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Volumen 7 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 6 (2021): Edición 1 (January 2021)

Volumen 5 (2020): Edición 1 (January 2020)

Volumen 4 (2019): Edición 1 (June 2019)

Volumen 3 (2018): Edición 1 (December 2018)

Volumen 2 (2017): Edición 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 2 (2017): Edición 1 (June 2017)

Volumen 1 (2016): Edición 2 (December 2016)

Volumen 1 (2016): Edición 1 (June 2016)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-4292
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
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Inglés

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Volumen 7 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-4292
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

15 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Extended Feedback Linearisation Control of Non-ideal DCDC Buck Converter in Continuous-conduction Mode

Publicado en línea: 31 Jan 2022
Páginas: 1 - 8

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents an extended form of Feedback Linearisation Control (FBLC), which is tested in a non-ideal buck converter in Continuous-conduction Mode (CCM). The FBLC is often used in power electronics to control a non-linear system, due to its advantageous properties. The application of the error integrator shows better steady-state and transient properties, such as a decrease of inrush current. The linearised system has been controlled by the pole placement and the technique is illustrated through an example and simulated via Matlab. The results have been compared by using a classical PID controller, allowing the benefits of FBLC to be highlighted.

Palabras clave

  • DC/DC buck converter
  • feedback linearisation
  • inrush current
  • parasitic
  • Ackermann
Acceso abierto

A Comprehensive Overview of the Impacting Factors on a Lithium-Ion-Battery’s Overall Efficiency

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 9 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

This comprehensive overview of the impacting factors on lithium-ion-battery’s (LIB) overall efficiency presents the most relevant influencing factors on a battery’s performance. Dissected into their respective short-term and long-term influences, the working principles behind the efficiency influencing factors are presented. With a strong focus on battery characterisation, charge-profiles and battery management systems (BMSs), the authors present results of their own practical research with a detailed literary analysis, allowing a broad coverage of the complex topic. Finally, the authors present a principle model that indicates the interactions between the different involved components of the battery.

Palabras clave

  • battery simulation
  • battery efficiencies
  • component analysis
  • simulation technologies
  • battery analysis
Acceso abierto

Quantitative Reliability Evaluation of Silicon Carbide-Based Inverters for Multiphase Electric Drives for Electric Vehicles

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 29 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

Reliability of power converter in the electric drivetrain of a vehicle can be a criterion for the comparison of various converter topologies, cooling system designs and control strategies. Therefore, reliability prediction is important for the design and control of vehicles. This paper presents an approach for quantitative evaluation of the reliability of converters for multiphase motor drives for electric vehicles (EVs) after considering the driving cycle. This paper provides a good background of reliability quantification so that it is easy to extend the presented approach to other applications. The models of subsystems have been selected to have excellent computational efficiency with good accuracy which is necessary for simulating long driving cycles. A simple vehicle model is used to obtain the traction motor torque demand for various points of the driving cycle. A multiphase interior permanent magnet synchronous motor has been used for traction motor. The operating voltage and currents of the motor are found using maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control of IPMSM. The analytical loss calculation has been used to find the losses of switching devices of the converter. A thermal model of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET has been used to calculate junction temperature from the losses. The model developed here gives the failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) of switching devices of the inverter, which can be used to determine the failure rate. The model has been used to find the transition probabilities of a Markov model which can be used to quantify the reliability of converters of multiphase electric drives.

Palabras clave

  • electric vehicle
  • fault tolerance
  • Markov models
  • multiphase electric drive
  • reliability
Acceso abierto

Performance Evaluation of BB-QZSI-Based DSTATCOMUnder Dynamic Load Condition

Publicado en línea: 31 Mar 2022
Páginas: 43 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the shunt compensation performance of quasi-Z-source inverter (QZSI) and back to back connected QZSIs (BB-QZSI) to address the power quality (PQ) issues in the three-phase three-wire power utility network (PUN). Generally, these PQ issues are poor voltage regulation, low power factor (PF), source current distortion, unbalanced voltage, etc. The proposed BBQZSI-based distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) consists of two QZSIs with a common dc-link capacitor. Because the QZSI could achieve buck/boost conversion as well as DC to AC inversion in a single-stage and the back to back configuration decreases the system down time cost (if a fault occurs in one QZSI the other can continue the shunt compensation). Particularly, icos ϕ control algorithmcontrol algorithm is implemented to generate proper switching pulses for the switches of DSTATCOM. The effectiveness of the BB-QZSI is verified through simulation studies over QZSI using MATLAB/Simulink software satisfying the recommended grid code.

Palabras clave

  • BB-QZSI
  • DSTATCOM
  • icos ϕ control algorithm
  • PUN
Acceso abierto

Charging and Discharging Strategies for Clustered Regional Energy Storage System

Publicado en línea: 31 Mar 2022
Páginas: 56 - 67

Resumen

Abstract

With the massive expansion of decentralised renewable energy in electricity grid networks, the power supply system has been changed from centralised to decentralised one and from directional to bi-directional one. However, due to the regional energy structure difference in the power imbalance between electricity generation and consumption is becoming more and more serious. A grid-scale energy storage system (ESS) can be one solution to balance the local difference. In this paper, two charging/discharging strategies for the grid-scale ESS were proposed to decide when and with how much power to charge/discharge the ESS. In order to realise the two strategies, this paper focuses on the application of fuzzy logic control system. The proposed strategies aim to reduce the peak power generation, consumption and the grid fluctuation. In particular, this paper analysis the ratio between energy-capacity and rated power of ESS. The performance of the proposed strategies is evaluated from two aspects, the normalised power of ESS itself and the influence on the power grid. Simulation studies were carried out on the rule-based control systems with different energy-to-power (e2p) ratios, and the results show that the proposed charging strategy with combination of extreme situation of power imbalance and the rest capacity of ESS provides a smooth load curve for the regional power grid system while the external power exchange is reduced effectively.

Palabras clave

  • charging/discharging strategies
  • energy storage system
  • energy-to-power ratio
  • fuzzy logic control
Acceso abierto

A Hybrid Energy Storage System with Reconfigurability and Fast Equalisation

Publicado en línea: 29 Apr 2022
Páginas: 68 - 83

Resumen

Abstract

With the rapid growth of electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years, the research on their energy storage systems (ESSs) has also shown great popularity. A traditional ESS normally has a fixed configuration and uses a single type of energy storage unit. However, this traditional design has some limitations, such as low flexibility and high requirements to unit consistency. To solve these problems, a new hybrid energy storage system is proposed in this paper. The proposed ESS hybridises multiple lithium-ion battery modules and one supercapacitor module. By controlling the states of switches inside the ESS topology, module level reconfiguration can be achieved. Further, a DC/DC converter is also included in the ESS topology, which is connected to the supercapacitor module and can be used to ensure correct ESS output voltage. Reconfiguration and active balancing algorithms are also given based on the proposed ESS topology. Situations with and without bypassing the lithium-ion battery modules are both discussed in the algorithms. The proposed hybrid ESS is finally verified with simulations. The system model is built in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. Simulation results show that the lithium-ion modules with a lower state of charge values have higher priorities to be connected in parallel. Reconfiguration actions are able to balance all lithium-ion battery modules within one Worldwide Harmonised Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) simulation cycle while maintaining ESS output voltage within a correct range. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid ESS control algorithms remain valid when one lithium-ion battery module is manually bypassed during simulation.

Palabras clave

  • energy storage systems
  • reconfiguration
  • active balancing
  • electric vehicles
Acceso abierto

Three-level Vienna Rectifier with a Brushless and Permanent Magnetless Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Publicado en línea: 29 Apr 2022
Páginas: 84 - 102

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a system design and control technique for a newly developed brushless and permanent magnetless synchronous generator-based variable-speed wind energy generation system, transferring power to a constant voltage dc grid via a three-level Vienna rectifier (VR). The recently established generator named Brushless Induction excited Synchronous Generator (BINSYG) is a wound field synchronous generator (WFSG), whose excitation is developed by controlling an Induction Machine fitted to the same machine structure and sharing the same magnetic core. A new controller is proposed that ensures the stable operation of BINSYG for a wide variation of shaft speeds. VR achieves sinusoidal input current and can control the power factor at its input, which is particularly suitable for wind energy applications. The top and bottom capacitor voltages of the VR are balanced using redundant switching combinations. The system with its proposed control algorithm is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink for a 5 kW rated BINSYG feeding power to a 750 V dc grid. The steady-state and dynamic state simulation results are presented and the controller performance is verified for a wide range of wind speeds. Further, real-time results using the OPAL-RT testbed are presented for the same system to verify the effectiveness of the overall control strategy.

Palabras clave

  • brushless and magnetless Synchronous Generator
  • maximum power point
  • unity power factor
  • Vienna Rectifier
  • Wind Energy Conversion System
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Power Supply Influence on the Universal Motor

Publicado en línea: 31 May 2022
Páginas: 103 - 111

Resumen

Abstract

Due to their advantageous properties, universal motors are widely used in various applications and can be operated with both AC and DC voltage. Between main advantages of universal motors are their high starting torque, very compact design and high operating speed. In terms of the wide use of the universal motor, we want to analyze the impact of DC and AC power supply on the universal motor in this article. As part of the analysis, measurements were made of the influence of the AC/DC supply on the speed, torque, efficiency and electromagnetic radiation of the motor. At the end of the paper, the results of measurements on a universal motor with DC and AC power supply are presented.

Palabras clave

  • measurement
  • analysis
  • power supply
  • universal motor
Acceso abierto

Stator Winding Fault Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on the Short-Time Fourier Transform

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2022
Páginas: 112 - 133

Resumen

Abstract

In modern drive systems, the high-efficient permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have become one of the most substantial components. Nevertheless, such machines are exposed to various types of faults. Hence, on-line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of PMSMs have become necessary. One of the most common PMSM faults is the stator winding fault. Due to the destructive character of this failure, it is necessary to use fault diagnostic methods that allow fault detection at its early stage. The article presents the results of experimental studies obtained from fast Fourier transform (FFT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of the stator phase current, stator phase current envelope and stator phase current space vector module. The superiority of the proposed method over the classical approach based on the stator current analysis using FFT is highlighted. The proposed solution is experimentally verified under various motor operating conditions. The application of STFT analysis discussed so far in the literature has been limited to the fault diagnosis of induction motors and the narrow range of the analysed motor operating conditions. Moreover, there are no works in the field of motor diagnostics dealing with STFT analysis for stator windings based on the stator current envelope and the stator current space vector module.

Palabras clave

  • faults diagnosis
  • condition monitoring
  • inter-turn short circuit
  • permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • short-time Fourier transform
Acceso abierto

Automated UAV to Survey and Monitor Ionising Radiation Levels in a Closed Environment

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2022
Páginas: 134 - 145

Resumen

Abstract

Since tragedies caused by nuclear disasters are always a concern, it is essential that nuclear power plants be monitored on a regular basis for any irregularities in ionising radiation levels. Irrespective of leakage proof measures being deployed in the plant, ensuring the safety of these measures is necessary. Given this scenario, the present study proposes the usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to ensure that radiation levels in nuclear plants remain within safe limits. The UAV deployed will map the entire environment following a unique path planning algorithm and monitor the environment with an onboard radiation sensor. If any irregularities are detected, the positional coordinates are flagged, and the A* algorithm is implemented to generate the shortest path between the starting point, and the flagged coordinates, which are considered as the destination coordinates. The UAV is made to traverse the shortest path together with maintaining stability of the system while traversing.

Palabras clave

  • unmanned aerial vehicle
  • indoor SLAM
  • sensor data
  • disaster management robots
  • path planning
  • obstacle avoidance
Acceso abierto

An Analysis of a Transformerless Dual Active Half-Bridge Converter

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2022
Páginas: 146 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a transformerless dual half-bridge converter (TLDAHB). By eliminating the transformer and harnessing the possibility of using a low inductor value, it is possible to minimise the size of the converter. A phase-shift pulse width modulation will result in a wide controlled voltage gain of the converter and operation as buck and boost. The theoretical topology analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented. Theoretical analysis consists of analysis of power transfer and design. In case of experimental research, particular attention was paid to power transfer and efficiency analysis. Near zero switching transient of voltage in the half-bridge topology results with high efficiency.

Palabras clave

  • DC-DC converter
  • bidirectional converter
  • phase-shift control
  • zero voltage transient
Acceso abierto

Sliding Mode Control-Based MPPT and Output Voltage Regulation of a Stand-alone PV System

Publicado en línea: 31 Aug 2022
Páginas: 159 - 173

Resumen

Abstract

When it comes to reducing emissions caused by the generation of electricity, among different renewable energy sources, the solar energy gains prominence, due to its geographical availability, simplicity of implementation, and absence of physical moving parts. However, the performance of photovoltaic systems is dependent on environmental conditions. Depending on temperature and solar irradiation, the photovoltaic (PV) system has an operating point where maximum power can be generated. The techniques that are implemented to find this operating point are the so-called maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. Since weather conditions are variable in nature, the output voltage of the PV system needs to be regulated to remain equal to the reference. Most of the existing studies focus either on MPPT or on voltage regulation of the PV system. In this paper, the two-stage PV system is implemented so that both MPPT and voltage regulation are achieved simultaneously. Additionally, an improved version of the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm based on artificial potential fields (APF), called APF-P&O, is presented. According to the results of the simulations carried out in MATLAB/Simulink software, the APF-P&O method is more efficient than the conventional method.

Palabras clave

  • sliding mode control
  • PV systems
  • MPPT
  • APF-P&O
  • voltage regulation
Acceso abierto

VSC-Based DSTATCOM for PQ Improvement: A Deep-Learning Approach

Publicado en línea: 31 Aug 2022
Páginas: 174 - 186

Resumen

Abstract

With the rapid advancement of the technology, deep learning supported voltage source converter (VSC)-based distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) for power quality (PQ) improvement has attracted significant interest due to its high accuracy. In this paper, six subnets are structured for the proposed deep learning approach (DL-Approach) algorithm by using its own mathematical equations. Three subnets for active and the other three for reactive weight components are used to extract the fundamental component of the load current. These updated weights are utilised for the generation of the reference source currents for VSC. Hysteresis current controllers (HCCs) are employed in each phase in which generated switching signal patterns need to be carried out from both predicted reference source current and actual source current. As a result, the proposed technique achieves better dynamic performance, less computation burden and better estimation speed. Consequently, the results were obtained for different loading conditions using MATLAB/Simulink software. Finally, the feasibility was effective as per the benchmark of IEEE guidelines in response to harmonics curtailment, power factor (p.f) improvement, load balancing and voltage regulation.

Palabras clave

  • DL-Approach
  • DSTATCOM
  • ALMS and PQ
Acceso abierto

Influence of the Expected Wind Speed Fluctuation on the Number of Batteries of the Balancing System

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 187 - 196

Resumen

Abstract

The article discusses a method of assessing the of dependence of the number of batteries that would be needed to achieve energy balance in distributed generation systems with wind turbines on ambient temperature and on the error involved in predicting the parameters of wind flow (wind speed). To describe the relationship between current rate and capacity in a given current range, Peukert’s law is used. Dependence of the Peukert’s constant on ambient temperature for the lead-acid battery HZB12-180FA is calculated. Taking the lead-acid battery and wind turbine VE-2 as a reference, dependence of area of controlled operation of the battery on the wind speed forecasting error is calculated. The technique of considering ambient temperature, depth of discharge, and wind speed forecasting error when deciding the size of energy storage of the balancing system (the number of batteries and their capacity) is provided. A family of curves representing the dependence of the number of batteries constituting the balancing system on the ambient temperature and the wind speed forecasting error are presented. It is shown that as the wind speed forecasting error increases from 0% to 15% and the ambient temperature decreases from 20 °C to 20 °C, the number of batteries should be increased by approximately 2.81 times in order to maintain the same area of controlled operation of a battery.

Palabras clave

  • battery
  • Peukert’s law
  • optimal sizing
  • forecasting
Acceso abierto

Single-source three-phase switched-capacitor-based MLI

Publicado en línea: 25 Sep 2022
Páginas: 197 - 209

Resumen

Abstract

This article proposes a novel three-phase inverter based on the concept of switched capacitors (SCs), which uses a single DC source. A three-phase, seven-level line-to-line output voltage waveform is synthesised by the proposed topology, which includes eight switches, two capacitors, and one diode per phase leg. The proposed topology offers advantages in terms of inherent voltage gain, lower voltage stresses on power switches, and a reduced number of switching components. Additionally, the switched capacitors are self-balanced, thereby eliminating the need for a separate balancing circuit. The proposed structure and its operating principle, the self-balancing mechanism of the capacitors, and the control strategy are all thoroughly explained in the article. The proposed topology has also been compared with some recent SC topologies. Lastly, the proposed topology has been shown to be feasible through simulation and experimentation.

Palabras clave

  • multilevel inverter
  • switched capacitors
  • multicarrier pulse width modulation
  • cost function
  • ANPC inverter
15 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Extended Feedback Linearisation Control of Non-ideal DCDC Buck Converter in Continuous-conduction Mode

Publicado en línea: 31 Jan 2022
Páginas: 1 - 8

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents an extended form of Feedback Linearisation Control (FBLC), which is tested in a non-ideal buck converter in Continuous-conduction Mode (CCM). The FBLC is often used in power electronics to control a non-linear system, due to its advantageous properties. The application of the error integrator shows better steady-state and transient properties, such as a decrease of inrush current. The linearised system has been controlled by the pole placement and the technique is illustrated through an example and simulated via Matlab. The results have been compared by using a classical PID controller, allowing the benefits of FBLC to be highlighted.

Palabras clave

  • DC/DC buck converter
  • feedback linearisation
  • inrush current
  • parasitic
  • Ackermann
Acceso abierto

A Comprehensive Overview of the Impacting Factors on a Lithium-Ion-Battery’s Overall Efficiency

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 9 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

This comprehensive overview of the impacting factors on lithium-ion-battery’s (LIB) overall efficiency presents the most relevant influencing factors on a battery’s performance. Dissected into their respective short-term and long-term influences, the working principles behind the efficiency influencing factors are presented. With a strong focus on battery characterisation, charge-profiles and battery management systems (BMSs), the authors present results of their own practical research with a detailed literary analysis, allowing a broad coverage of the complex topic. Finally, the authors present a principle model that indicates the interactions between the different involved components of the battery.

Palabras clave

  • battery simulation
  • battery efficiencies
  • component analysis
  • simulation technologies
  • battery analysis
Acceso abierto

Quantitative Reliability Evaluation of Silicon Carbide-Based Inverters for Multiphase Electric Drives for Electric Vehicles

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2022
Páginas: 29 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

Reliability of power converter in the electric drivetrain of a vehicle can be a criterion for the comparison of various converter topologies, cooling system designs and control strategies. Therefore, reliability prediction is important for the design and control of vehicles. This paper presents an approach for quantitative evaluation of the reliability of converters for multiphase motor drives for electric vehicles (EVs) after considering the driving cycle. This paper provides a good background of reliability quantification so that it is easy to extend the presented approach to other applications. The models of subsystems have been selected to have excellent computational efficiency with good accuracy which is necessary for simulating long driving cycles. A simple vehicle model is used to obtain the traction motor torque demand for various points of the driving cycle. A multiphase interior permanent magnet synchronous motor has been used for traction motor. The operating voltage and currents of the motor are found using maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control of IPMSM. The analytical loss calculation has been used to find the losses of switching devices of the converter. A thermal model of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET has been used to calculate junction temperature from the losses. The model developed here gives the failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) of switching devices of the inverter, which can be used to determine the failure rate. The model has been used to find the transition probabilities of a Markov model which can be used to quantify the reliability of converters of multiphase electric drives.

Palabras clave

  • electric vehicle
  • fault tolerance
  • Markov models
  • multiphase electric drive
  • reliability
Acceso abierto

Performance Evaluation of BB-QZSI-Based DSTATCOMUnder Dynamic Load Condition

Publicado en línea: 31 Mar 2022
Páginas: 43 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the shunt compensation performance of quasi-Z-source inverter (QZSI) and back to back connected QZSIs (BB-QZSI) to address the power quality (PQ) issues in the three-phase three-wire power utility network (PUN). Generally, these PQ issues are poor voltage regulation, low power factor (PF), source current distortion, unbalanced voltage, etc. The proposed BBQZSI-based distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) consists of two QZSIs with a common dc-link capacitor. Because the QZSI could achieve buck/boost conversion as well as DC to AC inversion in a single-stage and the back to back configuration decreases the system down time cost (if a fault occurs in one QZSI the other can continue the shunt compensation). Particularly, icos ϕ control algorithmcontrol algorithm is implemented to generate proper switching pulses for the switches of DSTATCOM. The effectiveness of the BB-QZSI is verified through simulation studies over QZSI using MATLAB/Simulink software satisfying the recommended grid code.

Palabras clave

  • BB-QZSI
  • DSTATCOM
  • icos ϕ control algorithm
  • PUN
Acceso abierto

Charging and Discharging Strategies for Clustered Regional Energy Storage System

Publicado en línea: 31 Mar 2022
Páginas: 56 - 67

Resumen

Abstract

With the massive expansion of decentralised renewable energy in electricity grid networks, the power supply system has been changed from centralised to decentralised one and from directional to bi-directional one. However, due to the regional energy structure difference in the power imbalance between electricity generation and consumption is becoming more and more serious. A grid-scale energy storage system (ESS) can be one solution to balance the local difference. In this paper, two charging/discharging strategies for the grid-scale ESS were proposed to decide when and with how much power to charge/discharge the ESS. In order to realise the two strategies, this paper focuses on the application of fuzzy logic control system. The proposed strategies aim to reduce the peak power generation, consumption and the grid fluctuation. In particular, this paper analysis the ratio between energy-capacity and rated power of ESS. The performance of the proposed strategies is evaluated from two aspects, the normalised power of ESS itself and the influence on the power grid. Simulation studies were carried out on the rule-based control systems with different energy-to-power (e2p) ratios, and the results show that the proposed charging strategy with combination of extreme situation of power imbalance and the rest capacity of ESS provides a smooth load curve for the regional power grid system while the external power exchange is reduced effectively.

Palabras clave

  • charging/discharging strategies
  • energy storage system
  • energy-to-power ratio
  • fuzzy logic control
Acceso abierto

A Hybrid Energy Storage System with Reconfigurability and Fast Equalisation

Publicado en línea: 29 Apr 2022
Páginas: 68 - 83

Resumen

Abstract

With the rapid growth of electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years, the research on their energy storage systems (ESSs) has also shown great popularity. A traditional ESS normally has a fixed configuration and uses a single type of energy storage unit. However, this traditional design has some limitations, such as low flexibility and high requirements to unit consistency. To solve these problems, a new hybrid energy storage system is proposed in this paper. The proposed ESS hybridises multiple lithium-ion battery modules and one supercapacitor module. By controlling the states of switches inside the ESS topology, module level reconfiguration can be achieved. Further, a DC/DC converter is also included in the ESS topology, which is connected to the supercapacitor module and can be used to ensure correct ESS output voltage. Reconfiguration and active balancing algorithms are also given based on the proposed ESS topology. Situations with and without bypassing the lithium-ion battery modules are both discussed in the algorithms. The proposed hybrid ESS is finally verified with simulations. The system model is built in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. Simulation results show that the lithium-ion modules with a lower state of charge values have higher priorities to be connected in parallel. Reconfiguration actions are able to balance all lithium-ion battery modules within one Worldwide Harmonised Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) simulation cycle while maintaining ESS output voltage within a correct range. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid ESS control algorithms remain valid when one lithium-ion battery module is manually bypassed during simulation.

Palabras clave

  • energy storage systems
  • reconfiguration
  • active balancing
  • electric vehicles
Acceso abierto

Three-level Vienna Rectifier with a Brushless and Permanent Magnetless Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Publicado en línea: 29 Apr 2022
Páginas: 84 - 102

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a system design and control technique for a newly developed brushless and permanent magnetless synchronous generator-based variable-speed wind energy generation system, transferring power to a constant voltage dc grid via a three-level Vienna rectifier (VR). The recently established generator named Brushless Induction excited Synchronous Generator (BINSYG) is a wound field synchronous generator (WFSG), whose excitation is developed by controlling an Induction Machine fitted to the same machine structure and sharing the same magnetic core. A new controller is proposed that ensures the stable operation of BINSYG for a wide variation of shaft speeds. VR achieves sinusoidal input current and can control the power factor at its input, which is particularly suitable for wind energy applications. The top and bottom capacitor voltages of the VR are balanced using redundant switching combinations. The system with its proposed control algorithm is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink for a 5 kW rated BINSYG feeding power to a 750 V dc grid. The steady-state and dynamic state simulation results are presented and the controller performance is verified for a wide range of wind speeds. Further, real-time results using the OPAL-RT testbed are presented for the same system to verify the effectiveness of the overall control strategy.

Palabras clave

  • brushless and magnetless Synchronous Generator
  • maximum power point
  • unity power factor
  • Vienna Rectifier
  • Wind Energy Conversion System
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Power Supply Influence on the Universal Motor

Publicado en línea: 31 May 2022
Páginas: 103 - 111

Resumen

Abstract

Due to their advantageous properties, universal motors are widely used in various applications and can be operated with both AC and DC voltage. Between main advantages of universal motors are their high starting torque, very compact design and high operating speed. In terms of the wide use of the universal motor, we want to analyze the impact of DC and AC power supply on the universal motor in this article. As part of the analysis, measurements were made of the influence of the AC/DC supply on the speed, torque, efficiency and electromagnetic radiation of the motor. At the end of the paper, the results of measurements on a universal motor with DC and AC power supply are presented.

Palabras clave

  • measurement
  • analysis
  • power supply
  • universal motor
Acceso abierto

Stator Winding Fault Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on the Short-Time Fourier Transform

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2022
Páginas: 112 - 133

Resumen

Abstract

In modern drive systems, the high-efficient permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have become one of the most substantial components. Nevertheless, such machines are exposed to various types of faults. Hence, on-line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of PMSMs have become necessary. One of the most common PMSM faults is the stator winding fault. Due to the destructive character of this failure, it is necessary to use fault diagnostic methods that allow fault detection at its early stage. The article presents the results of experimental studies obtained from fast Fourier transform (FFT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of the stator phase current, stator phase current envelope and stator phase current space vector module. The superiority of the proposed method over the classical approach based on the stator current analysis using FFT is highlighted. The proposed solution is experimentally verified under various motor operating conditions. The application of STFT analysis discussed so far in the literature has been limited to the fault diagnosis of induction motors and the narrow range of the analysed motor operating conditions. Moreover, there are no works in the field of motor diagnostics dealing with STFT analysis for stator windings based on the stator current envelope and the stator current space vector module.

Palabras clave

  • faults diagnosis
  • condition monitoring
  • inter-turn short circuit
  • permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • short-time Fourier transform
Acceso abierto

Automated UAV to Survey and Monitor Ionising Radiation Levels in a Closed Environment

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2022
Páginas: 134 - 145

Resumen

Abstract

Since tragedies caused by nuclear disasters are always a concern, it is essential that nuclear power plants be monitored on a regular basis for any irregularities in ionising radiation levels. Irrespective of leakage proof measures being deployed in the plant, ensuring the safety of these measures is necessary. Given this scenario, the present study proposes the usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to ensure that radiation levels in nuclear plants remain within safe limits. The UAV deployed will map the entire environment following a unique path planning algorithm and monitor the environment with an onboard radiation sensor. If any irregularities are detected, the positional coordinates are flagged, and the A* algorithm is implemented to generate the shortest path between the starting point, and the flagged coordinates, which are considered as the destination coordinates. The UAV is made to traverse the shortest path together with maintaining stability of the system while traversing.

Palabras clave

  • unmanned aerial vehicle
  • indoor SLAM
  • sensor data
  • disaster management robots
  • path planning
  • obstacle avoidance
Acceso abierto

An Analysis of a Transformerless Dual Active Half-Bridge Converter

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2022
Páginas: 146 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a transformerless dual half-bridge converter (TLDAHB). By eliminating the transformer and harnessing the possibility of using a low inductor value, it is possible to minimise the size of the converter. A phase-shift pulse width modulation will result in a wide controlled voltage gain of the converter and operation as buck and boost. The theoretical topology analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented. Theoretical analysis consists of analysis of power transfer and design. In case of experimental research, particular attention was paid to power transfer and efficiency analysis. Near zero switching transient of voltage in the half-bridge topology results with high efficiency.

Palabras clave

  • DC-DC converter
  • bidirectional converter
  • phase-shift control
  • zero voltage transient
Acceso abierto

Sliding Mode Control-Based MPPT and Output Voltage Regulation of a Stand-alone PV System

Publicado en línea: 31 Aug 2022
Páginas: 159 - 173

Resumen

Abstract

When it comes to reducing emissions caused by the generation of electricity, among different renewable energy sources, the solar energy gains prominence, due to its geographical availability, simplicity of implementation, and absence of physical moving parts. However, the performance of photovoltaic systems is dependent on environmental conditions. Depending on temperature and solar irradiation, the photovoltaic (PV) system has an operating point where maximum power can be generated. The techniques that are implemented to find this operating point are the so-called maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. Since weather conditions are variable in nature, the output voltage of the PV system needs to be regulated to remain equal to the reference. Most of the existing studies focus either on MPPT or on voltage regulation of the PV system. In this paper, the two-stage PV system is implemented so that both MPPT and voltage regulation are achieved simultaneously. Additionally, an improved version of the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm based on artificial potential fields (APF), called APF-P&O, is presented. According to the results of the simulations carried out in MATLAB/Simulink software, the APF-P&O method is more efficient than the conventional method.

Palabras clave

  • sliding mode control
  • PV systems
  • MPPT
  • APF-P&O
  • voltage regulation
Acceso abierto

VSC-Based DSTATCOM for PQ Improvement: A Deep-Learning Approach

Publicado en línea: 31 Aug 2022
Páginas: 174 - 186

Resumen

Abstract

With the rapid advancement of the technology, deep learning supported voltage source converter (VSC)-based distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) for power quality (PQ) improvement has attracted significant interest due to its high accuracy. In this paper, six subnets are structured for the proposed deep learning approach (DL-Approach) algorithm by using its own mathematical equations. Three subnets for active and the other three for reactive weight components are used to extract the fundamental component of the load current. These updated weights are utilised for the generation of the reference source currents for VSC. Hysteresis current controllers (HCCs) are employed in each phase in which generated switching signal patterns need to be carried out from both predicted reference source current and actual source current. As a result, the proposed technique achieves better dynamic performance, less computation burden and better estimation speed. Consequently, the results were obtained for different loading conditions using MATLAB/Simulink software. Finally, the feasibility was effective as per the benchmark of IEEE guidelines in response to harmonics curtailment, power factor (p.f) improvement, load balancing and voltage regulation.

Palabras clave

  • DL-Approach
  • DSTATCOM
  • ALMS and PQ
Acceso abierto

Influence of the Expected Wind Speed Fluctuation on the Number of Batteries of the Balancing System

Publicado en línea: 15 Sep 2022
Páginas: 187 - 196

Resumen

Abstract

The article discusses a method of assessing the of dependence of the number of batteries that would be needed to achieve energy balance in distributed generation systems with wind turbines on ambient temperature and on the error involved in predicting the parameters of wind flow (wind speed). To describe the relationship between current rate and capacity in a given current range, Peukert’s law is used. Dependence of the Peukert’s constant on ambient temperature for the lead-acid battery HZB12-180FA is calculated. Taking the lead-acid battery and wind turbine VE-2 as a reference, dependence of area of controlled operation of the battery on the wind speed forecasting error is calculated. The technique of considering ambient temperature, depth of discharge, and wind speed forecasting error when deciding the size of energy storage of the balancing system (the number of batteries and their capacity) is provided. A family of curves representing the dependence of the number of batteries constituting the balancing system on the ambient temperature and the wind speed forecasting error are presented. It is shown that as the wind speed forecasting error increases from 0% to 15% and the ambient temperature decreases from 20 °C to 20 °C, the number of batteries should be increased by approximately 2.81 times in order to maintain the same area of controlled operation of a battery.

Palabras clave

  • battery
  • Peukert’s law
  • optimal sizing
  • forecasting
Acceso abierto

Single-source three-phase switched-capacitor-based MLI

Publicado en línea: 25 Sep 2022
Páginas: 197 - 209

Resumen

Abstract

This article proposes a novel three-phase inverter based on the concept of switched capacitors (SCs), which uses a single DC source. A three-phase, seven-level line-to-line output voltage waveform is synthesised by the proposed topology, which includes eight switches, two capacitors, and one diode per phase leg. The proposed topology offers advantages in terms of inherent voltage gain, lower voltage stresses on power switches, and a reduced number of switching components. Additionally, the switched capacitors are self-balanced, thereby eliminating the need for a separate balancing circuit. The proposed structure and its operating principle, the self-balancing mechanism of the capacitors, and the control strategy are all thoroughly explained in the article. The proposed topology has also been compared with some recent SC topologies. Lastly, the proposed topology has been shown to be feasible through simulation and experimentation.

Palabras clave

  • multilevel inverter
  • switched capacitors
  • multicarrier pulse width modulation
  • cost function
  • ANPC inverter

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