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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-4292
ISSN
2451-0262
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 4 (2019): Edición 1 (June 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-4292
ISSN
2451-0262
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2016
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

18 Artículos
Acceso abierto

A Review on Big Data Management and Decision-Making in Smart Grid

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 1 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Smart grid (SG) is the solution to solve existing problems of energy security from generation to utilization. Examples of such problems are disruptions in the electric grid and disturbances in the transmission. SG is a premium source of Big Data. The data should be processed to reveal hidden patterns and secret correlations to extrapolate the needed values. Such useful information obtained by the so-called data analytics is an essential element for energy management and control decision towards improving energy security, efficiency, and decreasing costs of energy use. For that reason, different techniques have been developed to process Big Data. This paper presents an overview of these techniques and discusses their advantages and challenges. The contribution of this paper is building a recommender system using different techniques to overcome the most obstacles encountering the Big Data processes in SG. The proposed system achieves the goals of the future SG by (i) analyzing data and executing values as accurately as possible, (ii) helping in decision-making to improve the efficiency of the grid, (iii) reducing cost and time, (iv) managing operating parameters, (v) allowing predicting and preventing equipment failures, and (vi) increasing customer satisfaction. Big Data process enables benefits that were never achieved for the SG application.

Palabras clave

  • Big Data
  • energy management
  • Big Data analytics
  • smart grid
  • decision-making
Acceso abierto

An Overview of Carrier-based Modulation Methods for Z-Source Inverter

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 15 - 31

Resumen

Abstract

Single-stage energy converters, in particular, the Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) or impedance source inverter, has gained significant attention in the recent years. ZSI ensures flexible energy conversions (dc–dc, dc–ac, ac–ac and ac–dc) because of its unique ability to boost the output voltage in typical renewable energy systems. The impedance network integrated between the energy source and the load contributes to the unique functionality of the ZSI. As substantial research has been conducted on the ZSI, this article provides a review on the operation of ZSI. The article initially examines the various topologies commonly adopted for the application of the ZSI. Subsequently, details of the various modulation methods that are commonly used to obtain the voltage boosting using ZSI are documented. Additionally, the phenomenon of neutral point formation, which is an important impediment to the adoption of multilevel ZSIs and the limitation of the modulation methods, is explained.

Palabras clave

  • ac–dc power conversion
  • impedance source inverter
  • modulation methods
  • shoot through
  • phase opposition disposition
  • reference disposition
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Transients in a Three-Level DC–DC Flying Capacitor Converter. Time Domain Approach

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 33 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The paper considers a discrete state-space model for transients in a three-level flying capacitor DC–DC converter. A transition matrix is obtained for a pulse width modulation (PWM) period. The matrix elements are expanded into a power series using a selected small parameter. The matrix eigenvalues that determine the natural balancing dynamics transients are presented in the form of power series as well. Four separate transients are constructed based on four possible PWM period initial states (topologies). Inductor current and capacitor voltage transients are found for the voltage source power-up as the arithmetic average of the four separate transients. The discrete solutions are replaced by continuous ones. The resulting transients that are elementary functions of the circuit parameters, PWM period, and voltage reference demonstrate good agreement with the simulation results.

Palabras clave

  • Three-level DC–DC converter
  • Flying capacitor
  • Transient
  • Natural balancing
Acceso abierto

Non-Cartesian Frame Transformation-Based Control of a Three-Phase Power Converter During Unbalanced Voltage Dip – Part I: Transformation Principles

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 47 - 61

Resumen

Abstract

One of the currently investigated problems in power electronics-based electrical energy conversion is proper operation of electronic converters during grid voltage imbalance and harmonics. In classic control methods, it introduces oscillations of variables, resulting in the necessity to improve control systems with signals filtration and usually by application of resonant terms as part of current controllers. The paper presents a new approach to grid-connected inverter control based on transformation to a non-Cartesian frame, the parameters of which are correlated with grid voltage asymmetry. The proposed method results in resignation from resonant terms used as controllers and their replacement with proportional–integral terms for which anti-wind-up structures are significantly simpler than for oscillatory terms. The paper presents new transformation principles, features and some simulation results showing the waveforms of signals transformed to the new non-Cartesian frame.

Palabras clave

  • AC–DC power conversion
  • current control
  • Clarke’s transformation
Acceso abierto

Non-Cartesian Frame Transformation-Based Control of a Three-Phase Power Converter During Unbalanced Voltage Dip – Part II: Simulation And Experiment

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 63 - 77

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents a control method for the three-phase power converter operating under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. The method uses a new transformation to the non-Cartesian frame, which makes the controlled current vector components balanced in this frame even if originally the three-phase current is referenced as unbalanced. Furthermore, Park’s transformation makes the controlled variables constant, which allows to apply proportional–integral terms as current controllers independent of the required control target. Several control targets known from literature have been analyzed with regard to the required new transformation parameters, and the transformation parameters for all targets have been found. Simulation results are shown to prove the theoretical analysis, and the experimental test results are presented as practical validation of the proposed use of the non-Cartesian frame in control.

Palabras clave

  • AC–DC power conversion
  • current control
  • current limitation
Acceso abierto

Multiobjective Improved Particle Swarm Optimisation for Transmission Congestion and Voltage Profile Management using Multilevel UPFC

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 79 - 93

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a multiobjective improved particle swarm optimisation (IPSO) for placing and sizing the series modular multilevel converter-based unified power flow controller (MMC-UPFC) FACTS devices to manage the transmission congestion and voltage profile in deregulated electricity markets. The proposed multiobjective IPSO algorithm is perfect for accomplishing the close ideal distributed generation (DG) sizes while conveying smooth assembly qualities contrasted with another existing algorithm. It tends to be reasoned that voltage profile and genuine power misfortunes have generous upgrades along ideal speculation on DGs in both the test frameworks. The proposed system eliminates the congestion and the power system can be easily used to solve complex and non-linear optimisation problems in a real-time manner.

Palabras clave

  • Congestion
  • Unified power flow controller
  • Improved particle swarm optimisation
  • Modular multilevel converter
  • voltage profile
Acceso abierto

Derivation of Motor Mean Phase Currents in PMSM Drives Operating with Low Switching-to-Fundamental Frequency Ratio

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 95 - 102

Resumen

Abstract

Pulse width modulation (PWM) of inverter output voltage causes the waveforms of motor phase currents to consist of distinctive ripples. In order to provide suitable feedback for the motor current controllers, the mean value must be extracted from the currents’ waveforms in every PWM cycle. A common solution to derive the mean phase currents is to sample their value at the midpoint of a symmetrical PWM cycle. Using an assumption of linear current changes in steady PWM subintervals, this midpoint sample corresponds to the mean current in the PWM cycle. This way no hardware filtering or high-rate current sampling is required. Nevertheless, the assumption of linear current changes has been recently reported as over simplistic in permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives operating with low switching-to-fundamental frequency ratio (SFFR). This, in turn, causes substantial errors in the representation of the mean phase currents by the midpoint sample. This paper proposes a solution for deriving mean phase currents in low SFFR PMSM drives, which does not rely on the linear current change assumption. The method is based on sampling the currents at the start point of a PWM cycle and correcting the sampled value using a model-based formula that reproduces the current waveforms. Effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation for an exemplary setup of high-speed PMSM drive. The results show that the proposed method decreases the error of determining the mean phase currents approximately 10 times when compared to the classical midpoint sampling technique.

Palabras clave

  • Electric drives
  • High-speed drives
  • Current control
  • Current measurement
  • Permanent Magnet Synchronous Drives
  • Digital Signal Processing
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Direct Torque Control with pace Vector Modulation for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Motion Control Applications and a Comparison with Other Torque-Control Algorithms

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 103 - 113

Resumen

Abstract

Motion control is facing an increasing popularity in the present research activities. Owing to the expected wide spreading of motion control applications, it can be predicted that the advancements in the field of electric motor drives will have a high level of influence on the new results in the field of motion control. The synchronous reluctance motor drives mean an excellent and yet cost-effective solution for actuators in motion control applications. In this article, the direct torque control with space vector modulation is analysed as a possible candidate for synchronous reluctance motor motion control applications. Its torque-control performance is investigated as a function of torque-control sample time, and a comparison of the torque ripples is made with other torque-control algorithms by an FFT analysis.

Palabras clave

  • synchronous reluctance motor
  • electric drive
  • direct torque control
  • space vector modulation
  • frequency converter
  • motion control
  • current vector control
  • industrial drives
Acceso abierto

An Investigation of Direct Torque Control and Hysteresis Current Vector Control for Motion Control Synchronous Reluctance Motor Applications

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 115 - 124

Resumen

Abstract

Synchronous reluctance motor drives are one of the most attractive alternatives of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives and induction motor drives in the field of conventional industrial and household applications. This tendency is expected to be continued in the case of motion control applications as well. This article investigates two torque-control algorithms that are possible candidates for motion control synchronous reluctance motor applications. The examined torque-control algorithms are direct torque control (DTC) and hysteresis current vector control (HCVC).

Palabras clave

  • synchronous reluctance motor
  • electric drive
  • direct torque control
  • current vector control
  • frequency converter
  • motion control
  • industrial drives
Acceso abierto

A Very-Low-Speed Sensorless Control Induction Motor Drive with Online Rotor Resistance Tuning by Using MRAS Scheme

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 125 - 140

Resumen

Abstract

A sensorless indirect stator-flux-oriented control (ISFOC) induction motor drive at very low frequencies is presented herein. The model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme is used to estimate the speed and the rotor resistance simultaneously. However, the error between the reference and the adjustable models, which are developed in the stationary stator reference frame, is used to drive a suitable adaptation mechanism that generates the estimates of speed and the rotor resistance from the stator voltage and the machine current measurements. The stator flux components in the stationary reference frame are estimated through a pure integration of the back electro-motive force (EMF) of the machine. When the machine is operated at low speed, the pure integration of the back EMF introduces an error in flux estimation which affects the performance torque and speed control. To overcome this problem, pure integration is replaced with a programmable cascaded low-pass filter (PCLPF). The stability analysis method of the MRAS estimator is verified in order to show the robustness of the rotor resistance variations. Experimental results are presented to prove the effectiveness and validity of the proposed scheme of sensorless ISFOC induction motor drive.

Palabras clave

  • Induction motor
  • Stator flux orientation model
  • Model reference adaptive system (MRAS)
  • Rotor speed and resistance estimation
  • Programmable cascaded low-pass filters (PCLPF)
Acceso abierto

Novel Fuzzy-Based Self-Adaptive Single Neuron PID Load Frequency Controller for Power System

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 141 - 150

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a newly adaptive single-neuron proportional integral derivative (SNPID) controller that uses fuzzy logic as an adaptive system. The main problem of the classical controller is lacking the required robustness against disturbers, measurement noise in industrial applications. The new formula of the proposed controller helps in fixing this problem based on the fuzzy logic technique. In addition, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize parameters of the SNPID controller. Because of the high demands on the availability and efficiency of electrical power production, the design of robust load-frequency controller is becoming increasingly important due to its potential in increasing the reliability, maintainability and safety of power systems. So, the proposed controller has been applied for load-frequency control (LFC) of a single-area power system. The effectiveness of the proposed SNPID controller has been compared with the conventional controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed controller approach provides better damping of oscillations with a smaller settling time. This confirms its superiority against its counterparts. In addition, the results show the robustness of the proposed controller against the parametric variation of the system.

Palabras clave

  • Power system
  • Load frequency
  • Intelligent Control
  • PID
  • Single Neuron
Acceso abierto

Automated Guided Vehicles by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor: Future of In-house Logistics

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 151 - 159

Resumen

Abstract

Material handling and logistics management that involve transportation of work pieces on production floor are important aspects to manufacturing that affect productivity and efficiency. Tow vehicles that are manually driven are currently used for this purpose. These processes can be better performed through automation. Automated guided vehicle (AGV) is an apt solution. AGVs are unmanned autonomous vehicles that can be programmed to perform versatile tasks. AGVs available in market are imported and hence have high capital cost and increased lead time for spare parts. Proposed AGV is built with a capital cost that is less than half of the existing AGVs. Its design is made indigenously, with most of its parts locally sourced. It can achieve a speed of 0.83 m/s, with a pulling capacity of 1,300 kg. Its rechargeable batteries sustain four hours of continuous operation for one complete discharge. It has been tested and found to effectively replace tow vehicles.

Palabras clave

  • Automated guided vehicle
  • Power system
  • System engineering
  • Performance reliability
  • Component robustness

Special Section on FTC

Acceso abierto

Introduction to the Special Section on Intelligent Fault Monitoring and Fault–Tolerant Control in Power Electronics, Drives and Renewable Energy Systems

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 163 - 165

Resumen

Abstract

This article constitutes an introductory part of the special section on Intelligent Fault Monitoring and Fault-Tolerant Control in Power Electronics, Drives and Renewable Energy Systems. In the current issue of the journal, the first part of this section is published. Accepted articles are focussed mainly on the sensor-fault diagnosis methods for T-type inverter-fed dual-three phase PMSM drives, partial demagnetization, faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and online open phase fault detection (FD) in the sensorless five-phase induction motor drive implemented with an inverter output LC filter and third harmonic injection. Also, neural networks (NN) application in the detection of stator and rotor electrical faults of induction motors has been proposed in one of the papers, and the observer-based FD concept for unknown systems using input–output measurements was applied to a brushless direct current motor drive with unknown parameters.

Palabras clave

  • electrical drives
  • permanent-magnet machines
  • induction motors
  • sensor faults
  • winding faults
  • demagnetization faults
  • neural networks
  • observers
Acceso abierto

Fault Diagnosis of Sensors for T-type Three-Level Inverter-fed Dual Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 167 - 178

Resumen

Abstract

To improve the reliability of motor system, this paper investigates the sensor fault diagnosis methods for T-type inverter-fed dual three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. Generally, a T-type three-level inverter-fed dual three-phase motor drive utilizes four phase-current sensors, two direct current (DC)-link voltage sensors and one speed sensor. A series of diagnostic methods have been comprehensively proposed for the three types of sensor faults. Both the sudden error change and gradual error change of sensor faults are considered. Firstly, the diagnosis of speed sensor fault was achieved by monitoring the error between the rotating speed of stator flux and the value from speed sensor. Secondly, the large high-frequency voltage ripple of voltage difference between the estimated voltage and the reference voltage was used to identify the voltage sensor faults, and the faulty voltage sensor was determined according to the deviation of voltage difference. Thirdly, the abnormal current amplitude on harmonic subspace was adopted to identify the current sensor faults, and the faulty current sensor was located by distinguishing the current trajectory on harmonic subspace. The experiments have been taken on a laboratory prototype to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fault diagnosis schemes.

Palabras clave

  • fault diagnosis
  • sensor fault
  • T-type three-level inverter
  • dual three-phase PMSM
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Current Signals in a Partially Demagnetized Vector Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Generator

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 179 - 190

Resumen

Abstract

This manuscript analyzes the operation of an interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine working as a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The partial demagnetization operation is analyzed. To obtain more accurate voltages and currents of the machine, finite element analysis (FEA) is used in co-simulation with the full converter and the converter’s control algorithm. Direct field oriented control (DFOC) shows robustness by maintaining the speed even with a 25% demagnetized PMSG. Also, an analysis of the rotating reference frame DQ signals is done to asses demagnetization.

Palabras clave

  • IPM
  • PMSG
  • co-simulation
  • DFOC
  • demagnetization
Acceso abierto

Open-Phase Fault Detection Method for Sensorless Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives with an Inverter Output Filter

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 191 - 202

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the sensorless five-phase induction motor drive implementation with an inverter output filter with third harmonic injection. For the sensorless operation, the required observers are presented for the first and third harmonics with consideration of the inverter output filter. Moreover, the interaction of the observers and the control system is capable to handle a deactivation of one or two phases, which improves the reliability of the complete drive system. A new idea of online open-phase fault detection is presented based on the frequency analysis of the estimated observer variables. The test setup, fault operation capabilities and an experimental verification of the proposed fault detection method are presented in the paper.

Palabras clave

  • Five-phase induction motor
  • Inverter output filter
  • Open-phase fault detection
Acceso abierto

Application of Neural Networks and Axial Flux for the Detection of Stator and Rotor Faults of an Induction Motor

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 203 - 215

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the possibility of using neural networks in the detection of stator and rotor electrical faults of induction motors. Fault detection and identification are based on the analysis of symptoms obtained from the fast Fourier transform of the voltage induced by an axial flux in a measurement coil. Neural network teaching and testing were performed in a MATLAB–Simulink environment. The effectiveness of various neural network structures to detect damage, its type (rotor or stator damage) and damage levels (number of rotor bars cracked or stator winding shorted circuits) is presented.

Palabras clave

  • Induction motor
  • Stator and rotor faults
  • Diagnostics
  • Axial flux
  • Neural network
Acceso abierto

Design of Observer-Based Fault Detection Structure for Unknown Systems using Input–Output Measurements: Practical Application to BLDC Drive

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 217 - 226

Resumen

Abstract

Industrial systems serve us in all areas of life. Faults may result in economic loss and wasting energy. Detecting the onset of faults, and determining their location are important engineering tasks. An important class of fault detection (FD) and diagnosis methods utilizes the mathematical model of the monitored system. But, the parameters required for mathematical modelling are limited or unavailable for the most real industrial engineering applications. Observer-based FD is one of the main approaches to FD and identification. At the same time, the traditional observer’s gain calculation required system model parameters. So, this article presents the design of a novel observer for FD purposes using the input–output measurements of the system with unknown parameters. This proposed observer’s design considers observer’s gain tuning, regardless of the mathematical representation of the plant. This the new feature that distinction our observer will facilitate the implementation of FD systems for many unknown parameters industrial systems. The effectiveness of the proposed observer is verified by experimental application to BLDC motor and compared with classical Luenberger observer. The experimental and comparison results prove feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed observer for FD purposes.

Palabras clave

  • fault
  • sensor
  • measurements
  • observer
  • BLDC motor
18 Artículos
Acceso abierto

A Review on Big Data Management and Decision-Making in Smart Grid

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 1 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Smart grid (SG) is the solution to solve existing problems of energy security from generation to utilization. Examples of such problems are disruptions in the electric grid and disturbances in the transmission. SG is a premium source of Big Data. The data should be processed to reveal hidden patterns and secret correlations to extrapolate the needed values. Such useful information obtained by the so-called data analytics is an essential element for energy management and control decision towards improving energy security, efficiency, and decreasing costs of energy use. For that reason, different techniques have been developed to process Big Data. This paper presents an overview of these techniques and discusses their advantages and challenges. The contribution of this paper is building a recommender system using different techniques to overcome the most obstacles encountering the Big Data processes in SG. The proposed system achieves the goals of the future SG by (i) analyzing data and executing values as accurately as possible, (ii) helping in decision-making to improve the efficiency of the grid, (iii) reducing cost and time, (iv) managing operating parameters, (v) allowing predicting and preventing equipment failures, and (vi) increasing customer satisfaction. Big Data process enables benefits that were never achieved for the SG application.

Palabras clave

  • Big Data
  • energy management
  • Big Data analytics
  • smart grid
  • decision-making
Acceso abierto

An Overview of Carrier-based Modulation Methods for Z-Source Inverter

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 15 - 31

Resumen

Abstract

Single-stage energy converters, in particular, the Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) or impedance source inverter, has gained significant attention in the recent years. ZSI ensures flexible energy conversions (dc–dc, dc–ac, ac–ac and ac–dc) because of its unique ability to boost the output voltage in typical renewable energy systems. The impedance network integrated between the energy source and the load contributes to the unique functionality of the ZSI. As substantial research has been conducted on the ZSI, this article provides a review on the operation of ZSI. The article initially examines the various topologies commonly adopted for the application of the ZSI. Subsequently, details of the various modulation methods that are commonly used to obtain the voltage boosting using ZSI are documented. Additionally, the phenomenon of neutral point formation, which is an important impediment to the adoption of multilevel ZSIs and the limitation of the modulation methods, is explained.

Palabras clave

  • ac–dc power conversion
  • impedance source inverter
  • modulation methods
  • shoot through
  • phase opposition disposition
  • reference disposition
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Transients in a Three-Level DC–DC Flying Capacitor Converter. Time Domain Approach

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 33 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The paper considers a discrete state-space model for transients in a three-level flying capacitor DC–DC converter. A transition matrix is obtained for a pulse width modulation (PWM) period. The matrix elements are expanded into a power series using a selected small parameter. The matrix eigenvalues that determine the natural balancing dynamics transients are presented in the form of power series as well. Four separate transients are constructed based on four possible PWM period initial states (topologies). Inductor current and capacitor voltage transients are found for the voltage source power-up as the arithmetic average of the four separate transients. The discrete solutions are replaced by continuous ones. The resulting transients that are elementary functions of the circuit parameters, PWM period, and voltage reference demonstrate good agreement with the simulation results.

Palabras clave

  • Three-level DC–DC converter
  • Flying capacitor
  • Transient
  • Natural balancing
Acceso abierto

Non-Cartesian Frame Transformation-Based Control of a Three-Phase Power Converter During Unbalanced Voltage Dip – Part I: Transformation Principles

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 47 - 61

Resumen

Abstract

One of the currently investigated problems in power electronics-based electrical energy conversion is proper operation of electronic converters during grid voltage imbalance and harmonics. In classic control methods, it introduces oscillations of variables, resulting in the necessity to improve control systems with signals filtration and usually by application of resonant terms as part of current controllers. The paper presents a new approach to grid-connected inverter control based on transformation to a non-Cartesian frame, the parameters of which are correlated with grid voltage asymmetry. The proposed method results in resignation from resonant terms used as controllers and their replacement with proportional–integral terms for which anti-wind-up structures are significantly simpler than for oscillatory terms. The paper presents new transformation principles, features and some simulation results showing the waveforms of signals transformed to the new non-Cartesian frame.

Palabras clave

  • AC–DC power conversion
  • current control
  • Clarke’s transformation
Acceso abierto

Non-Cartesian Frame Transformation-Based Control of a Three-Phase Power Converter During Unbalanced Voltage Dip – Part II: Simulation And Experiment

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 63 - 77

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents a control method for the three-phase power converter operating under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. The method uses a new transformation to the non-Cartesian frame, which makes the controlled current vector components balanced in this frame even if originally the three-phase current is referenced as unbalanced. Furthermore, Park’s transformation makes the controlled variables constant, which allows to apply proportional–integral terms as current controllers independent of the required control target. Several control targets known from literature have been analyzed with regard to the required new transformation parameters, and the transformation parameters for all targets have been found. Simulation results are shown to prove the theoretical analysis, and the experimental test results are presented as practical validation of the proposed use of the non-Cartesian frame in control.

Palabras clave

  • AC–DC power conversion
  • current control
  • current limitation
Acceso abierto

Multiobjective Improved Particle Swarm Optimisation for Transmission Congestion and Voltage Profile Management using Multilevel UPFC

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 79 - 93

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a multiobjective improved particle swarm optimisation (IPSO) for placing and sizing the series modular multilevel converter-based unified power flow controller (MMC-UPFC) FACTS devices to manage the transmission congestion and voltage profile in deregulated electricity markets. The proposed multiobjective IPSO algorithm is perfect for accomplishing the close ideal distributed generation (DG) sizes while conveying smooth assembly qualities contrasted with another existing algorithm. It tends to be reasoned that voltage profile and genuine power misfortunes have generous upgrades along ideal speculation on DGs in both the test frameworks. The proposed system eliminates the congestion and the power system can be easily used to solve complex and non-linear optimisation problems in a real-time manner.

Palabras clave

  • Congestion
  • Unified power flow controller
  • Improved particle swarm optimisation
  • Modular multilevel converter
  • voltage profile
Acceso abierto

Derivation of Motor Mean Phase Currents in PMSM Drives Operating with Low Switching-to-Fundamental Frequency Ratio

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 95 - 102

Resumen

Abstract

Pulse width modulation (PWM) of inverter output voltage causes the waveforms of motor phase currents to consist of distinctive ripples. In order to provide suitable feedback for the motor current controllers, the mean value must be extracted from the currents’ waveforms in every PWM cycle. A common solution to derive the mean phase currents is to sample their value at the midpoint of a symmetrical PWM cycle. Using an assumption of linear current changes in steady PWM subintervals, this midpoint sample corresponds to the mean current in the PWM cycle. This way no hardware filtering or high-rate current sampling is required. Nevertheless, the assumption of linear current changes has been recently reported as over simplistic in permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives operating with low switching-to-fundamental frequency ratio (SFFR). This, in turn, causes substantial errors in the representation of the mean phase currents by the midpoint sample. This paper proposes a solution for deriving mean phase currents in low SFFR PMSM drives, which does not rely on the linear current change assumption. The method is based on sampling the currents at the start point of a PWM cycle and correcting the sampled value using a model-based formula that reproduces the current waveforms. Effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation for an exemplary setup of high-speed PMSM drive. The results show that the proposed method decreases the error of determining the mean phase currents approximately 10 times when compared to the classical midpoint sampling technique.

Palabras clave

  • Electric drives
  • High-speed drives
  • Current control
  • Current measurement
  • Permanent Magnet Synchronous Drives
  • Digital Signal Processing
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Direct Torque Control with pace Vector Modulation for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Motion Control Applications and a Comparison with Other Torque-Control Algorithms

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 103 - 113

Resumen

Abstract

Motion control is facing an increasing popularity in the present research activities. Owing to the expected wide spreading of motion control applications, it can be predicted that the advancements in the field of electric motor drives will have a high level of influence on the new results in the field of motion control. The synchronous reluctance motor drives mean an excellent and yet cost-effective solution for actuators in motion control applications. In this article, the direct torque control with space vector modulation is analysed as a possible candidate for synchronous reluctance motor motion control applications. Its torque-control performance is investigated as a function of torque-control sample time, and a comparison of the torque ripples is made with other torque-control algorithms by an FFT analysis.

Palabras clave

  • synchronous reluctance motor
  • electric drive
  • direct torque control
  • space vector modulation
  • frequency converter
  • motion control
  • current vector control
  • industrial drives
Acceso abierto

An Investigation of Direct Torque Control and Hysteresis Current Vector Control for Motion Control Synchronous Reluctance Motor Applications

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 115 - 124

Resumen

Abstract

Synchronous reluctance motor drives are one of the most attractive alternatives of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives and induction motor drives in the field of conventional industrial and household applications. This tendency is expected to be continued in the case of motion control applications as well. This article investigates two torque-control algorithms that are possible candidates for motion control synchronous reluctance motor applications. The examined torque-control algorithms are direct torque control (DTC) and hysteresis current vector control (HCVC).

Palabras clave

  • synchronous reluctance motor
  • electric drive
  • direct torque control
  • current vector control
  • frequency converter
  • motion control
  • industrial drives
Acceso abierto

A Very-Low-Speed Sensorless Control Induction Motor Drive with Online Rotor Resistance Tuning by Using MRAS Scheme

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 125 - 140

Resumen

Abstract

A sensorless indirect stator-flux-oriented control (ISFOC) induction motor drive at very low frequencies is presented herein. The model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme is used to estimate the speed and the rotor resistance simultaneously. However, the error between the reference and the adjustable models, which are developed in the stationary stator reference frame, is used to drive a suitable adaptation mechanism that generates the estimates of speed and the rotor resistance from the stator voltage and the machine current measurements. The stator flux components in the stationary reference frame are estimated through a pure integration of the back electro-motive force (EMF) of the machine. When the machine is operated at low speed, the pure integration of the back EMF introduces an error in flux estimation which affects the performance torque and speed control. To overcome this problem, pure integration is replaced with a programmable cascaded low-pass filter (PCLPF). The stability analysis method of the MRAS estimator is verified in order to show the robustness of the rotor resistance variations. Experimental results are presented to prove the effectiveness and validity of the proposed scheme of sensorless ISFOC induction motor drive.

Palabras clave

  • Induction motor
  • Stator flux orientation model
  • Model reference adaptive system (MRAS)
  • Rotor speed and resistance estimation
  • Programmable cascaded low-pass filters (PCLPF)
Acceso abierto

Novel Fuzzy-Based Self-Adaptive Single Neuron PID Load Frequency Controller for Power System

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 141 - 150

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a newly adaptive single-neuron proportional integral derivative (SNPID) controller that uses fuzzy logic as an adaptive system. The main problem of the classical controller is lacking the required robustness against disturbers, measurement noise in industrial applications. The new formula of the proposed controller helps in fixing this problem based on the fuzzy logic technique. In addition, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize parameters of the SNPID controller. Because of the high demands on the availability and efficiency of electrical power production, the design of robust load-frequency controller is becoming increasingly important due to its potential in increasing the reliability, maintainability and safety of power systems. So, the proposed controller has been applied for load-frequency control (LFC) of a single-area power system. The effectiveness of the proposed SNPID controller has been compared with the conventional controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed controller approach provides better damping of oscillations with a smaller settling time. This confirms its superiority against its counterparts. In addition, the results show the robustness of the proposed controller against the parametric variation of the system.

Palabras clave

  • Power system
  • Load frequency
  • Intelligent Control
  • PID
  • Single Neuron
Acceso abierto

Automated Guided Vehicles by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor: Future of In-house Logistics

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 151 - 159

Resumen

Abstract

Material handling and logistics management that involve transportation of work pieces on production floor are important aspects to manufacturing that affect productivity and efficiency. Tow vehicles that are manually driven are currently used for this purpose. These processes can be better performed through automation. Automated guided vehicle (AGV) is an apt solution. AGVs are unmanned autonomous vehicles that can be programmed to perform versatile tasks. AGVs available in market are imported and hence have high capital cost and increased lead time for spare parts. Proposed AGV is built with a capital cost that is less than half of the existing AGVs. Its design is made indigenously, with most of its parts locally sourced. It can achieve a speed of 0.83 m/s, with a pulling capacity of 1,300 kg. Its rechargeable batteries sustain four hours of continuous operation for one complete discharge. It has been tested and found to effectively replace tow vehicles.

Palabras clave

  • Automated guided vehicle
  • Power system
  • System engineering
  • Performance reliability
  • Component robustness

Special Section on FTC

Acceso abierto

Introduction to the Special Section on Intelligent Fault Monitoring and Fault–Tolerant Control in Power Electronics, Drives and Renewable Energy Systems

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 163 - 165

Resumen

Abstract

This article constitutes an introductory part of the special section on Intelligent Fault Monitoring and Fault-Tolerant Control in Power Electronics, Drives and Renewable Energy Systems. In the current issue of the journal, the first part of this section is published. Accepted articles are focussed mainly on the sensor-fault diagnosis methods for T-type inverter-fed dual-three phase PMSM drives, partial demagnetization, faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and online open phase fault detection (FD) in the sensorless five-phase induction motor drive implemented with an inverter output LC filter and third harmonic injection. Also, neural networks (NN) application in the detection of stator and rotor electrical faults of induction motors has been proposed in one of the papers, and the observer-based FD concept for unknown systems using input–output measurements was applied to a brushless direct current motor drive with unknown parameters.

Palabras clave

  • electrical drives
  • permanent-magnet machines
  • induction motors
  • sensor faults
  • winding faults
  • demagnetization faults
  • neural networks
  • observers
Acceso abierto

Fault Diagnosis of Sensors for T-type Three-Level Inverter-fed Dual Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 167 - 178

Resumen

Abstract

To improve the reliability of motor system, this paper investigates the sensor fault diagnosis methods for T-type inverter-fed dual three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. Generally, a T-type three-level inverter-fed dual three-phase motor drive utilizes four phase-current sensors, two direct current (DC)-link voltage sensors and one speed sensor. A series of diagnostic methods have been comprehensively proposed for the three types of sensor faults. Both the sudden error change and gradual error change of sensor faults are considered. Firstly, the diagnosis of speed sensor fault was achieved by monitoring the error between the rotating speed of stator flux and the value from speed sensor. Secondly, the large high-frequency voltage ripple of voltage difference between the estimated voltage and the reference voltage was used to identify the voltage sensor faults, and the faulty voltage sensor was determined according to the deviation of voltage difference. Thirdly, the abnormal current amplitude on harmonic subspace was adopted to identify the current sensor faults, and the faulty current sensor was located by distinguishing the current trajectory on harmonic subspace. The experiments have been taken on a laboratory prototype to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fault diagnosis schemes.

Palabras clave

  • fault diagnosis
  • sensor fault
  • T-type three-level inverter
  • dual three-phase PMSM
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Current Signals in a Partially Demagnetized Vector Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Generator

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 179 - 190

Resumen

Abstract

This manuscript analyzes the operation of an interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine working as a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The partial demagnetization operation is analyzed. To obtain more accurate voltages and currents of the machine, finite element analysis (FEA) is used in co-simulation with the full converter and the converter’s control algorithm. Direct field oriented control (DFOC) shows robustness by maintaining the speed even with a 25% demagnetized PMSG. Also, an analysis of the rotating reference frame DQ signals is done to asses demagnetization.

Palabras clave

  • IPM
  • PMSG
  • co-simulation
  • DFOC
  • demagnetization
Acceso abierto

Open-Phase Fault Detection Method for Sensorless Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives with an Inverter Output Filter

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 191 - 202

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the sensorless five-phase induction motor drive implementation with an inverter output filter with third harmonic injection. For the sensorless operation, the required observers are presented for the first and third harmonics with consideration of the inverter output filter. Moreover, the interaction of the observers and the control system is capable to handle a deactivation of one or two phases, which improves the reliability of the complete drive system. A new idea of online open-phase fault detection is presented based on the frequency analysis of the estimated observer variables. The test setup, fault operation capabilities and an experimental verification of the proposed fault detection method are presented in the paper.

Palabras clave

  • Five-phase induction motor
  • Inverter output filter
  • Open-phase fault detection
Acceso abierto

Application of Neural Networks and Axial Flux for the Detection of Stator and Rotor Faults of an Induction Motor

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 203 - 215

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the possibility of using neural networks in the detection of stator and rotor electrical faults of induction motors. Fault detection and identification are based on the analysis of symptoms obtained from the fast Fourier transform of the voltage induced by an axial flux in a measurement coil. Neural network teaching and testing were performed in a MATLAB–Simulink environment. The effectiveness of various neural network structures to detect damage, its type (rotor or stator damage) and damage levels (number of rotor bars cracked or stator winding shorted circuits) is presented.

Palabras clave

  • Induction motor
  • Stator and rotor faults
  • Diagnostics
  • Axial flux
  • Neural network
Acceso abierto

Design of Observer-Based Fault Detection Structure for Unknown Systems using Input–Output Measurements: Practical Application to BLDC Drive

Publicado en línea: 26 Nov 2019
Páginas: 217 - 226

Resumen

Abstract

Industrial systems serve us in all areas of life. Faults may result in economic loss and wasting energy. Detecting the onset of faults, and determining their location are important engineering tasks. An important class of fault detection (FD) and diagnosis methods utilizes the mathematical model of the monitored system. But, the parameters required for mathematical modelling are limited or unavailable for the most real industrial engineering applications. Observer-based FD is one of the main approaches to FD and identification. At the same time, the traditional observer’s gain calculation required system model parameters. So, this article presents the design of a novel observer for FD purposes using the input–output measurements of the system with unknown parameters. This proposed observer’s design considers observer’s gain tuning, regardless of the mathematical representation of the plant. This the new feature that distinction our observer will facilitate the implementation of FD systems for many unknown parameters industrial systems. The effectiveness of the proposed observer is verified by experimental application to BLDC motor and compared with classical Luenberger observer. The experimental and comparison results prove feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed observer for FD purposes.

Palabras clave

  • fault
  • sensor
  • measurements
  • observer
  • BLDC motor

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