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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-9569
Publicado por primera vez
19 Jun 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 9 (2016): Edición 1 (March 2016)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-9569
Publicado por primera vez
19 Jun 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

5 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Orginal Article. Nephritic cell damage and antioxidant status in rats exposed to leachate from battery recycling industry

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 1 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals) in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g) were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL) for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage. Control groups were treated equally, but given distilled water instead of the leachate. All the groups were fed with the same standard food and had free access to drinking water. Following the exposure, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05) alteration in enzymatic antioxidantscatalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidneys which resulted into elevated levels of malonaldehyde (MDA). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly (p<0.05) depleted relative to the control group. Considerable renal cortical congestion and numerous tubules with protein casts were observed in the lumen of EOMABRIL-treated rats. These findings conclude that possible mechanism by which EOMABRIL at the investigated concentrations elicits nephrotoxicity could be linked to the individual, additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions of this mixture of metals with the renal bio-molecules, alteration of kidney detoxifying enzymes and necrosis of nephritic tubular epithelial cells.

Palabras clave

  • EOMABRIL
  • antioxidant status
  • sub-acute
  • sub-chronic
  • interactions
  • nephrosis
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Toxic effect of sodium fluoride on hydroxyproline level and expression of collagen-1 gene in rat bone and its amelioration by Tamrindus indica L. fruit pulp extract

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 12 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm) through drinking water. The third group received T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) alone and the fourth group received the T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) along with fluorinated drinking water (200 ppm) daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. The level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene using quantitative real time PCR in the tibia bone decreased significantly with continuous exposure to sodium fluoride. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water restored the level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in serum and the concentration of hydroxyproline in urine. It increased the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in the tibia as compared to untreated fluoride-exposed rats. It is concluded that T. indica fruit pulp extract has an ameliorative potential to protect the bone from fluoride induced collagen damage.

Palabras clave

  • Tamarindus indica
  • fluoride
  • hydroxyproline
  • collagen-1
  • rats
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Inflammatory effect of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) on adipose tissue gene expression in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 17 - 24

Resumen

Abstract

Adipocyte dysfunction may be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance as a result of abnormal fat storage and mobilization. Adipocytes uniquely secrete adipokines and cytokines, such as leptin and TNFα, wich promote insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported insulin-signaling related altered gene expression in animals exposed to 2-Aminoanthracene (2AA). 2AA is an aminosubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon used in manufacturing dyes, chemicals, inks, resins, and polyurethanes. The objective of this study was to examine the inflammation related effects of 2AA exposure from gestation to postnatal period on dams that ingested 2AA. To examine 2AA effects, pregnant dams were assigned into dose regimens of 2AA. Dams were fed 2AA contaminated diet during the period of gestation and postpartum. The expression of key gene transcripts reported to be important in mediating inflammatory processes was examined via quantitative RT-PCR. Histologic examination of adipose tissue (AT) was also carried out to understand the anatomy of AT due to 2AA exposure during gestation and two weeks postpartum. Examination of the adipose tissue for microscopic changes revealed no alterations between control and low-dose animals. However, AT of the high-dose animals was infiltrated by increased numbers of CD68+mononuclear cells (macrophages) and small numbers of eosinophils and mast cells, consistent with inflammation. In addition, analysis of the mRNA expression of cytokines and adipokines demonstrated the importance of inflammation in AT dysfunction. For instance, TNFα, LEPTIN and IL-6 transcripts were relatively more expressed in the low dose animals than in the high dose and control rats. At the protein level, however, high amounts of cytokines were noted. The effects of 2AA on pregnant dams appear to be more pronounced in the high dose group than in the low dose group, possibly indicating increased susceptibility of rat offspring within this group to elicit a diabetic-type response.

Palabras clave

  • 2-aminoanthracene
  • adipose tissue (AT)
  • CD68
  • TNFα
  • inflammatory response
  • susceptibility
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Toxicity of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. leave extract by MTT and neutral red assays: influence of the test medium procedure

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 25 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of plant extracts with potential phytotherapeutic properties. This study compared three methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Vero cells to plant extracts. Leaves of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. were used to prepare culture medium with aqueous extract, extract in culture medium and methanol extract. Toxicity was assessed using the MTT and neutral red (NR) assays. In general, alterations in the cellular functions were found in all extracts and assays. Cytotoxic effect occurred at lower doses in aqueous extract and the range of effect of the methanol extract was small. The procedure of preparing the test medium has an effect on the outcome of the assay. Cytotoxicity of plant extract can be assessed by MTT and NR assays. Aqueous extract added to the culture medium presented the best profile to assess cytotoxicity.

Palabras clave

  • cytotoxicity
  • mitochondrial activity
  • lysosomal viability
  • herbal medicine
  • Vero cell
  • cell culture medium
Acceso abierto

Case Report. The first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in a gazelle (Gazella Subgutturosa) – histopathologic diagnosis

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 30 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural phytotoxins found in thousands of plant species around the world. They are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. In the present study, PAs poisoning was investigated in a gazelle with hepatic encephalopathy associated with severe neurologic signs. The main clinical signs included head pressing, progressive depression and weakness, ataxia and reluctance to move, turn the head to the left and to paddle, hyperesthesia and decreased food intake. Histopathological examination revealed major lesions in the liver consisting of severe hepatocyte megalocytosis and hypertrophy with nuclei enlargement, mild bile duct hyperplasia, centriacinar fatty change and hepatocellular necrosis. Moreover, pulmonary congestion and edema with endothelium necrosis and alveolar septa thickening, severe congestion in vessels of the brain and meninges, and myocardial necrosis were observed.

Palabras clave

  • pyrrolizidine alkaloids
  • encephalopathy
  • gazella
  • megalocytosis
5 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Orginal Article. Nephritic cell damage and antioxidant status in rats exposed to leachate from battery recycling industry

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 1 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals) in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g) were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL) for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage. Control groups were treated equally, but given distilled water instead of the leachate. All the groups were fed with the same standard food and had free access to drinking water. Following the exposure, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05) alteration in enzymatic antioxidantscatalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidneys which resulted into elevated levels of malonaldehyde (MDA). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly (p<0.05) depleted relative to the control group. Considerable renal cortical congestion and numerous tubules with protein casts were observed in the lumen of EOMABRIL-treated rats. These findings conclude that possible mechanism by which EOMABRIL at the investigated concentrations elicits nephrotoxicity could be linked to the individual, additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions of this mixture of metals with the renal bio-molecules, alteration of kidney detoxifying enzymes and necrosis of nephritic tubular epithelial cells.

Palabras clave

  • EOMABRIL
  • antioxidant status
  • sub-acute
  • sub-chronic
  • interactions
  • nephrosis
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Toxic effect of sodium fluoride on hydroxyproline level and expression of collagen-1 gene in rat bone and its amelioration by Tamrindus indica L. fruit pulp extract

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 12 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm) through drinking water. The third group received T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) alone and the fourth group received the T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) along with fluorinated drinking water (200 ppm) daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. The level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene using quantitative real time PCR in the tibia bone decreased significantly with continuous exposure to sodium fluoride. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water restored the level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in serum and the concentration of hydroxyproline in urine. It increased the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in the tibia as compared to untreated fluoride-exposed rats. It is concluded that T. indica fruit pulp extract has an ameliorative potential to protect the bone from fluoride induced collagen damage.

Palabras clave

  • Tamarindus indica
  • fluoride
  • hydroxyproline
  • collagen-1
  • rats
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Inflammatory effect of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) on adipose tissue gene expression in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 17 - 24

Resumen

Abstract

Adipocyte dysfunction may be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance as a result of abnormal fat storage and mobilization. Adipocytes uniquely secrete adipokines and cytokines, such as leptin and TNFα, wich promote insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported insulin-signaling related altered gene expression in animals exposed to 2-Aminoanthracene (2AA). 2AA is an aminosubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon used in manufacturing dyes, chemicals, inks, resins, and polyurethanes. The objective of this study was to examine the inflammation related effects of 2AA exposure from gestation to postnatal period on dams that ingested 2AA. To examine 2AA effects, pregnant dams were assigned into dose regimens of 2AA. Dams were fed 2AA contaminated diet during the period of gestation and postpartum. The expression of key gene transcripts reported to be important in mediating inflammatory processes was examined via quantitative RT-PCR. Histologic examination of adipose tissue (AT) was also carried out to understand the anatomy of AT due to 2AA exposure during gestation and two weeks postpartum. Examination of the adipose tissue for microscopic changes revealed no alterations between control and low-dose animals. However, AT of the high-dose animals was infiltrated by increased numbers of CD68+mononuclear cells (macrophages) and small numbers of eosinophils and mast cells, consistent with inflammation. In addition, analysis of the mRNA expression of cytokines and adipokines demonstrated the importance of inflammation in AT dysfunction. For instance, TNFα, LEPTIN and IL-6 transcripts were relatively more expressed in the low dose animals than in the high dose and control rats. At the protein level, however, high amounts of cytokines were noted. The effects of 2AA on pregnant dams appear to be more pronounced in the high dose group than in the low dose group, possibly indicating increased susceptibility of rat offspring within this group to elicit a diabetic-type response.

Palabras clave

  • 2-aminoanthracene
  • adipose tissue (AT)
  • CD68
  • TNFα
  • inflammatory response
  • susceptibility
Acceso abierto

Original Article. Toxicity of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. leave extract by MTT and neutral red assays: influence of the test medium procedure

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 25 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of plant extracts with potential phytotherapeutic properties. This study compared three methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Vero cells to plant extracts. Leaves of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. were used to prepare culture medium with aqueous extract, extract in culture medium and methanol extract. Toxicity was assessed using the MTT and neutral red (NR) assays. In general, alterations in the cellular functions were found in all extracts and assays. Cytotoxic effect occurred at lower doses in aqueous extract and the range of effect of the methanol extract was small. The procedure of preparing the test medium has an effect on the outcome of the assay. Cytotoxicity of plant extract can be assessed by MTT and NR assays. Aqueous extract added to the culture medium presented the best profile to assess cytotoxicity.

Palabras clave

  • cytotoxicity
  • mitochondrial activity
  • lysosomal viability
  • herbal medicine
  • Vero cell
  • cell culture medium
Acceso abierto

Case Report. The first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in a gazelle (Gazella Subgutturosa) – histopathologic diagnosis

Publicado en línea: 17 May 2017
Páginas: 30 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural phytotoxins found in thousands of plant species around the world. They are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. In the present study, PAs poisoning was investigated in a gazelle with hepatic encephalopathy associated with severe neurologic signs. The main clinical signs included head pressing, progressive depression and weakness, ataxia and reluctance to move, turn the head to the left and to paddle, hyperesthesia and decreased food intake. Histopathological examination revealed major lesions in the liver consisting of severe hepatocyte megalocytosis and hypertrophy with nuclei enlargement, mild bile duct hyperplasia, centriacinar fatty change and hepatocellular necrosis. Moreover, pulmonary congestion and edema with endothelium necrosis and alveolar septa thickening, severe congestion in vessels of the brain and meninges, and myocardial necrosis were observed.

Palabras clave

  • pyrrolizidine alkaloids
  • encephalopathy
  • gazella
  • megalocytosis

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