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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2080-6574
Publicado por primera vez
24 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 26 (2020): Edición 3 (December 2020)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2080-6574
Publicado por primera vez
24 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Geology and genesis of vein-type corundum deposits in the Hafafit-Nugrus area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 181 - 197

Resumen

Abstract

Unusual deposits formed by corundum are described from two separate pegmatitic veins in the Hafafit-Nugrus area of the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Other related minerals are described too. The vein-type of corundum at Locality 1 (Vein 1) crosscuts through exposed rocks of an ophiolitic mélange, whereas at Locality 2 (Vein 2), it crosscuts through exposed serpentinised ultramafic rocks. The main minerals in Vein 1 are plagioclase, corundum, grossular, phlogopite, muscovite and clinochlore, while almandine, xenotime-(Y), allanite-(Ce), zircon, Cr-rich spinel, apatite, titanite, fergusonite-(Y), meta-ankoleite, U-rich thorite (uranothorite), carbonate and illite are the accessories. In Vein 2, the main minerals are plagioclase, corundum, phlogopite and chlorite, while clinochlore, euxenite-(Y), Nb-rich rutile, almandine, xenotime-(Y), allanite-(Ce), zircon, spinel, apatite, titanite, kasolite, dickite, illite, carbonate, antigorite and talc are accessories. The two types of corundum veins differ in their concentrations of Th, U, Zr, Nb, Ta, REE, Y and Li in whole-rock compositions. Field observations, mineralogy and chemical analyses of samples from the two veins of corundum deposits, as well as concentrations of chromophore elements in corundum crystals, suggest metasomatic origins. The present study suggests that the two types of corundum veins formed at different ages from different residual magmas that underwent in-situ hybridisation with the host rocks.

Palabras clave

  • Grossular
  • Cr-rich spinel
  • Nb-rich rutile
  • ultramafic rocks
  • secondary uranium minerals
Acceso abierto

Analysis of reservoir parameters on the basis of well logging and DST of Miocene gas reservoirs in the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep, Poland

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 199 - 205

Resumen

Abstract

In the Polish part of the Carpathian Foredeep, an intensification of gas exploration and exploitation from Miocene strata took place in the middle of the twentieth century. In spite of a good degree of geological and reservoir recognition, the area of the Carpathian Foredeep is still considered to be prospective for the discovery of new gas reservoirs. Here we analyse statistically selected reservoir parameters of Miocene deposits, such as total porosity, effective permeability and reservoir water inflow. These parameters have been determined on the basis of interpretations of results of well logs and reservoir tests with tubular bed samplers (DST, Drill Stem Test). Analytical results in the form of regression and dependence of the logarithm of permeability as a function of porosity show a weak correlation. However, in the study area, the distribution of porosity values for Miocene strata is close to normal.

Palabras clave

  • statistics
  • porosity
  • permeability
  • water inflow
  • sandstones
  • Poland
Acceso abierto

Understanding reservoir heterogeneity using variography and data analysis: an example from coastal swamp deposits, Niger Delta Basin (Nigeria)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 207 - 218

Resumen

Abstract

For efficient reservoir management and long-term field development strategies, most geologists and asset managers pay special attention to reservoir chance of success. To minimise this uncertainty, a good understanding of reservoir presence and adequacy is required for better ranking of infill opportunities and optimal well placement. This can be quite challenging due to insufficient data and complexities that are typically associated with areas with compounded tectonostratigraphic framework. For the present paper, data analysis and variography were used firstly to examine possible geological factors that determine directions in which reservoirs show minimum heterogeneity for both discrete and continuous properties; secondly, to determine the maximum range and degree of variability of key reservoir petro-physical properties from the variogram, and thirdly, to highlight possible geological controls on reservoir distribution trends as well as areas with optimal reservoir quality. Discrete properties evaluated were lithology and genetic units, while continuous properties examined were porosity and net-to-gross (NtG). From the variogram analysis, the sandy lithology shows minimum heterogeneity in east-west (E–W) and north-south (N–S) directions, for Upper Shoreface Sands (USF) and Fluvial/Tidal Channel Sands (FCX/TCS), respectively. Porosity and NtG both show the least heterogeneity in the E–W axis for reservoirs belonging to both Upper Shoreface and Fluvial Channel environments with porosity showing a slightly higher range than NtG. The vertical ranges for both continuous properties did not show a clear trend. The Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Object modelling algorithm were used for modelling the discrete properties, while Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) was used for modelling of the continuous properties. Results from this exercise show that depositional environment, sediment provenance, topographical slope, sub-regional structural trends, shoreline orientation and longshore currents, could have significant impacts on reservoir spatial distribution and property trends. This understanding could be applied in reservoir prediction and for generating stochastic estimates of petrophysical properties for nearby exploration assets of similar depositional environments.

Palabras clave

  • Porosity
  • permeability
  • flow zone index
  • property modelling
  • shoreface
  • fluvial channels
Acceso abierto

Mineralogy and geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Moyil Valley alteration zones, Meshkinshahr (northwest Iran)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 219 - 231

Resumen

Abstract

Sabalan Mountain (northwest Iran) witnessed intense volcanic activity during the Cenozoic (Plio-Pleistocene). The result of this manifests itself in the conical geometry of the Sabalan stratovolcano and ahigh hydrothermal gradient around it, which can be detected by geological phenomena such as hot springs, smoke gases and steam outlet pores. The high hydrothermal slope and upward migration of hot water in this area have caused extensive alteration zones in the host rocks. A mineralogical study of alteration zones in thewells drilled in the Moyil Valley to the northwest of Sabalan Mountain has revealed the presence of phyllic, argillic, calcitic and propylitic alterations in volcanic rocks (trachyandesite) and alteration phyllic and propylitic ones in monzonite rocks. In chondrite-normalised rare-earth-element diagrams, trachyandesite rocks exhibit an HREEs enrichment when compared to MREEs and LREEs in propylitic and calcitic alteration zones. This result can be explained by the acidic nature of hydrothermal fluids containing complex ions such as (SO-2, Cl-). The (La/Yb)cn, (La/Sm)cn and (Tb/Yb)cn ratios for argillic, phyllic, propylitic and calcitic alteration zones have revealed that they are higher in fresh rocks compared to altered rocks, suggesting the enrichment of HREEs in comparison to LREEs and MREEs. The anomalies of Eu do not change remarkably in the argillic and propylitic alteration zones of trachyandesite rocks; apparently, alteration hadno effect on them. Such behaviour reflects the presence of gold cations in Eu+3 formed at temperatures below 250°C. Eu anomalies increased in propylitic alteration zones in monzonite rocks and calciticand phyllic alteration zones in trachyandesiterocks.

Palabras clave

  • Sabalan Mountain
  • Cenozoic
  • chondrite-normalised
  • HREEs
  • trachyandesite
Acceso abierto

The human imprint on the unique geological landscape of the Western Caucasus

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 233 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

Human intervention in the geological environment is commonly thought to pose a threat to geoheritage. However, new information from the Western Caucasus where unique geological features are concentrated in Mountainous Adygeya, implies that man-made features in fact add value to geoheritage. Such features include a lengthy artificial niche in the Guama Gorge, accumulations of large artificial clasts along the road leading to the Lagonaki Highland and the Khadzhokh Quarry with the artificial Red Lake. These contribute to the regional uniqueness of geosites and can be classified as geomorphological, sedimentary, economical and hydro(geo)logical geoheritage types. Interestingly, these artificial features have natural analogues in the study area. Such integrity of local geological landscapes urgently require special interpretations for guided excursions and explanatory panels for correct comprehension of the origin of these unique features on the part of unprepared tourists. Generally, the human imprint on geological landscapes of Mountainous Adygeya is significant and occasionally positive, which makes the entire geodiversity hotspot of special, international interest and an object for further investigations.

Palabras clave

  • artificial landform
  • geotourism
  • megaclast
  • quarry lake
  • southwest Russia
Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Key concepts in geomorphology (Second edition)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 245 - 246

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Problems and solutions in structural geology and tectonics

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 247 - 249

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Fundamentals of invertebrate palaeontology. Microfossils

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 251 - 252

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 253 - 253

Resumen

9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Geology and genesis of vein-type corundum deposits in the Hafafit-Nugrus area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 181 - 197

Resumen

Abstract

Unusual deposits formed by corundum are described from two separate pegmatitic veins in the Hafafit-Nugrus area of the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Other related minerals are described too. The vein-type of corundum at Locality 1 (Vein 1) crosscuts through exposed rocks of an ophiolitic mélange, whereas at Locality 2 (Vein 2), it crosscuts through exposed serpentinised ultramafic rocks. The main minerals in Vein 1 are plagioclase, corundum, grossular, phlogopite, muscovite and clinochlore, while almandine, xenotime-(Y), allanite-(Ce), zircon, Cr-rich spinel, apatite, titanite, fergusonite-(Y), meta-ankoleite, U-rich thorite (uranothorite), carbonate and illite are the accessories. In Vein 2, the main minerals are plagioclase, corundum, phlogopite and chlorite, while clinochlore, euxenite-(Y), Nb-rich rutile, almandine, xenotime-(Y), allanite-(Ce), zircon, spinel, apatite, titanite, kasolite, dickite, illite, carbonate, antigorite and talc are accessories. The two types of corundum veins differ in their concentrations of Th, U, Zr, Nb, Ta, REE, Y and Li in whole-rock compositions. Field observations, mineralogy and chemical analyses of samples from the two veins of corundum deposits, as well as concentrations of chromophore elements in corundum crystals, suggest metasomatic origins. The present study suggests that the two types of corundum veins formed at different ages from different residual magmas that underwent in-situ hybridisation with the host rocks.

Palabras clave

  • Grossular
  • Cr-rich spinel
  • Nb-rich rutile
  • ultramafic rocks
  • secondary uranium minerals
Acceso abierto

Analysis of reservoir parameters on the basis of well logging and DST of Miocene gas reservoirs in the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep, Poland

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 199 - 205

Resumen

Abstract

In the Polish part of the Carpathian Foredeep, an intensification of gas exploration and exploitation from Miocene strata took place in the middle of the twentieth century. In spite of a good degree of geological and reservoir recognition, the area of the Carpathian Foredeep is still considered to be prospective for the discovery of new gas reservoirs. Here we analyse statistically selected reservoir parameters of Miocene deposits, such as total porosity, effective permeability and reservoir water inflow. These parameters have been determined on the basis of interpretations of results of well logs and reservoir tests with tubular bed samplers (DST, Drill Stem Test). Analytical results in the form of regression and dependence of the logarithm of permeability as a function of porosity show a weak correlation. However, in the study area, the distribution of porosity values for Miocene strata is close to normal.

Palabras clave

  • statistics
  • porosity
  • permeability
  • water inflow
  • sandstones
  • Poland
Acceso abierto

Understanding reservoir heterogeneity using variography and data analysis: an example from coastal swamp deposits, Niger Delta Basin (Nigeria)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 207 - 218

Resumen

Abstract

For efficient reservoir management and long-term field development strategies, most geologists and asset managers pay special attention to reservoir chance of success. To minimise this uncertainty, a good understanding of reservoir presence and adequacy is required for better ranking of infill opportunities and optimal well placement. This can be quite challenging due to insufficient data and complexities that are typically associated with areas with compounded tectonostratigraphic framework. For the present paper, data analysis and variography were used firstly to examine possible geological factors that determine directions in which reservoirs show minimum heterogeneity for both discrete and continuous properties; secondly, to determine the maximum range and degree of variability of key reservoir petro-physical properties from the variogram, and thirdly, to highlight possible geological controls on reservoir distribution trends as well as areas with optimal reservoir quality. Discrete properties evaluated were lithology and genetic units, while continuous properties examined were porosity and net-to-gross (NtG). From the variogram analysis, the sandy lithology shows minimum heterogeneity in east-west (E–W) and north-south (N–S) directions, for Upper Shoreface Sands (USF) and Fluvial/Tidal Channel Sands (FCX/TCS), respectively. Porosity and NtG both show the least heterogeneity in the E–W axis for reservoirs belonging to both Upper Shoreface and Fluvial Channel environments with porosity showing a slightly higher range than NtG. The vertical ranges for both continuous properties did not show a clear trend. The Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Object modelling algorithm were used for modelling the discrete properties, while Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) was used for modelling of the continuous properties. Results from this exercise show that depositional environment, sediment provenance, topographical slope, sub-regional structural trends, shoreline orientation and longshore currents, could have significant impacts on reservoir spatial distribution and property trends. This understanding could be applied in reservoir prediction and for generating stochastic estimates of petrophysical properties for nearby exploration assets of similar depositional environments.

Palabras clave

  • Porosity
  • permeability
  • flow zone index
  • property modelling
  • shoreface
  • fluvial channels
Acceso abierto

Mineralogy and geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Moyil Valley alteration zones, Meshkinshahr (northwest Iran)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 219 - 231

Resumen

Abstract

Sabalan Mountain (northwest Iran) witnessed intense volcanic activity during the Cenozoic (Plio-Pleistocene). The result of this manifests itself in the conical geometry of the Sabalan stratovolcano and ahigh hydrothermal gradient around it, which can be detected by geological phenomena such as hot springs, smoke gases and steam outlet pores. The high hydrothermal slope and upward migration of hot water in this area have caused extensive alteration zones in the host rocks. A mineralogical study of alteration zones in thewells drilled in the Moyil Valley to the northwest of Sabalan Mountain has revealed the presence of phyllic, argillic, calcitic and propylitic alterations in volcanic rocks (trachyandesite) and alteration phyllic and propylitic ones in monzonite rocks. In chondrite-normalised rare-earth-element diagrams, trachyandesite rocks exhibit an HREEs enrichment when compared to MREEs and LREEs in propylitic and calcitic alteration zones. This result can be explained by the acidic nature of hydrothermal fluids containing complex ions such as (SO-2, Cl-). The (La/Yb)cn, (La/Sm)cn and (Tb/Yb)cn ratios for argillic, phyllic, propylitic and calcitic alteration zones have revealed that they are higher in fresh rocks compared to altered rocks, suggesting the enrichment of HREEs in comparison to LREEs and MREEs. The anomalies of Eu do not change remarkably in the argillic and propylitic alteration zones of trachyandesite rocks; apparently, alteration hadno effect on them. Such behaviour reflects the presence of gold cations in Eu+3 formed at temperatures below 250°C. Eu anomalies increased in propylitic alteration zones in monzonite rocks and calciticand phyllic alteration zones in trachyandesiterocks.

Palabras clave

  • Sabalan Mountain
  • Cenozoic
  • chondrite-normalised
  • HREEs
  • trachyandesite
Acceso abierto

The human imprint on the unique geological landscape of the Western Caucasus

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 233 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

Human intervention in the geological environment is commonly thought to pose a threat to geoheritage. However, new information from the Western Caucasus where unique geological features are concentrated in Mountainous Adygeya, implies that man-made features in fact add value to geoheritage. Such features include a lengthy artificial niche in the Guama Gorge, accumulations of large artificial clasts along the road leading to the Lagonaki Highland and the Khadzhokh Quarry with the artificial Red Lake. These contribute to the regional uniqueness of geosites and can be classified as geomorphological, sedimentary, economical and hydro(geo)logical geoheritage types. Interestingly, these artificial features have natural analogues in the study area. Such integrity of local geological landscapes urgently require special interpretations for guided excursions and explanatory panels for correct comprehension of the origin of these unique features on the part of unprepared tourists. Generally, the human imprint on geological landscapes of Mountainous Adygeya is significant and occasionally positive, which makes the entire geodiversity hotspot of special, international interest and an object for further investigations.

Palabras clave

  • artificial landform
  • geotourism
  • megaclast
  • quarry lake
  • southwest Russia
Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Key concepts in geomorphology (Second edition)

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 245 - 246

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Problems and solutions in structural geology and tectonics

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 247 - 249

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Book reviews: Fundamentals of invertebrate palaeontology. Microfossils

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 251 - 252

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Publicado en línea: 31 Dec 2020
Páginas: 253 - 253

Resumen

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo