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Volumen 71 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 70 (2021): Edición 1 (January 2021)

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Volumen 65 (2016): Edición 1 (December 2016)

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2509-8934
Publicado por primera vez
22 Feb 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 71 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2509-8934
Publicado por primera vez
22 Feb 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Retrotransposon-based markers revealed a repartition depending on geographical origin and breeding status of Tunisian pistachio species

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 1 - 9

Resumen

Abstract

Retrotransposon movements are considered to be an important factor in evolutionary processes and speciation as well as a source of genetic variation. In order to analyze genetic diversity and population structure in Tunisian pistachio species, nine inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were used. As a result, eighty-six amplicons were produced among which 98.15 % were polymorphic. Mean numbers of the effective number of alleles (Ne), Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s genetic diversity (H) were respectively 1.529, 0.478, and 0.310. The average within-population genetic diversity (Hs) was 0.24 and the total diversity (Ht) was 0.3. The Tunisian pistachio populations exhibited high genetic differentiation (Gst =0.275) and gene flow (Nm = 1.888). The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated that variation was very high within populations (83 %). Phylogenetic tree using neighbor- joining (NJ) method and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) depicted that groupings of Tunisian varieties were made independently of the sex of the trees, but depending on their geographical origin and their breeding status. The modelbased Bayesian clustering (STRUCTURE) confirmed these observations. The inter-retrotransposons amplification polymorphism markers were significantly informative at the interspecific level. Findings reported in our study will be essential toward breeding for new pistachio genotypes with developed chemical and horticultural features.

Palabras clave

  • Pistacia
  • Retrotransposon
  • population structure
  • gene flow
  • plant breeding
Acceso abierto

Traumatic ducts size varies genetically and is positively associated to resin yield of Pinus oocarpa open-pollinated progenies

Publicado en línea: 27 Jun 2022
Páginas: 10 - 19

Resumen

Abstract

Mexico ranks 5th in worldwide resin production. Pinus oocarpa is the most widely tapped pine tree in Mexico. Michoacán (central-western Mexico) is the first nationwide state producer of resin. Despite the P. oocarpa relevance, there is no genetic improvement program in the country for resin production. We evaluated the degree of genetic control for growth, anatomical traits, resin yield, and the correlation among them at an early age (five-years-old for growth, six for resin, and anatomical traits) in a P. oocarpa half-sib progeny trial. Families were originated from selected mother trees, based on their resin yield. We found significant genetic variation among families for stem volume (h2i= 0.12, h2f= 0.35), traumatic ducts (diameter: h2i= 0.63, h2f= 0.51; area: h2f= 0.81), and resin yield (individual and family narrow-sense heritability: h2i= 0.20, h2f= 0.52), and a positive correlation between diameter and area of traumatic ducts with resin yield (Pearson correlation: r= 0.73, p= 0.04; r= 0.71, p= 0.0497; respectively). Results suggest that the early selection (six-years-old) of superior P. oocarpa families, based on resin yield (estimated by microchipping technique), and/or based on larger diameter and area of traumatic ducts, appears to be a feasible strategy to develop seed orchards able to provide genetically improved seeds for intensive resin tree plantations. That would be an important alternative for a state as Michoacán, Mexico, where natural P. oocarpa stands are being replaced for avocado orchards for exportation.

Palabras clave

  • heritability
  • open-pollinated families
  • tapping
  • defense system
  • growth
  • resin ducts
  • resin yield
  • diameter
  • traumatic ducts
Acceso abierto

Flexible DNA isolation procedure for different tree species as a convenient lab routine

Publicado en línea: 01 Jul 2022
Páginas: 20 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

DNA isolation is a fundamental technique for all molecular biology laboratories. Depending on the plant species, DNA isolation can be challenging. In particular, adapted protocols rarely exist for tree species which are not used as standard model organisms. Here, we describe a flexible DNA isolation protocol that works for 59 tree species in a modular system. It is based on an ATMAB-containing extraction buffer to which proteinase K and/or boric acid are added, depending on the plant species. Subsequent purification steps include one or two precipitations with dichloromethane and, depending on the tree species, an optional sodium acetate precipitation. Using leaf material of a hybrid poplar clone from in vitro culture, it was determined that higher amounts of DNA could be isolated with this material than from field leaves. Starting from leaf material, DNA isolation for difficult cases was achieved with cambium or root tissue. This protocol was used to extract DNA for subsequent PCR amplification. Markers for cpDNA, mtDNA, and genomic DNA were used for standardized testing.

Acceso abierto

Estimation of optimal timing of early selection based on time trends of genetic parameters in Abies sachalinensis

Publicado en línea: 07 Jul 2022
Páginas: 31 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Early selection is an imperative in ongoing forest tree breeding. This study estimated the optimal timing of early selection in Abies sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Mast. based on time trends of genetic parameters obtained from two test sites. Tree height (Ht) at 5, 10 (11), 15, 20, 30, and 40 years of age and diameter at breast height (DBH) at 20, 30, and 40 years of age were analyzed. The efficiency of early selection per year (E) for performing early indirect selection relative to performing direct selection at the earliest rotation age (40 years of age) was estimated based on narrow-sense heritability (h2) and age–age genetic correlation (r). The h2 of Ht peaked at 10 or 15 years of age (0.52–0.71), and that of DBH was the highest at 20 years of age (0.19 or 0.22). The age–age genetic correlation between tree heights or between tree height and DBH at different ages decreased with increasing differences between ages (regression coefficients were −0.011 and −0.007, respectively). The E values were highest at 10 or 15 years of age (0.84-1.74 and 1.42-2.24 for Ht and Ht-DBH, respectively), indicating the optimum selection timing. In Japapnese forestry, the initial growth rate is considered important for reducing weeding costs. Selection at 10 or 15 years of age had more than in >65 % indirect genetic gain relative to the direct genetic gain at 5 years of age; thus, selection at 10-15 years of age is appropriate considering the initial and mature phases of tree growth.

Palabras clave

  • narrow-sense heritability
  • genetic gain
  • indirect selection
  • selection efficiency per year
  • Sakhalin fir
  • age-age correlation
Acceso abierto

Estimating of Additive, Dominance, and Epistatic Genetic Variance in Eucalypt Hybrid Population

Publicado en línea: 07 Jul 2022
Páginas: 39 - 46

Resumen

Abstract

Additive, dominance and epistasis genetic variances were estimated from analysis of a clonally replicated full-sib progeny test grown in the Republic of Congo. Phenotypic variance components were estimated for ages 4 through 25 months for growth and at ages 8 and 18 months for ecophysiological traits. The estimation of genetics effects was derived from the individual mixed model. Genetic structure was incorporated into variances and covariance’s effects based on markers information. The detected genetic effects of epistasis are significant in some traits. This study shows that epistasis variance can be non-zero and contribute significantly to the genetic variability of growth and ecophysiological traits. We conclude that the epistatic effect for quantitative traits may exist, but estimates may not be obtained, either because the models used are inappropriate or because the epistasis variance is too small relative to other components of the genetic variance to be estimated.

Palabras clave

  • Eucalyptus
  • Genetic variance partitioning
  • Epistasis
  • SNP marker
  • Relationship matrix
Acceso abierto

Genome survey sequencing of Ailanthus altissima and identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

Publicado en línea: 08 Aug 2022
Páginas: 47 - 53

Resumen

Abstract

Ailanthus altissima is a deciduous tree native to China and introduced to other parts of the world as an ornamental plant. It exhibits resistance to both abiotic and biotic stress factors and has various pharmacological effects and strong allelopathy, generating significant research interests. However, the genome sequence of this species has not been reported, limiting its research development. The purpose of the study was to determine the genome size and characteristics of A. altissima to conduct its genomic survey. Next-generation sequencing and K-mer analysis were employed to measure the genome size of A. altissima. Overall, a total of 61.93 Gb high-quality clean data were acquired, representing approximately 64.09× coverage of the A. altissima genome. The genomic characteristics of A. altissima include a genome size of 966.38 Mbp, a heterozygosis rate of 0.78 %, and a repeat rate of 41.22 %. A total of 735,179 genomic SSRs markers were identified based on genome survey sequences. Alignment analysis showed that A. altissima was closely related to Citrus sinensis and Leitneria florida-na. This study provides basic information for future whole-genomic sequencing of A. altissima. This will facilitate a knowledge of the population structure, genetic diversity, long distance-gene transfer, and pollen-based gene flow analyses of A. altissima populations from its known distribution ranges in China, focusing on planted and natural forest stands.

Palabras clave

  • Ailanthus altissima
  • genome survey
  • next-generation sequencing
  • genomic SSR markers
Acceso abierto

Origin and genetic nature of polyploidy in paleoendemic coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.)

Publicado en línea: 15 Aug 2022
Páginas: 54 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

It is not known when the polyploid coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) evolved from its diploid ancestors, and what is its type of polyploidy. Whether close relatives of Sequoia, giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) and dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), have possibly contributed to the ancestry of hexaploid of Sequoia remains an open question. The nature of hexaploidy in Sequoia has baffled biologists for more than a century. Based on the chromosome configurations in Sequoia, G. Ledyard Stebbins was the first geneticists who postulated in 1948 that Sequoia is an autoallohexaploid (AAAABB), and an ancient species of Metasequoia might have been one of the putative ancestors of Sequoia. After its chromosome number (2n=6x=66) was confirmed in hexaploid Sequoia, the type of polyploidy in Sequoia has been further investigated for the past 70 years by a number of investigators, using cytogenetic and genetic data. Although an autoallohexaploid (AAAABB) origin of Sequoia has remained one of the dominant hypotheses until recently, an alternative hypothesis, amongst other possible origins, was also put forth by Ahuja and Neale (2002), that Sequoia may be partially diploidized autohexaploid (AAAAAA), derived from some ancestral species of Sequoia, thus carrying a single ancestral genome. Cytogenetic, molecular genetics, and genome sequence data now support the hypothesis that Sequoia originated as an autohexaploid.

Palabras clave

  • Coast redwood
  • Sequoia
  • Hexaploid
  • Type of polyploidy
  • Cytogenetics
  • Phylogenetics
  • Molecular genetics
  • Autohexaploid
  • Auto-allohexaploid
Acceso abierto

Characterisation of nuclear microsatellite markers for Fraxinus excelsior L. and their transferability to six related species

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 65 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is an economically and ecologically important tree species in Europe acutely threatened by ash dieback. Here, we present a new set of Simple Sequence Repeat markers for F. excelsior and six related ash species based on published in silico designed primers. Forty SSR markers, mainly from genic regions, were tested for amplification and polymorphism and characterized in two ash populations in Germany. Transferability of polymorphic markers to six related Fraxinus species (F. angustifolia, F. ornus, F. quadrangulata, F. pennsylvanica, F. americana and F. biltmoreana) was also assessed. Eighteen markers, predominantly from genic regions including three markers closely linked to candidate genes for ash dieback, were successfully amplified and polymorphic in F. excelsior, of which between 10 to 17 were transferable to one of the six related species. High genetic diversity was found in the two ash populations (Na = 7.8 and 6.9, He = 0.71 and 0.68), while low genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.025) was observed. The newly characterised SSR markers extend the set of genetic markers available for F. excelsior and six other ash species for future studies on the genetic diversity and structure of ash populations.

Palabras clave

  • European ash
  • ash dieback
  • ADB
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic structure
  • transferability
  • nSSRs
  • ESTs
  • marker development
  • genomic resources
Acceso abierto

Productivity, adaptability, and stability in Guazuma crinita progeny tests across three environments in the Aguaytia River Basin, Ucayali, Perú

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 72 - 80

Resumen

Abstract

Guazuma crinita is a fast-growing tree with potential for use in agroforestry systems, due to its rapid wood production, which can contribute significantly to the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in the Peruvian Amazon. However, indiscriminate logging due to high demand is leading to the disappearance of natural forests. As such, the International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) began a domestication program to reduce pressure on natural populations of the species. The objective of the present study was to use analyses of genetic parameters, adaptability (PRVG), productivity (MHPRVG), and stability (MHVG), to select G. crinita genotypes from a three-year-old progeny test established in the Aguaytía River Basin, in Ucayali, Peru. The test was established in three different sites, with three blocks, 200 progeny per block, and two individuals per plot. The measured traits were diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H), and total aerial biomass (B). Significant differences in traits between progenies were detected, but with no genotype x environment interaction (GxE). However, the genotypic correlation among sites was important (> 0.702), suggesting that genetic improvement is possible by selecting the same progeny across sites. The mean heritability among progenies was moderate for all traits (0.34–0.369) and selective precision through combined site analysis was relatively high (0.583–0.608). Based on selection for DBH through combined analysis, MHVG, PRVG, and MHPRVG, 50 superior progenies (25.9 %) were identified for all environments. These should be prioritized in breeding programs as they can offer stable genetic variability for future selection cycles.

Palabras clave

  • Biomass
  • G x E interaction
  • native tree species
  • plantations
  • tree improvement
  • White Bolaina
Acceso abierto

Growth performance of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) clones in planted forests under different managements in Galicia, NW Spain

Publicado en línea: 19 Sep 2022
Páginas: 81 - 87

Resumen

Abstract

Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is one of the main valuable temperate broadleaved species from Europe considering the market appreciation of their timber. In the present study we analyzed the growth performance of different wild cherry clones under different management treatments. A field trial was settled in Bosques Naturales S.A. “Sendelle” forests (Arzúa, Galicia, NW Spain) with a multifactorial design to analyze the effect of clones (4 clones), pruning intensity (33 % and 50 % of total height) and fertilization (3 treatments). It was monitored for 8 years. Clone was found out to be the most important variable in this study while tree growth was neither significantly affected by the pruning intensity nor the fertilization treatments. Clone selection is highlighted as a key issue in wild cherry commercial planted forests for timber production and the selected C-15 clone shows an excellent field performance compared to other clones based on the trial and the literature, reaching a DBH of 14 cm after eight years.

Palabras clave

  • clone
  • clonal forestry
  • forest plantations
  • valuable broadleaved
  • Prunus avium
  • wild cherry
10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Retrotransposon-based markers revealed a repartition depending on geographical origin and breeding status of Tunisian pistachio species

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 1 - 9

Resumen

Abstract

Retrotransposon movements are considered to be an important factor in evolutionary processes and speciation as well as a source of genetic variation. In order to analyze genetic diversity and population structure in Tunisian pistachio species, nine inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were used. As a result, eighty-six amplicons were produced among which 98.15 % were polymorphic. Mean numbers of the effective number of alleles (Ne), Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s genetic diversity (H) were respectively 1.529, 0.478, and 0.310. The average within-population genetic diversity (Hs) was 0.24 and the total diversity (Ht) was 0.3. The Tunisian pistachio populations exhibited high genetic differentiation (Gst =0.275) and gene flow (Nm = 1.888). The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated that variation was very high within populations (83 %). Phylogenetic tree using neighbor- joining (NJ) method and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) depicted that groupings of Tunisian varieties were made independently of the sex of the trees, but depending on their geographical origin and their breeding status. The modelbased Bayesian clustering (STRUCTURE) confirmed these observations. The inter-retrotransposons amplification polymorphism markers were significantly informative at the interspecific level. Findings reported in our study will be essential toward breeding for new pistachio genotypes with developed chemical and horticultural features.

Palabras clave

  • Pistacia
  • Retrotransposon
  • population structure
  • gene flow
  • plant breeding
Acceso abierto

Traumatic ducts size varies genetically and is positively associated to resin yield of Pinus oocarpa open-pollinated progenies

Publicado en línea: 27 Jun 2022
Páginas: 10 - 19

Resumen

Abstract

Mexico ranks 5th in worldwide resin production. Pinus oocarpa is the most widely tapped pine tree in Mexico. Michoacán (central-western Mexico) is the first nationwide state producer of resin. Despite the P. oocarpa relevance, there is no genetic improvement program in the country for resin production. We evaluated the degree of genetic control for growth, anatomical traits, resin yield, and the correlation among them at an early age (five-years-old for growth, six for resin, and anatomical traits) in a P. oocarpa half-sib progeny trial. Families were originated from selected mother trees, based on their resin yield. We found significant genetic variation among families for stem volume (h2i= 0.12, h2f= 0.35), traumatic ducts (diameter: h2i= 0.63, h2f= 0.51; area: h2f= 0.81), and resin yield (individual and family narrow-sense heritability: h2i= 0.20, h2f= 0.52), and a positive correlation between diameter and area of traumatic ducts with resin yield (Pearson correlation: r= 0.73, p= 0.04; r= 0.71, p= 0.0497; respectively). Results suggest that the early selection (six-years-old) of superior P. oocarpa families, based on resin yield (estimated by microchipping technique), and/or based on larger diameter and area of traumatic ducts, appears to be a feasible strategy to develop seed orchards able to provide genetically improved seeds for intensive resin tree plantations. That would be an important alternative for a state as Michoacán, Mexico, where natural P. oocarpa stands are being replaced for avocado orchards for exportation.

Palabras clave

  • heritability
  • open-pollinated families
  • tapping
  • defense system
  • growth
  • resin ducts
  • resin yield
  • diameter
  • traumatic ducts
Acceso abierto

Flexible DNA isolation procedure for different tree species as a convenient lab routine

Publicado en línea: 01 Jul 2022
Páginas: 20 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

DNA isolation is a fundamental technique for all molecular biology laboratories. Depending on the plant species, DNA isolation can be challenging. In particular, adapted protocols rarely exist for tree species which are not used as standard model organisms. Here, we describe a flexible DNA isolation protocol that works for 59 tree species in a modular system. It is based on an ATMAB-containing extraction buffer to which proteinase K and/or boric acid are added, depending on the plant species. Subsequent purification steps include one or two precipitations with dichloromethane and, depending on the tree species, an optional sodium acetate precipitation. Using leaf material of a hybrid poplar clone from in vitro culture, it was determined that higher amounts of DNA could be isolated with this material than from field leaves. Starting from leaf material, DNA isolation for difficult cases was achieved with cambium or root tissue. This protocol was used to extract DNA for subsequent PCR amplification. Markers for cpDNA, mtDNA, and genomic DNA were used for standardized testing.

Acceso abierto

Estimation of optimal timing of early selection based on time trends of genetic parameters in Abies sachalinensis

Publicado en línea: 07 Jul 2022
Páginas: 31 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Early selection is an imperative in ongoing forest tree breeding. This study estimated the optimal timing of early selection in Abies sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Mast. based on time trends of genetic parameters obtained from two test sites. Tree height (Ht) at 5, 10 (11), 15, 20, 30, and 40 years of age and diameter at breast height (DBH) at 20, 30, and 40 years of age were analyzed. The efficiency of early selection per year (E) for performing early indirect selection relative to performing direct selection at the earliest rotation age (40 years of age) was estimated based on narrow-sense heritability (h2) and age–age genetic correlation (r). The h2 of Ht peaked at 10 or 15 years of age (0.52–0.71), and that of DBH was the highest at 20 years of age (0.19 or 0.22). The age–age genetic correlation between tree heights or between tree height and DBH at different ages decreased with increasing differences between ages (regression coefficients were −0.011 and −0.007, respectively). The E values were highest at 10 or 15 years of age (0.84-1.74 and 1.42-2.24 for Ht and Ht-DBH, respectively), indicating the optimum selection timing. In Japapnese forestry, the initial growth rate is considered important for reducing weeding costs. Selection at 10 or 15 years of age had more than in >65 % indirect genetic gain relative to the direct genetic gain at 5 years of age; thus, selection at 10-15 years of age is appropriate considering the initial and mature phases of tree growth.

Palabras clave

  • narrow-sense heritability
  • genetic gain
  • indirect selection
  • selection efficiency per year
  • Sakhalin fir
  • age-age correlation
Acceso abierto

Estimating of Additive, Dominance, and Epistatic Genetic Variance in Eucalypt Hybrid Population

Publicado en línea: 07 Jul 2022
Páginas: 39 - 46

Resumen

Abstract

Additive, dominance and epistasis genetic variances were estimated from analysis of a clonally replicated full-sib progeny test grown in the Republic of Congo. Phenotypic variance components were estimated for ages 4 through 25 months for growth and at ages 8 and 18 months for ecophysiological traits. The estimation of genetics effects was derived from the individual mixed model. Genetic structure was incorporated into variances and covariance’s effects based on markers information. The detected genetic effects of epistasis are significant in some traits. This study shows that epistasis variance can be non-zero and contribute significantly to the genetic variability of growth and ecophysiological traits. We conclude that the epistatic effect for quantitative traits may exist, but estimates may not be obtained, either because the models used are inappropriate or because the epistasis variance is too small relative to other components of the genetic variance to be estimated.

Palabras clave

  • Eucalyptus
  • Genetic variance partitioning
  • Epistasis
  • SNP marker
  • Relationship matrix
Acceso abierto

Genome survey sequencing of Ailanthus altissima and identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

Publicado en línea: 08 Aug 2022
Páginas: 47 - 53

Resumen

Abstract

Ailanthus altissima is a deciduous tree native to China and introduced to other parts of the world as an ornamental plant. It exhibits resistance to both abiotic and biotic stress factors and has various pharmacological effects and strong allelopathy, generating significant research interests. However, the genome sequence of this species has not been reported, limiting its research development. The purpose of the study was to determine the genome size and characteristics of A. altissima to conduct its genomic survey. Next-generation sequencing and K-mer analysis were employed to measure the genome size of A. altissima. Overall, a total of 61.93 Gb high-quality clean data were acquired, representing approximately 64.09× coverage of the A. altissima genome. The genomic characteristics of A. altissima include a genome size of 966.38 Mbp, a heterozygosis rate of 0.78 %, and a repeat rate of 41.22 %. A total of 735,179 genomic SSRs markers were identified based on genome survey sequences. Alignment analysis showed that A. altissima was closely related to Citrus sinensis and Leitneria florida-na. This study provides basic information for future whole-genomic sequencing of A. altissima. This will facilitate a knowledge of the population structure, genetic diversity, long distance-gene transfer, and pollen-based gene flow analyses of A. altissima populations from its known distribution ranges in China, focusing on planted and natural forest stands.

Palabras clave

  • Ailanthus altissima
  • genome survey
  • next-generation sequencing
  • genomic SSR markers
Acceso abierto

Origin and genetic nature of polyploidy in paleoendemic coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.)

Publicado en línea: 15 Aug 2022
Páginas: 54 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

It is not known when the polyploid coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) evolved from its diploid ancestors, and what is its type of polyploidy. Whether close relatives of Sequoia, giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) and dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), have possibly contributed to the ancestry of hexaploid of Sequoia remains an open question. The nature of hexaploidy in Sequoia has baffled biologists for more than a century. Based on the chromosome configurations in Sequoia, G. Ledyard Stebbins was the first geneticists who postulated in 1948 that Sequoia is an autoallohexaploid (AAAABB), and an ancient species of Metasequoia might have been one of the putative ancestors of Sequoia. After its chromosome number (2n=6x=66) was confirmed in hexaploid Sequoia, the type of polyploidy in Sequoia has been further investigated for the past 70 years by a number of investigators, using cytogenetic and genetic data. Although an autoallohexaploid (AAAABB) origin of Sequoia has remained one of the dominant hypotheses until recently, an alternative hypothesis, amongst other possible origins, was also put forth by Ahuja and Neale (2002), that Sequoia may be partially diploidized autohexaploid (AAAAAA), derived from some ancestral species of Sequoia, thus carrying a single ancestral genome. Cytogenetic, molecular genetics, and genome sequence data now support the hypothesis that Sequoia originated as an autohexaploid.

Palabras clave

  • Coast redwood
  • Sequoia
  • Hexaploid
  • Type of polyploidy
  • Cytogenetics
  • Phylogenetics
  • Molecular genetics
  • Autohexaploid
  • Auto-allohexaploid
Acceso abierto

Characterisation of nuclear microsatellite markers for Fraxinus excelsior L. and their transferability to six related species

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 65 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is an economically and ecologically important tree species in Europe acutely threatened by ash dieback. Here, we present a new set of Simple Sequence Repeat markers for F. excelsior and six related ash species based on published in silico designed primers. Forty SSR markers, mainly from genic regions, were tested for amplification and polymorphism and characterized in two ash populations in Germany. Transferability of polymorphic markers to six related Fraxinus species (F. angustifolia, F. ornus, F. quadrangulata, F. pennsylvanica, F. americana and F. biltmoreana) was also assessed. Eighteen markers, predominantly from genic regions including three markers closely linked to candidate genes for ash dieback, were successfully amplified and polymorphic in F. excelsior, of which between 10 to 17 were transferable to one of the six related species. High genetic diversity was found in the two ash populations (Na = 7.8 and 6.9, He = 0.71 and 0.68), while low genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.025) was observed. The newly characterised SSR markers extend the set of genetic markers available for F. excelsior and six other ash species for future studies on the genetic diversity and structure of ash populations.

Palabras clave

  • European ash
  • ash dieback
  • ADB
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic structure
  • transferability
  • nSSRs
  • ESTs
  • marker development
  • genomic resources
Acceso abierto

Productivity, adaptability, and stability in Guazuma crinita progeny tests across three environments in the Aguaytia River Basin, Ucayali, Perú

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 72 - 80

Resumen

Abstract

Guazuma crinita is a fast-growing tree with potential for use in agroforestry systems, due to its rapid wood production, which can contribute significantly to the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in the Peruvian Amazon. However, indiscriminate logging due to high demand is leading to the disappearance of natural forests. As such, the International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) began a domestication program to reduce pressure on natural populations of the species. The objective of the present study was to use analyses of genetic parameters, adaptability (PRVG), productivity (MHPRVG), and stability (MHVG), to select G. crinita genotypes from a three-year-old progeny test established in the Aguaytía River Basin, in Ucayali, Peru. The test was established in three different sites, with three blocks, 200 progeny per block, and two individuals per plot. The measured traits were diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H), and total aerial biomass (B). Significant differences in traits between progenies were detected, but with no genotype x environment interaction (GxE). However, the genotypic correlation among sites was important (> 0.702), suggesting that genetic improvement is possible by selecting the same progeny across sites. The mean heritability among progenies was moderate for all traits (0.34–0.369) and selective precision through combined site analysis was relatively high (0.583–0.608). Based on selection for DBH through combined analysis, MHVG, PRVG, and MHPRVG, 50 superior progenies (25.9 %) were identified for all environments. These should be prioritized in breeding programs as they can offer stable genetic variability for future selection cycles.

Palabras clave

  • Biomass
  • G x E interaction
  • native tree species
  • plantations
  • tree improvement
  • White Bolaina
Acceso abierto

Growth performance of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) clones in planted forests under different managements in Galicia, NW Spain

Publicado en línea: 19 Sep 2022
Páginas: 81 - 87

Resumen

Abstract

Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is one of the main valuable temperate broadleaved species from Europe considering the market appreciation of their timber. In the present study we analyzed the growth performance of different wild cherry clones under different management treatments. A field trial was settled in Bosques Naturales S.A. “Sendelle” forests (Arzúa, Galicia, NW Spain) with a multifactorial design to analyze the effect of clones (4 clones), pruning intensity (33 % and 50 % of total height) and fertilization (3 treatments). It was monitored for 8 years. Clone was found out to be the most important variable in this study while tree growth was neither significantly affected by the pruning intensity nor the fertilization treatments. Clone selection is highlighted as a key issue in wild cherry commercial planted forests for timber production and the selected C-15 clone shows an excellent field performance compared to other clones based on the trial and the literature, reaching a DBH of 14 cm after eight years.

Palabras clave

  • clone
  • clonal forestry
  • forest plantations
  • valuable broadleaved
  • Prunus avium
  • wild cherry

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