as water and carbon dioxide, thereby purifying exhaust gases.
Biological methods can be divided into four types: biofiltration, bio-trickling filtration, bio-scrubber and membrane bioreactors .
The main equipment of the biological filtration method is the biological filter tower. It is based on the principle that pre-treated exhaust gases can be transported to a biological bed containing packing materials, where the organic exhaust gases would be broken down into harmless substances.
The biological drip filter method is equipped with a biological drip filter tower, where organic waste gases are purified after contact with a moist biofilm. The organic waste gases enter the tower from the bottom for purification and eventually release from the top. Metabolic wastes are eliminated with the waste liquid .
The important equipment of the biological scrubbing method is a biological scrubbing tower, which is sprayed with a circulating scrubbing solution to absorb the organic waste gases. After absorption, organic waste gas is introduced into the regeneration tank. Then the activated sludge degrades it , resulting in the purification of organic waste gas.
Membrane bioreactor is a new process that combines membrane separation technology with biological methods. It is composed of three parts mainly: a bioreactor, a membrane module and a control system .
The biodegradation has simple equipment. Its operation as well as the management cost is low. There will be no secondary pollution during the treatment. However, this technology is greatly influenced by temperature and humidity. The biodegradation method has a high removal efficiency when treating low concentrations of VOC.
Photochemical water-cracking reactions were discovered in the early 1970s, after which photocatalysis was widely used in water treatment and degradation of VOC . The basic principle is that the photocatalyst produces electron-hole pairs under the action of light. By using the strong oxidation of electron holes, VOC will be oxidised into carbon dioxide and water, and other substances. Thus, the purpose of eliminating pollutants can be achieved. The method also includes processes such as adsorption, chemical degradation and desorption of products or intermediates of VOC . Catalytic efficiency is related to the type of catalyst. Commonly used photocatalysts include TiO2, ZnO, WO3, ZnS and CdS . Among these, the most extensively studied catalytic material is TiO2, which is non-toxic and has the advantages of simple preparation, stability, low cost and strong ability to degrade VOC pollutants . TiO2 is capable of being not only used alone but also making the modified TiO2 photocatalysts. Both of these can be utilised for the purification of VOC.
Photocatalysis is a new treatment method with high efficiency in the treatment of low concentration organic waste gases. The reaction conditions are mild. It has good green environmental performance and low energy consumption. The operation and management costs are also low. However, there are problems such as catalyst deactivation. Therefore, in order to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency or activate the photocatalyst, it is usually necessary to develop new catalytic materials .
In 1928, the concept of plasma was first proposed to describe a collection of charged particles [23, 24]. It is also the fourth state of matter. Depending upon thermodynamic equilibrium, plasma can be divided into thermodynamic equilibrium and non-thermodynamic equilibrium . Non-thermodynamic equilibrium plasma is also called low-temperature plasma. Low-temperature plasma has been increasingly studied and applied in the treatment of organic waste gas. Low-temperature plasma technology is a method that uses high-energy electrons to cause inelastic collisions with gas molecules or atoms to cause free radicals, and the free radicals react with organic gas molecules to degrade VOC . The main generation mechanism of low-temperature plasma is discharge, including corona discharge , dielectric barrier discharge [28, 29] and glow discharge .
The low-temperature plasma method applies to processing large flows of low concentrations of organic waste gas. It is a simple energy-efficient treatment method. In addition, low operating and maintenance costs are another advantage. However, the generation of by-products, safety and severe condition controls are the issues to be considered when applying this method.
The combustion method is also known as the thermal oxidation method. It means that under certain conditions, the combustible organic exhaust gases are burned (or oxidised) into CO2, H2O and other harmless substances, achieving the purpose of purifying exhaust gases. The combustion method can be further sorted into direct combustion, catalytic combustion, porous media combustion, regenerative combustion and so on.
Direct combustion is the direct combustion of combustible organic waste gases as chemical fuels. This method is suitable for the treatment of organic exhaust gases with a high concentration of combustible gas components or high calorific value. The combustion temperature is usually set at around 1100°C. It has demanding combustion conditions. For the exhaust gases to be fully combusted, the highly concentrated exhaust gases must be completely mixed with air in advance; otherwise, harmful substances such as dioxins will be generated. This method is relatively easy and does not need much investment in the initial stage. It has strict equipment requirements and operating conditions. Besides, there are safety hazards and waste of heat energy.
Catalytic combustion is a typical type of gas–solid catalytic reaction. The role of the catalyst is to reduce the activation energy and increase the reaction rate. Catalytic combustion is a process in which the combustible components of the exhaust gas are oxidised at low temperatures to substances such as CO2 and H2O, accompanied by the release of large amounts of heat, under the action of a catalyst.
The performance of the catalyst affects the catalytic effect. Catalysts can be classified into three major groups: noble metal catalysts, non-noble metal catalysts and complex oxide catalysts. The common noble metal catalysts include Au, Pb, Pt etc. Noble metal catalysts have the advantages of high activity, high deactivation resistance and high regeneration capacity . However, the application of noble metal catalysts is restricted by their high cost, low oxidation stability and poor resistance to sulphur and chlorine . Non-noble metal catalysts can be loaded or non-loaded metal oxides [32, 33]. Common catalysts are Co, Ni, Cu, Mn etc. They have the advantages of better activity, recyclability, low price and easy availability, which makes them an ideal alternative to precious metal catalysts. Composite metal catalysts are usually made of a combination of two or more oxides, which can improve the performance of the catalyst and further improve the removal efficiency of VOC.
The catalytic combustion method has superior purification efficiency and good safety performance. However, the catalyst is prone to poisoning and surface coking. The catalytic combustion method applies to a wide range of concentrations and achieves low or zero emission of CO and NO
Porous Medium Combustion (PMC) technology is a new type of gas combustion technology. The porous medium has the characteristics of large heat capacity and strong thermal conductivity etc. The VOC enter the porous medium and the heat generated is transferred in the form of heat conduction, convection and radiation, which preheats the upstream gas and recovers the waste heat of the high-temperature flue gas . This combustion technique achieves heat reflux, resulting in a more uniform temperature inside the porous medium.
Porous media material plays a remarkable role in the purification of exhaust gas combustion. It is not only an important component for carrying VOC exhaust combustion but also an indispensable medium for the heat reflow process. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the thermodynamic properties, flow properties and heat transfer properties of porous media materials when they are selected . The structure of porous media generally consists of stacked particles, straight-hole grid, foam, and fiber grid type. And cordierite, mullite and SiC are the commonly used porous media materials.
The technology is effective when treating organic exhaust gas with low calorific value and high flow rate. It has the advantages of compact structure, low investment cost, stable combustion and high removal efficiency. However, due to the heat storage properties of the porous material, it may cause heat accumulation and even damage the equipment.
The regenerative combustion method is used to store the heat generated by combustion in a regenerative body after the combustible components of the organic exhaust gases are burned. The stored heat is used to preheat the exhaust gases entering the next cycle, which results in the recycling of heat.
The core device of the regenerative combustion method is the regenerative oxidiser. Regenerative Environmental Equipment Company, Inc. (REECO) (Research-Cottrell) first introduced Regenerative Thermal Oxidiser (RTO) systems to the market in the early 1870s. The early units achieved a heat recovery efficiency of 80–85% . Later, the RTO system was introduced into the country. As the research progressed, its structure was continuously improved and optimised, and the heat recovery could reach >95%. Nowadays, RTO systems are increasingly being widely used in industrial organic waste gas treatment.
The regenerative thermal and the regenerative catalytic combustion methods are the two main technologies available in the regenerative method. The basic principle of the regenerative thermal combustion method is that the exhaust gases flow through the regenerative body and burn in the combustion chamber and then flow again through the regenerative body, transferring most of the heat to the regenerative body. This energy is used to preheat the exhaust gases to be treated. The regenerative catalytic combustion method is an improvement over the original regenerative thermal combustion method. A catalyst is added to the regenerative bed layer. The gas flowing through is catalysed by the catalyst, which reduces the activation energy and allows combustion at a lower temperature. The systems for both treatments are similar and consist primarily of a regenerative chamber, combustion chamber and transfer valve. The heat storage system can be categorised into a single-chamber system, double-chamber system and multi-chamber system depending upon the number of different regenerative chambers. Among these, the dual-chamber and multi-chamber systems are more widely studied and applied.
The regenerative thermal combustion method is suitable for the treatment of organic exhaust gases with low air concentrations. It saves fuel and also achieves heat recovery, while greatly reducing operating costs. It has a high combustion temperature, which easily generates secondary pollutants such as nitrogen oxides at high temperatures. The regenerative catalytic combustion rule concentrates on the advantages of both regenerative and catalytic combustion technologies. Its combustion temperature is lower and the heat loss is greatly reduced. At the same time, the purification efficiency is still very high. The ability to deal with a wide range of exhaust gas concentrations is a significant advantage. However, some factors need to be taken into consideration, such as the type, cost and life of the catalyst.
The traditional regenerative burner has been improved through continuous research and is widely used in exhaust gas treatment. However, there are still many shortcomings, such as large volume, unstable temperature field and instability of continuous operation processes. In order to make the regenerative combustion method more stable and effective in the treatment of exhaust gases, a new type of regenerative combustion device has been developed based on the original equipment. The new apparatus is known as the rotary RTO. This method has advantages such as high exhaust gas treatment efficiency and a large treatment flow rate. However, we have less production equipment, which attributes to the complex equipment manufacturing process and other factors. At present, the main focus is on the technical analysis and research of this equipment.
The components of the RTO burner include a regenerative body, combustion chamber, rotary valve, fan, control system etc. The regenerative body is the core of the RTO system and plays a key role in storing and releasing heat. Spherical and honeycomb are the main varieties widely used in the domestic and international industries . Ceramic honeycomb regenerative bodies are widely used in RTO systems due to their advantages such as high thermal conductivity, high-temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. The combustion chamber is the main place where the combustible components of the organic exhaust gases are burned and purified. The exhaust gases preheated by the regenerative body are combusted and decomposed after entering the combustion chamber to produce carbon dioxide and water. The rotary valve is set up to help direct the gas distribution. It is also gas-tight, which greatly reduces the possibility of gas leakage.
According to the different airflow switching methods, rotary RTOs can be broadly classified into rotary valve type and multi-valve switching type . Based on the sealing method of the rotary valve, there are three types: gas seal, mechanical flexible seal and the combination of the two. In terms of different purging media, it can be divided into two types: air purge and purge gas purge.
The regenerative body is preheated to 700–1000°C. The rotary valve is driven by the fan. Under the guidance of the fan and the rotary valve, the VOC flow through the regenerative body and absorb the stored heat. When the gas reaches a certain temperature, it is sent to the combustion chamber for combustion, generating carbon dioxide and water. Meanwhile, it releases a large amount of reaction heat. The purified gas carries a large amount of heat. Heat transfer occurs when it flows through the regenerative body. Most of the heat is transferred to the regenerative body by heat conduction and radiation. The temperature of the purified exhaust gas drops significantly. Finally, it is discharged from the bottom outlet. At the same time, the temperature of the regenerative body increases, storing a large amount of heat. The task of the stored heat is to preheat the organic waste gas that has just entered. In this way, the continuous and efficient treatment of the organic waste gas is realised.
The rotating thermal storage oxidation technology has three advantages: First, multiple valves are simplified into one valve, which greatly simplifies the complexity of the device and reduces the flow resistance of gas. Therefore, the intake, exhaust and scavenging process is smoother. Second, the oxidation of the intake air and the exothermic heat of the exhaust occur simultaneously in the oxidation bed. The heat transfer intensity and efficiency are higher. The heat exchange area is saved and the structure is more compact. Third, the device can rely on the oxidative heat release of the fuel to realise self heating to maintain operation, which greatly saves energy.
As a new technology for the treatment of VOC, many scholars and research departments have seen the huge potential for development, and have initiated a series of research and development.
Chen and Wei  introduced the governance technology of VOC in flexible packaging printing enterprises in recent years. The novel rotary combustion method was introduced in the novel VOC end treatment method, showing the structural principle of the method and the process route. A technical comparison between the traditional and new VOC terminal management technologies was also carried out. It was found that the new governance technology has high heat efficiency, low energy consumption and much lower operating costs. A detailed introduction of rotating RTO was carried out by Li et al. . The significant advantages of rotary RTO were emphasised based on the comparison of RTO types and performance. And the rotary RTO were classified and introduced based on five aspects. Guo et al.  introduced the working principle and the main performance index of the rotary RTO. It showed that the thermal efficiency of the rotary RTO reaches 97%. It achieved the secondary recycling of heat energy while reducing heat loss in operation. Iloeje et al.  proposed an accurate simplified model of the rotating reactor, which greatly reduced the computational cost. And the optimal combination between the variables was determined to meet the needs of reactor design. Cheng et al.  proposed a rotating reactor for NO
In the current rotating RTO system, the temperature field in the regenerative body is stable, and continuous gas input is achieved. However, most rotary reversing valves have a complex structure, and large flow losses may occur during gas transport. The friction of the plane seal is high, and the high energy consumption of the drive motor is a problem . These problems can shorten the service life of rotary reversing valves and lead to unstable system operation. Therefore, Mao et al.  invented a new type of rotary directional valve for a rotary heat storage combustion device. An inlet air distribution plate, an exhausting return air distribution plate and a sweep air distribution plate were correspondingly installed at the top, middle and bottom of the rotary shaft in the valve. Each air distribution plate and the cylinder body were surrounded to form the intake chamber, exhaust chamber and air scavenging chamber. The simple structure of the reversing valve and the reasonable distribution of the three air distribution plates made the process of the air intake, exhaust and sweeping smoother; thus, the flow loss was minimised and the jamming situation could be avoided. The operation was stable and the energy consumption was low.
Current rotating regenerative combustion units are mostly constructed with a separate regenerative chamber and combustion chamber. The combustion chamber needs to rely on an igniter to ignite the inlet air that has been preheated to a high temperature (about 800°C), which makes it difficult for the combustion process to maintain self heating and requires the utilisation of an external heat source. Also, the regenerative body is bulky for a simple heat transfer process in the heat storage body. To remedy the above shortcomings, Mao et al.  developed a coal mine spent air rotary heat storage catalytic oxidation device with a combined oxidation bed. The oxidation bed consisted of a catalytic bed body and a regenerative body. There was a heater in the top air collection chamber. After the spent air entered the system, the inlet preheating combustion and exhaust heat storage occurred simultaneously in the combined oxidation bed. This design greatly improves heat transfer efficiency and makes the structure more compact. Under the combined effect of the low-temperature catalytic oxidation of the catalytic oxidation bed and the high heat accumulation and strong thermal feedback of the honeycomb ceramic oxidation bed, the device can achieve self heating to maintain operation and save energy.
Among the recovery methods, the absorption method has mature technology and low investment, and can deal with high flow rate and medium and high concentration of room temperature waste gas. The adsorption method has a good purification effect, but secondary pollution, adsorbent poisoning and other problems may occur. It can deal with low concentration and a large flow of waste gas. The condensation method is simple to operate, but consumes large amounts of energy and has high operating costs. This method is often used for a high concentration of organic waste gases with high utilisation value. The membrane separation method is highly efficient, widely applicable and can be recycled, but it will produce membrane pollution.
In non-recovery technologies, the biodegradation method has low operation and management costs. The main drawback is that the purification effect is highly influenced by temperature and humidity. The reaction conditions of the photocatalytic method are mild. It consumes less energy. The challenges faced are catalyst deactivation and surface coking. The low-temperature plasma method is energy efficient. It needs to take by-product generation and security issues into account. The combustion method is a very efficient method for waste gas treatment. Among these, direct combustion is more expensive. It has safety concerns and wastes heat energy. In practice, direct combustion of organic exhaust gases is rarely used. Catalytic combustion and regenerative catalytic combustion both have lower combustion temperatures. In contrast, regenerative catalytic combustion is more energy saving. Their common limitation is catalyst poisoning. The porous media combustion method is compact and stable but may suffer from heat build up.
The most promising among the thermal storage combustion methods is the rotary thermal storage combustion method. Due to the compactness of its equipment, it has a small footprint. The equipment has good airtightness and allows for a continuous input of exhaust gases. The existence of the external insulation layer of the device greatly reduces heat loss. The high heat recovery rate allows for essential self sufficiency in heat, saving fuel and improving the high energy utilisation rate. The purification effect of this method, which is up to
Improvement ideas are proposed for the performance of the rotary regenerative combustion device. Most of the rotary regenerative combustion devices have complex rotary reversing valve structures, and the friction of flat seals are large; so, the performance of the device can be improved by simplifying the rotary reversing valve structure and reducing the sealing friction. There were two main problems with the previous device. One of the problems was the bulky volume caused by the separation of the regenerative chamber and the combustion chamber. The second problem was that the combustion process is difficult to maintain by self heating. In order to solve these issues, the heat accumulator combustion design can be considered for incorporation in the same heat accumulator. This results in a more compact structure, a smaller device, self-heating maintenance and improved combustion stability.
In summary, due to the wide variety of sources and chemical properties of VOC, the choice of VOC treatment technology should comprehensively consider many factors, such as the nature of the exhaust gases, the emission concentration, flow rate and the applicable conditions of the technology. The right choice contributes to the dual benefits of efficient treatment of exhaust gases and the maximisation of social benefits.
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system for automobiles based on torsional vibration damping Application research on piano teaching in colleges and universities based on remote wireless network communication Construction of a mathematical modeling teaching quality assessment system for universities based on Eviews model Construction of Financial Risk Evaluation Index System for Biomass Graphene Fibre Industrialisation Project Innovative model of teaching in law experiment center based on LETS software A Study on the Implications of Critical Discourse Analysis Theory for College English Teaching in the Context of Big Data Computational research on flat image design and style based on perceptual feature quantification The artistic aesthetic and cultural value orientation of 3D printing A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist theory based on a decentralized Internet perspective Student management model of college student associations based on ant colony Algorithm Analysis of the evolution of China’s energy legal system under the background of discrete model theory and dual carbon Design of Morlet wavelet neural network to solve the non-linear influenza disease system An online statistical analysis of the hotel management and operation performance model Research on the relationship between the construction of school teachers’ team literacy and the educational environment Research on the post-purchase behaviour tendency of the product quality to customers in fast-selling marketing Motion about equilibrium points in the Jupiter-Europa system with oblateness Design of an embedded machine vision system for smart cameras Ultra-short-term power forecast of photovoltaic power station based on VMD–LSTM model optimised by SSA Optimal preview repetitive control for impulse-free continuous-time descriptor systems Design of information management system based on wireless communication under the background of Internet of Things The impact of global warming on the small Scottish Fishing Company Research on heat transfer properties of graphene composites Development of main functional modules for MVB and its application in rail transit Analysis of agricultural economic development and optimisation measures under the strategy of rural revitalisation Study on the impact of forest fire prevention policy on the health of forest resources Value Creation of Real Estate Company Spin-off Property Service Company Listing Selection by differential mortality rates Research on the relationship between government subsidies, R&D investment and high-quality development of manufacturing industry Research on the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage under the background of rural revitalisation Research on behavioural differences in the processing of tenant listing information: An eye-movement experiment Computer vision recognition and tracking algorithm based on convolutional neural network Innovative reform strategy of artistic practice of university folk dance education based on information fusion technology A review of the treatment techniques of VOC Study on structural parameter design and life analysis of large four-point contact ball bearing channel Some classes of complete permutation polynomials in the form of ( x p m− x+ δ) s+ ax p m+ bxover F p2 m Digital marketing solutions based on consumer data and homomorphic encryption The consistency method of linguistic information and other four preference information in group decision-making Research on the driving principle and guiding strategy of the public's collaborative supervision of the sharing economy in my country Influence of innovative human capital on economic development of China through the STI model New ideas of precision teaching development based on the background of big data Research on the willingness of Forest Land’s Management Rights transfer under the Beijing Forestry Development Application research of bel canto performance based on artificial intelligence technology Research on the path of integrating blockchain technology into the teaching of film and television courses in higher education institutions Combined application of employment education and big data internet technology based on the context of vocational education reform Fractal structure of magnetic island in tokamak plasma College students' innovation and entrepreneurship model based on probability theory statistics Exploring the path of network security and student privacy protection in smart campus based on Markov model Innovation and entrepreneurship model of higher vocational college students based on probability theory statistics Application of knowledge graph in smart grid fault diagnosis Research on the innovation of youth network media literacy education in the context of Internet + education Research on the optimisation of logistics parcel intelligent sorting and conveying chain combined with variable clustering mathematical method Research on power quality assessment based on ubiquitous power IoT Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Analysis of network information security issues under the background of big data Research on SOC estimation of residual power of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles based on extended Kalman filtering algorithm Harmonic current variation characteristics of shunt capacitors based on full-phase FFT algorithm Urban Public Epidemic Prevention and Control Model Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Research on computer vision technology based on BP-LSTM hybrid network Research progress of computer vision tasks based on deep learning and SAE network Application of Discriminative Training Algorithm Based on Intelligent Computing in English Translation Evaluation Research on the application of GLE teaching mode in English-medium colleges The application of directional derivative in the design of animation characters and background elements Research on product process design and optimisation model based on IoT intelligent computing Simulation research on music feature recognition based on mobile big data and smart sensors Digital design and experimental testing of a compressor's suction muffler transmission loss LTE wireless network coverage optimisation based on corrected propagation model SCP model based on the new energy vehicle collaborative detection configuration method research Study on tourism development income index calculation of finite element ordinary differential mathematical equation The cardiovascular promotion of college taekwondo based on fractional differential equation Analysis and research on the economic benefits of employee labor in enterprises in the context of the Internet Application of renewable energy decorative materials in modern architectural design under low-carbon concept The boundedness of functional differential equations of hospital financial software under information Deep learning model-based brand design 3D image construction The character image setting of 3D animation works based on Poisson equation Research on the interaction between university physical culture education and college students’ physical exercise in the context of big data The optimization path of core literacy of innovative talents in universities based on the improved Markov model Analysis of the innovation path of university education management informatization in the era of big data Impact of ASEAN-China free trade area on fishery value chain based on difference-in-difference method Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation Empirical analysis of the economic absolute income hypothesis based on mathematical statistics Realization of Book Collaborative Filtering Personalized Recommendation System Based on Linear Regression Equation Study on Interactive Relations between Enterprise Social Media and Decision Style Based on a vector Autoregressive Model Research on Dynamics of Flexible Multibody System with Deployable Antenna Based on Static Lagrangian Function The Optimization of Mathematics Teaching Models in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Study on spatial planning and design of learning commons in university libraries based on fuzzy matrix model The Stability Model of Piano Tone Tuning Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Construction and application of automobile user portrait based on k-mean clustering model The Homework Model of Screening English Teaching Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations MATLAB-based simulation of industrial robots in water environment monitoring An innovative teaching model of automotive manufacturing process based on ADDIE model The train of thought and design of university talents training based on ADDIE model from the perspective of ideological and political education Research on the innovation of model based on the cultivation of talents in higher vocational art and design Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations Study on the factors influencing the evolution mechanism of cobalt trade network from the perspective of national competition Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beams based on the stochastic model of resistance calculation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation Construction of an enterprise financial risk management system based on F-score model Research on education management system based on machine learning and multidimensional data modeling Multi-featured multi-scale combination of high-resolution remote sensing images for building extraction Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Electronic properties of diamond semiconductor materials: based on response surface model Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching Deep learning techniques in modern women’s smart clothing design Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology A study on the aesthetic characteristics of ethnic music based on radial basis neural network model The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Analysis of the application methods of film and television media and images in the era of big data cloud Air data computer simulation and design credibility assessment considering ADC calculation model Analysis of news communication strategies in the era of full media based on big data mining On the improvement, innovation and inheritance of stage makeup styling in opera under the background of big data Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Evaluation Mechanism of Teaching Staff’s Building in Local Vocational Colleges Based on Big Data Technology Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Research on detection of parking space based on the combination of magnetoresistance and microwave radar sensor under IoT platform Research on sustainable development mechanism of regional ‘Artisan Workshop’ under big data environment Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises The analysis method of the impact of missing audit information on the securities investment decisions based on Logistic regression models Research on the innovation theory of college students’ ideological and political education under the background of big data Research on classification of e-commerce customers based on BP neural network Research on the problems and reform strategies of government statistics based on big data technology The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Adaptive fusion of multi-exposure images based on perceptron model Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Exploring the Path of Integrating Excellent Traditional Culture into Civic Education in Universities in the Internet+ Era Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Design and research of environmentally friendly field sewage purification mechanical device 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System An analysis of time commitment for college students to online English writing and peer assessment learning Research on network security management monitoring platform based on Internet of things technology Study of frictional wear properties of materials for mechanical seals Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models Exploring the construction of an all-round cost management system for investment control in university engineering construction BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Relationship Between Physical Activity Sedentary Behavior and Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents Based on FIT Modelo Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Grid data asset relationship and intelligent classification integrating knowledge graph and Internet of Things Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering The Construction of Judgment Model for Cultivating Intelligent Accounting Professionals in Universities Based on Logarithmic Periodic Power Law Model Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups Digital Regeneration and Database Construction of Hunan Embroidery Needlework under the Perspective of Artificial Intelligence Research on the practice of innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities under the environment of big data Application of digital technology in environmental art design Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Research on the evaluation system of tourism management classroom teaching based on multimedia big data analysis The application of ARCS motivation model in college oral English teaching Research on Innovation of Translation Teaching and Translation Strategies for College Students in Multimedia Background A multi-channel convolutional neural network based on attention mechanism fusion for facial expression recognition Exploring the development of cultural and creative tourism under the perspective of ecological theory of tourism destination management Modeling Analysis of User Consumption Data of Internet Culture Industry in the Context of Emerging Technologies Reference: An algorithm for recognizing the main melody of orchestral music based on artificial intelligence of music melody contour Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting The construction of a practical platform for party building and ideological and political education based on information fusion A study on the influence of the spread of Yangming Studies in Japan on the psychology of the Japanese people based on big data analysis Research on personalized recommendation algorithm for micromechanical sensors based on cloud model Research on the value of modern vernacular literature in contemporary rural construction based on ADDIE model Robust speech recognition based on deep learning for sports game review Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Model Construction of Influencing Factors of Physical Education Core Quality Cultivation Based on Multiple Linear Regression Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Research on the operation and management mechanism of cross-border e-commerce shared practice training base Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Strategies for improving Chinese language proficiency based on artificial intelligence technology The success rate model of college students’ new entrepreneurship based on nonlinear differential equations Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Research on the application of marketing strategy of national fitness exercise and dance events in the construction of sports culture based on big data technology Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Strategies for constructing mathematical models of nonlinear systems based on multiple linear regression models Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations Research on human resource management performance evaluation based on BP algorithm The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network Law of interest rate changes in financial markets based on the differential equation model of liquidity Basalt fibre continuous reinforcement composite pavement reinforcement design based on finite element model Satisfactory consistency judgement and inconsistency adjustment of linguistic judgement matrix Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Innovations to Attribute Reduction of Covering Decision System Based on Conditional Information Entropy Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel Innovation of Economic Management Risk Control in Retailer Supply Chain Based on Differential Equation Model Statistical Model of College Ideological and Political Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Nonlinear Differential Equation in Anti-aging Test of Polymer Nanomaterials Mechanics of Building Structural Materials Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Analysis The Mental Health Education Management of Higher Vocational Students Based on Fractional Differential Equations Application of regression function model based on panel data in financial risk management of bank resource allocation University Ideological and Political Learning Model Based on Statistical Memory Curve Mathematical Equation Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpus Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Modeling of fractional differential equation in cloud computing image fusion algorithm Conventional Algorithms in Sports Training Based on Fractional Differential Equations Dynamic Nonlinear System Based on Complex System Theory in the Development of Vocational Education The Algorithm Accuracy of Mathematical Model to Improve the Transmission Speed of E-commerce Platform The Security of Database Network Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Electric Vehicle Mechanical Transmission System Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Practice System of Physics and Electronics Courses in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Economic Model of Rural Supply and Demand Under the Data Analysis Function Based on Ordered Probit 3D Modeling System of Indoor Environment Art Landscape Design under Statistical Equation Electronic Information Security Model of Nonlinear Differential Equations The Optimization Model of College Students' Physical Exercise Motivation and Self-control Ability Based on the Mathematical Model of Probability Theory Health monitoring of Bridges based on multifractal theory Health status diagnosis of the bridges based on multi-fractal de-trend fluctuation analysis Application and risk assessment of the energy performance contracting model in energy conservation of public buildings Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of envelope enclosure performance in the dry-hot and dry-cold areas Criminal law imputation path for biometric information Research on composite dynamic disaster prevention and control system of mine earthquake and shock in thick and hard rock mines Research on urban energy Internet planning based on fuzzy comprehensive method Research on innovative strategies of college students’ English teaching under the background of artificial intelligence Electromagnetic interference prediction technology of new energy motor drive system Research on the intelligent path of college students’ network ideological and political education based on big data mining technology Research on the application of PLC technology in electrical automation engineering Application of matrix multiplication in signal sensor image perception Analysing the variation of metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from within and between disciplines Impact of COVID-19 policy on stock prices of listed property companies Research on the experimental principle of deep integration of LETS software and criminal procedure under the background of artificial intelligence VR-based computer maintenance practical training platform development design and application research Design and implementation of an integrated management system for discipline construction and postgraduate education in universities Research on innovative human capital for China’s economic development based on STI model In-depth analysis of the artistic expression of paper-cut elements in the design of boat space Knowledge graph construction and Internet of Things optimisation for power grid data knowledge extraction Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East Construction and intelligent analysis of power grid physical data knowledge graph based on Internet of Things for power system Research on industrial Internet of Things and power grid technology application based on knowledge graph and data asset relationship model Research on the effects of financial literacy on rural household credit constraint Research on educational resource recommendation system based on MRLG Rec Visual analysis of the trend of mental health changes among Chinese college students in the context of the normalisation of the new crown epidemic A study on the phenomenon of anaphoric correction in college students’ English conversation Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Application of data mining in basketball statistics The nonlinear effects of ageing on national savings rate – An Empirical Study based on threshold model Design of fitness walker for the elderly based on ergonomic SAPAD model Research on the innovation of collaborative education model of scientific research and teaching in colleges and universities based on the theory of process reengineering AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification The innovative path of diversified vocal music education reform in colleges and universities under the advanced educational concepts of China and the West Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Rhino application in ceramic packaging design teaching Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality Analysis and countermeasures of cultivating independent learning ability in colleges teaching English based on OBE theory A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Projection of Early Warning Identification of Hazardous Sources of Gas Explosion Accidents in Coal Mines Based on NTM Deep Learning Network Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Research on design of customer portrait system for E-commerce Research on rule extraction method based on concept lattice of intuitionistic fuzzy language Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning Design and evaluation of intelligent teaching system on basic movements in PE Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Retraction