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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2080-6574
ISSN
1426-8981
Publicado por primera vez
24 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 19 (2013): Edición 3 (September 2013)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2080-6574
ISSN
1426-8981
Publicado por primera vez
24 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

5 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 175 - 183

Resumen

Abstract

During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region’s post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils recovered from the Kaninah Formation raise unanticipated questions about the longevity of Mesozoic clades, underscoring the role that the region may play in revealing novel occurrences, relictual forms, and evidence of faunal dispersals from this critical interval in vertebrate evolutionary history.

Keywords

  • Mesoeucrocodylia
  • atoposaurid
  • crocodyliform
  • Eocene
  • Kaninah Formation
  • Yemen
access type Acceso abierto

First find of biogenic activity in the Palaeoproterozoic of the Singhbhum craton (E India)

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 185 - 192

Resumen

Abstract

The Palaeoproterozoic succession of the Singhbhum craton in E. India was hitherto considered as almost entirely siliciclastic and partly volcanogenic. Here we describe, from the fine-grained, tidally influenced shale facies of the Palaeoproterozoic Chaibasa Formation (2.1-1.6 Ga), a fine, originally more or less horizontal, wavy to strongly undulating (later locally deformed) lamination. Investigation of these laminae shows that they must be ascribed to the accumulation of fine particles on microbial mats that covered a sandy substrate. The structures must therefore be considered as stromatolites, features that are accepted as proof of the presence of micro-organisms, in this case most probably cyanobacteria. The interpretation of biogenic activity is supported by microscopic analysis. It is the first description of traces left by biogenic activity that took place in the Palaeoproterozoic of the Singhbhum craton.

Palabras clave

  • stromatolites
  • Palaeoproterozoic
  • Chaibasa Formation
  • Singhbhum craton
  • siliciclastic
  • shelf
access type Acceso abierto

The late Silurian–Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 193 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

A long-term eustatic cycle (fall and subsequent rise of the global sea level) embraced the late Silurian-Middle Devonian time interval. Potentially, these sea-level changes could drive global biodiversity. The stratigraphic ranges of 204 bivalve genera and 279 gastropod genera included into the famous Sepkoski database allow reconstructing changes in the total diversity and the number of originations and extinctions of these important groups of marine benthic macro- -invertebrates during this interval. None of the recorded parameters coincided with the long-term global sea-level cycle. It cannot be not excluded, however, that the global sea-level changes did not affect the regions favourable for bivalve and gastropod radiation because of regional tectonic mechanisms; neither can it be excluded that the eustatic control persisted together with many other extrinsic and intrinsic controls. Interestingly, the generic diversity of gastropods increased together with a cooling trend, and vice versa. Additionally, the Ludlow, Eifelian, and Givetian biotic crises affected, probably, both fossil groups under study. There was also a coincidence of the relatively high bivalve generic diversity, initial radiation of gastropods and the entire biota, and the diversification of brachiopods with the Early Devonian global sea-level lowstand, and this may be interpreted as evidence of a certain eustatic control on the marine biodiversity.

Keywords

  • bivalves
  • gastropods
  • diversity dynamics
  • origination
  • extinction
  • eustatic changes
  • Silurian
  • Devonian
access type Acceso abierto

Foraminifera and Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the northern palaeobiogeographic district of Western Siberia

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 201 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

The study of 114 core samples from seven borehole sections of the Van-Eganskaya area in the central part of Western Siberia yielded sufficient data to investigate the Late Cenomanian-Turonian foraminifers, palaeoenvironments, and the Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of this poorly studied area. Two Late Cenomanian foraminifer zones were established, viz. a (lower) Saccammina micra - Ammomarginulina sibirica Zone and an (upper) Trochammina wetteri tumida - Verneuilinoides kansasensis Zone. They reflect changes in the species composition of the foraminifer assemblages and lithology of the host rocks of the Uvatskian Horizon. In the lower part of the upper zone, beds with Gaudryinopsis nanushukensis elongatus are present. The changes in the species composition and lithology of the upper Cenomanian resulted from water-depth variations during the Boreal transgression. Two distinct assemblages and two homonymous zones, viz. the (lower) Gaudryinopsis angustus and the (upper) Pseudoclavulina hastata zones occur in the Turonian clayey cap-rocks of the superimposed Kuznetsovskian Horizon. Comparison of the Late Cenomanian-Turonian assemblages from the West-Siberian and Canadian provinces of the same Arctic palaeobiogeographical realm shows that the West-Siberian species are the same as, and closely related to, Canadian taxa, along with geographical subspecies. This comparison allows a detailed correlation, which results in a precise dating of the foraminifer zones.

Keywords

  • Foraminifera
  • biostratigraphy
  • Upper Cenomanian
  • Turonian
  • Western Siberia
access type Acceso abierto

Geochemistry and ore potential of the Almoughlagh batholith, western Iran

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 229 - 242

Resumen

Abstract

The Almoughlagh batholith intruded the dioritic Baba Ali pluton during the Oligo-Miocene; the pluton and is now exposed as a big enclave within the batholith. The pluton intruded the Songhor Series during the Late Kimmeridgian (~136 Ma) orogeny. The intrusion by the batholith transformed the diorite to metadiorite and the impure carbonate units of the Songhor Series. The batholith consists of rock types such as quartz syenite and syenogranite, which have a low average quartz content, and which are metaluminous to peraluminous and calc-alkaline in composition. Comparison of the compositions of the Almoughlagh batholith and the pluton with its Cu, Mo, Fe, Sn, W, Au, and Zn skarn deposits, indicates that the Baba Ali diorite geochemically shows much resemblance with those which could bring about Fe-Cu skarn mineralization, whereas the compositions of the Almoughlagh granitoids resembles those of the plutons associated with Mo and Zn skarn deposits. The associated hydrothermal activity related to the Almoughlagh batholith culminated in magnetite mineralisation in the Baba Ali and the Chenar mines in which copper mineralisation also is considerable.

Keywords

  • Fe-skarn mineralisation
  • Almoughlagh batholith
  • metaluminous
  • geochemistry
  • skarn ore potential
  • Baba Ali pluton
5 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 175 - 183

Resumen

Abstract

During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region’s post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils recovered from the Kaninah Formation raise unanticipated questions about the longevity of Mesozoic clades, underscoring the role that the region may play in revealing novel occurrences, relictual forms, and evidence of faunal dispersals from this critical interval in vertebrate evolutionary history.

Keywords

  • Mesoeucrocodylia
  • atoposaurid
  • crocodyliform
  • Eocene
  • Kaninah Formation
  • Yemen
access type Acceso abierto

First find of biogenic activity in the Palaeoproterozoic of the Singhbhum craton (E India)

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 185 - 192

Resumen

Abstract

The Palaeoproterozoic succession of the Singhbhum craton in E. India was hitherto considered as almost entirely siliciclastic and partly volcanogenic. Here we describe, from the fine-grained, tidally influenced shale facies of the Palaeoproterozoic Chaibasa Formation (2.1-1.6 Ga), a fine, originally more or less horizontal, wavy to strongly undulating (later locally deformed) lamination. Investigation of these laminae shows that they must be ascribed to the accumulation of fine particles on microbial mats that covered a sandy substrate. The structures must therefore be considered as stromatolites, features that are accepted as proof of the presence of micro-organisms, in this case most probably cyanobacteria. The interpretation of biogenic activity is supported by microscopic analysis. It is the first description of traces left by biogenic activity that took place in the Palaeoproterozoic of the Singhbhum craton.

Palabras clave

  • stromatolites
  • Palaeoproterozoic
  • Chaibasa Formation
  • Singhbhum craton
  • siliciclastic
  • shelf
access type Acceso abierto

The late Silurian–Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 193 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

A long-term eustatic cycle (fall and subsequent rise of the global sea level) embraced the late Silurian-Middle Devonian time interval. Potentially, these sea-level changes could drive global biodiversity. The stratigraphic ranges of 204 bivalve genera and 279 gastropod genera included into the famous Sepkoski database allow reconstructing changes in the total diversity and the number of originations and extinctions of these important groups of marine benthic macro- -invertebrates during this interval. None of the recorded parameters coincided with the long-term global sea-level cycle. It cannot be not excluded, however, that the global sea-level changes did not affect the regions favourable for bivalve and gastropod radiation because of regional tectonic mechanisms; neither can it be excluded that the eustatic control persisted together with many other extrinsic and intrinsic controls. Interestingly, the generic diversity of gastropods increased together with a cooling trend, and vice versa. Additionally, the Ludlow, Eifelian, and Givetian biotic crises affected, probably, both fossil groups under study. There was also a coincidence of the relatively high bivalve generic diversity, initial radiation of gastropods and the entire biota, and the diversification of brachiopods with the Early Devonian global sea-level lowstand, and this may be interpreted as evidence of a certain eustatic control on the marine biodiversity.

Keywords

  • bivalves
  • gastropods
  • diversity dynamics
  • origination
  • extinction
  • eustatic changes
  • Silurian
  • Devonian
access type Acceso abierto

Foraminifera and Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the northern palaeobiogeographic district of Western Siberia

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 201 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

The study of 114 core samples from seven borehole sections of the Van-Eganskaya area in the central part of Western Siberia yielded sufficient data to investigate the Late Cenomanian-Turonian foraminifers, palaeoenvironments, and the Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of this poorly studied area. Two Late Cenomanian foraminifer zones were established, viz. a (lower) Saccammina micra - Ammomarginulina sibirica Zone and an (upper) Trochammina wetteri tumida - Verneuilinoides kansasensis Zone. They reflect changes in the species composition of the foraminifer assemblages and lithology of the host rocks of the Uvatskian Horizon. In the lower part of the upper zone, beds with Gaudryinopsis nanushukensis elongatus are present. The changes in the species composition and lithology of the upper Cenomanian resulted from water-depth variations during the Boreal transgression. Two distinct assemblages and two homonymous zones, viz. the (lower) Gaudryinopsis angustus and the (upper) Pseudoclavulina hastata zones occur in the Turonian clayey cap-rocks of the superimposed Kuznetsovskian Horizon. Comparison of the Late Cenomanian-Turonian assemblages from the West-Siberian and Canadian provinces of the same Arctic palaeobiogeographical realm shows that the West-Siberian species are the same as, and closely related to, Canadian taxa, along with geographical subspecies. This comparison allows a detailed correlation, which results in a precise dating of the foraminifer zones.

Keywords

  • Foraminifera
  • biostratigraphy
  • Upper Cenomanian
  • Turonian
  • Western Siberia
access type Acceso abierto

Geochemistry and ore potential of the Almoughlagh batholith, western Iran

Publicado en línea: 08 Oct 2013
Páginas: 229 - 242

Resumen

Abstract

The Almoughlagh batholith intruded the dioritic Baba Ali pluton during the Oligo-Miocene; the pluton and is now exposed as a big enclave within the batholith. The pluton intruded the Songhor Series during the Late Kimmeridgian (~136 Ma) orogeny. The intrusion by the batholith transformed the diorite to metadiorite and the impure carbonate units of the Songhor Series. The batholith consists of rock types such as quartz syenite and syenogranite, which have a low average quartz content, and which are metaluminous to peraluminous and calc-alkaline in composition. Comparison of the compositions of the Almoughlagh batholith and the pluton with its Cu, Mo, Fe, Sn, W, Au, and Zn skarn deposits, indicates that the Baba Ali diorite geochemically shows much resemblance with those which could bring about Fe-Cu skarn mineralization, whereas the compositions of the Almoughlagh granitoids resembles those of the plutons associated with Mo and Zn skarn deposits. The associated hydrothermal activity related to the Almoughlagh batholith culminated in magnetite mineralisation in the Baba Ali and the Chenar mines in which copper mineralisation also is considerable.

Keywords

  • Fe-skarn mineralisation
  • Almoughlagh batholith
  • metaluminous
  • geochemistry
  • skarn ore potential
  • Baba Ali pluton

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