Revista y Edición

Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 4 (December 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 3 (November 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 2 (October 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 1 (September 2019)

Volumen 11 (2018): Edición 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Edición 3 (October 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Edición 2 (August 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Edición 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 10 (2017): Edición 4 (December 2017)

Volumen 10 (2017): Edición 3 (November 2017)

Volumen 10 (2017): Edición 2 (October 2017)

Volumen 10 (2017): Edición 1 (September 2017)

Volumen 9 (2016): Edición 3-4 (December 2016)

Volumen 9 (2016): Edición 2 (June 2016)

Volumen 9 (2016): Edición 1 (March 2016)

Volumen 8 (2015): Edición 4 (December 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Edición 3 (September 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Edición 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Edición 1 (March 2015)

Volumen 7 (2014): Edición 4 (December 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Edición 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Edición 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Edición 1 (March 2014)

Volumen 6 (2013): Edición 4 (December 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Edición 3 (September 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Edición 2 (June 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Edición 1 (March 2013)

Volumen 5 (2012): Edición 4 (December 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Edición 3 (September 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Edición 2 (June 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Edición 1 (March 2012)

Volumen 4 (2011): Edición 4 (December 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Edición 3 (September 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Edición 2 (June 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Edición 1 (March 2011)

Volumen 3 (2010): Edición 4 (December 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Edición 3 (September 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Edición 2 (June 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Edición 1 (March 2010)

Volumen 2 (2009): Edición 4 (December 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Edición 3 (September 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Edición 2 (June 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Edición 1 (March 2009)

Volumen 1 (2008): Edición 3-4 (December 2008)

Volumen 1 (2008): Edición 2 (September 2008)

Volumen 1 (2008): Edición 1 (June 2008)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-9569
Publicado por primera vez
19 Jun 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 2 (October 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-9569
Publicado por primera vez
19 Jun 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Aluminium toxicosis: a review of toxic actions and effects

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 45 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Aluminium (Al) is frequently accessible to animal and human populations to the extent that intoxications may occur. Intake of Al is by inhalation of aerosols or particles, ingestion of food, water and medicaments, skin contact, vaccination, dialysis and infusions. Toxic actions of Al induce oxidative stress, immunologic alterations, genotoxicity, pro-inflammatory effect, peptide denaturation or transformation, enzymatic dysfunction, metabolic derangement, amyloidogenesis, membrane perturbation, iron dyshomeostasis, apoptosis, necrosis and dysplasia. The pathological conditions associated with Al toxicosis are desquamative interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, granulomas, granulomatosis and fibrosis, toxic myocarditis, thrombosis and ischemic stroke, granulomatous enteritis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, anemia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, sclerosis, autism, macrophagic myofasciitis, osteomalacia, oligospermia and infertility, hepatorenal disease, breast cancer and cyst, pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis and diabetes mellitus. The review provides a broad overview of Al toxicosis as a background for sustained investigations of the toxicology of Al compounds of public health importance.

Palabras clave

  • aluminium
  • intoxication
  • pathology
  • toxicity
  • toxicosis
Acceso abierto

World of earthworms with pesticides and insecticides

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 71 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and are known for sustaining the life of the soil. They are used as a model organism in environmental risk assessment of chemicals and soil toxicology. Soil provides physical and nutritive support to agriculture system by regulating biogeochemical cycles, nutrient cycle, waste degradation, organic matter degradation etc. The biggest threat to soil health are pesticides and synthetic chemicals including fertilizers. Earthworms are most severely hit by these xenobiotic compounds leading to a sizeable reduction of their population and adversely affecting soil fertility. Earthworms are incredible soil organisms playing a crucial role in maintaining soil health. Pesticides used in crop management are known to be most over-purchased and irrationally used soil toxicants, simultaneously, used insecticides contribute to a quantum of damage to earthworms and other non-target organisms. LC50 and LD50 studies revealed that earthworms are highly susceptible to insecticides causing immobility, rigidity and also show a significant effect on biomass reduction, growth and reproduction by disrupting various physiological activities leading to loss of earthworm population and soil biodiversity.

Palabras clave

  • earthworms
  • insecticide
  • non-target organism
  • soil macrofauna
  • xenobiotics
Acceso abierto

Systematic review of the clinical consequences of butyrfentanyl and corresponding analogues

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 83 - 88

Resumen

Abstract

Butyrfentanyl and its analogues are being increasingly used throughout the United States and Europe. Currently, lethal cases are emerging across the United States, England, and Europe without any end in sight. We therefore performed a systematic review of existing case reports on the literature of butyrfentanyl and similar analogs. We searched PubMed and Embase for articles (up until September 2018) using terms such as “butyrfentanyl” or “butyrylfentanyl.” In total, our search found 271 articles and identified 10 for inclusion in this review. A total of 33 cases were found with 61% of those being fatal. The most common route of administration was intravenous, but other routes of administration were readily used such as oral, intranasal, and inhalation. Most cases reported use of concomitant licit and illicit pharmacological agents. The toxidrome was consistent with other opioid overdoses, and naloxone was successfully used in nine of 10 patients. We encourage toxicology screenings of novel fentanyl analogs such as butyrfentanyl or 4-fluorobutyrfentanyl when an opioid overdose of unknown nature presents.

Palabras clave

  • opioids
  • street drugs
  • drug overdose
  • butyrfentanyl
Acceso abierto

Probiotics against alleviation of lead toxicity: recent advances

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 89 - 92

Resumen

Abstract

Lead is a toxic heavy metal and there is no specific, safe and efficacious therapeutic management of lead toxicity. Scientific literature reported that some probiotic microorganisms alleviated experimentally induced lead toxicity. The present review attempts to collate the experimental studies on probiotics with ameliorative effects. Literature survey revealed that four (4) types of probiotic microorganisms exhibited significant protection from lead toxicity in experimental pre-clinical studies. No clinical study with significant outcome was found in the literature. From the outcomes of the preclinical studies it appears that probiotics are prospective for alleviation and treatment of lead toxicity.

Palabras clave

  • probiotics
  • lead
  • lactobacilli
  • oxidative stress
Acceso abierto

Genotoxicity of cisplatin and carboplatin in cultured human lymphocytes: a comparative study

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 93 - 97

Resumen

Abstract

Cisplatin and carboplatin are integral parts of many antineoplastic management regimens. Both platinum analogues are potent DNA alkylating agents that robustly induce genomic instability and promote apoptosis in tumor cells. Although the mechanism of action of both drugs is similar, cisplatin appears to be more cytotoxic. In this study, the genotoxic potential of cisplatin and carboplatin was compared using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. Results showed that cisplatin and carboplatin induced a significant increase in CAs and SCEs compared to the control group (p<0.01). Levels of induced CAs were similar in both drugs; however, the magnitude of SCEs induced by cisplatin was significantly higher than that induced by carboplatin (p<0.01). With respect to the mitotic and proliferative indices, both cisplatin and carboplatin significantly decreased mitotic index (p<0.01) without affecting the proliferative index (p>0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin was found to be more genotoxic than carboplatin in the SCE assay in cultured human lymphocytes, and that might explain the higher cytotoxicity of cisplatin.

Palabras clave

  • cisplatin
  • carboplatin
  • DNA damage
  • chromosomal aberrations
  • sister-chromatid exchange
Acceso abierto

Nephroprotective effect of green tea, rosmarinic acid and rosemary on N-diethylnitrosamine initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate promoted acute renal toxicity in Wistar rats

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 98 - 110

Resumen

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the chemoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE), rosmarinic acid (RA) and rosemary extract (RE) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) promoted nephrotoxicity in rats. Forty male rats were categorized into five: Group I included healthy rats, group II received DEN+Fe-NTA, group III received 200 mg/kg b.wt. of RE+DEN+Fe-NTA, group IV received 1 g/kg b.wt. of GTE+DEN+Fe-NTA and group V received 50 mg/kg b.wt. of RA+DEN+Fe-NTA. RE, GTE, RA were given orally for 14 days before single intraperitoneal administration of DEN (160 mg/kg) till the end of the experiment. Eighteen days after DEN, a single intraperitoneal dose of Fe-NTA (5 mg Fe/kg) was administrated to rats to promote nephrotoxicity. The biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum at time intervals while the malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed in both serum and renal tissues. Kidney from each group was histopathologically examined at time intervals. The administration of Fe-NTA after DEN dose to albino rats resulted in acute nephrotoxicity which was characterized by a highly significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid (p=0.000), serum and renal MDA and TNF-α (p=0.000) with vacuolation of epithelial lining renal tubules. The administration of RE, GTE and RA prior to DEN+Fe-NTA treatment significantly ameliorated the observed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters. GTE, RA & RE exerted a protective effect against renal toxicity with GTE showing a more pronounced effect on renal function parameters while RA showed the best antioxidant impact.

Palabras clave

  • vipoxin
  • phospholipase A
  • acidic component
  • acute toxicity
6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Aluminium toxicosis: a review of toxic actions and effects

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 45 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Aluminium (Al) is frequently accessible to animal and human populations to the extent that intoxications may occur. Intake of Al is by inhalation of aerosols or particles, ingestion of food, water and medicaments, skin contact, vaccination, dialysis and infusions. Toxic actions of Al induce oxidative stress, immunologic alterations, genotoxicity, pro-inflammatory effect, peptide denaturation or transformation, enzymatic dysfunction, metabolic derangement, amyloidogenesis, membrane perturbation, iron dyshomeostasis, apoptosis, necrosis and dysplasia. The pathological conditions associated with Al toxicosis are desquamative interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, granulomas, granulomatosis and fibrosis, toxic myocarditis, thrombosis and ischemic stroke, granulomatous enteritis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, anemia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, sclerosis, autism, macrophagic myofasciitis, osteomalacia, oligospermia and infertility, hepatorenal disease, breast cancer and cyst, pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis and diabetes mellitus. The review provides a broad overview of Al toxicosis as a background for sustained investigations of the toxicology of Al compounds of public health importance.

Palabras clave

  • aluminium
  • intoxication
  • pathology
  • toxicity
  • toxicosis
Acceso abierto

World of earthworms with pesticides and insecticides

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 71 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and are known for sustaining the life of the soil. They are used as a model organism in environmental risk assessment of chemicals and soil toxicology. Soil provides physical and nutritive support to agriculture system by regulating biogeochemical cycles, nutrient cycle, waste degradation, organic matter degradation etc. The biggest threat to soil health are pesticides and synthetic chemicals including fertilizers. Earthworms are most severely hit by these xenobiotic compounds leading to a sizeable reduction of their population and adversely affecting soil fertility. Earthworms are incredible soil organisms playing a crucial role in maintaining soil health. Pesticides used in crop management are known to be most over-purchased and irrationally used soil toxicants, simultaneously, used insecticides contribute to a quantum of damage to earthworms and other non-target organisms. LC50 and LD50 studies revealed that earthworms are highly susceptible to insecticides causing immobility, rigidity and also show a significant effect on biomass reduction, growth and reproduction by disrupting various physiological activities leading to loss of earthworm population and soil biodiversity.

Palabras clave

  • earthworms
  • insecticide
  • non-target organism
  • soil macrofauna
  • xenobiotics
Acceso abierto

Systematic review of the clinical consequences of butyrfentanyl and corresponding analogues

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 83 - 88

Resumen

Abstract

Butyrfentanyl and its analogues are being increasingly used throughout the United States and Europe. Currently, lethal cases are emerging across the United States, England, and Europe without any end in sight. We therefore performed a systematic review of existing case reports on the literature of butyrfentanyl and similar analogs. We searched PubMed and Embase for articles (up until September 2018) using terms such as “butyrfentanyl” or “butyrylfentanyl.” In total, our search found 271 articles and identified 10 for inclusion in this review. A total of 33 cases were found with 61% of those being fatal. The most common route of administration was intravenous, but other routes of administration were readily used such as oral, intranasal, and inhalation. Most cases reported use of concomitant licit and illicit pharmacological agents. The toxidrome was consistent with other opioid overdoses, and naloxone was successfully used in nine of 10 patients. We encourage toxicology screenings of novel fentanyl analogs such as butyrfentanyl or 4-fluorobutyrfentanyl when an opioid overdose of unknown nature presents.

Palabras clave

  • opioids
  • street drugs
  • drug overdose
  • butyrfentanyl
Acceso abierto

Probiotics against alleviation of lead toxicity: recent advances

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 89 - 92

Resumen

Abstract

Lead is a toxic heavy metal and there is no specific, safe and efficacious therapeutic management of lead toxicity. Scientific literature reported that some probiotic microorganisms alleviated experimentally induced lead toxicity. The present review attempts to collate the experimental studies on probiotics with ameliorative effects. Literature survey revealed that four (4) types of probiotic microorganisms exhibited significant protection from lead toxicity in experimental pre-clinical studies. No clinical study with significant outcome was found in the literature. From the outcomes of the preclinical studies it appears that probiotics are prospective for alleviation and treatment of lead toxicity.

Palabras clave

  • probiotics
  • lead
  • lactobacilli
  • oxidative stress
Acceso abierto

Genotoxicity of cisplatin and carboplatin in cultured human lymphocytes: a comparative study

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 93 - 97

Resumen

Abstract

Cisplatin and carboplatin are integral parts of many antineoplastic management regimens. Both platinum analogues are potent DNA alkylating agents that robustly induce genomic instability and promote apoptosis in tumor cells. Although the mechanism of action of both drugs is similar, cisplatin appears to be more cytotoxic. In this study, the genotoxic potential of cisplatin and carboplatin was compared using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. Results showed that cisplatin and carboplatin induced a significant increase in CAs and SCEs compared to the control group (p<0.01). Levels of induced CAs were similar in both drugs; however, the magnitude of SCEs induced by cisplatin was significantly higher than that induced by carboplatin (p<0.01). With respect to the mitotic and proliferative indices, both cisplatin and carboplatin significantly decreased mitotic index (p<0.01) without affecting the proliferative index (p>0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin was found to be more genotoxic than carboplatin in the SCE assay in cultured human lymphocytes, and that might explain the higher cytotoxicity of cisplatin.

Palabras clave

  • cisplatin
  • carboplatin
  • DNA damage
  • chromosomal aberrations
  • sister-chromatid exchange
Acceso abierto

Nephroprotective effect of green tea, rosmarinic acid and rosemary on N-diethylnitrosamine initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate promoted acute renal toxicity in Wistar rats

Publicado en línea: 20 Feb 2020
Páginas: 98 - 110

Resumen

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the chemoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE), rosmarinic acid (RA) and rosemary extract (RE) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) promoted nephrotoxicity in rats. Forty male rats were categorized into five: Group I included healthy rats, group II received DEN+Fe-NTA, group III received 200 mg/kg b.wt. of RE+DEN+Fe-NTA, group IV received 1 g/kg b.wt. of GTE+DEN+Fe-NTA and group V received 50 mg/kg b.wt. of RA+DEN+Fe-NTA. RE, GTE, RA were given orally for 14 days before single intraperitoneal administration of DEN (160 mg/kg) till the end of the experiment. Eighteen days after DEN, a single intraperitoneal dose of Fe-NTA (5 mg Fe/kg) was administrated to rats to promote nephrotoxicity. The biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum at time intervals while the malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed in both serum and renal tissues. Kidney from each group was histopathologically examined at time intervals. The administration of Fe-NTA after DEN dose to albino rats resulted in acute nephrotoxicity which was characterized by a highly significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid (p=0.000), serum and renal MDA and TNF-α (p=0.000) with vacuolation of epithelial lining renal tubules. The administration of RE, GTE and RA prior to DEN+Fe-NTA treatment significantly ameliorated the observed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters. GTE, RA & RE exerted a protective effect against renal toxicity with GTE showing a more pronounced effect on renal function parameters while RA showed the best antioxidant impact.

Palabras clave

  • vipoxin
  • phospholipase A
  • acidic component
  • acute toxicity

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo