Revista y Edición

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Volumen 16 (2022): Edición 1 (June 2022)

Volumen 15 (2021): Edición 2 (December 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Edición 1 (June 2021)

Volumen 14 (2020): Edición 2 (December 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Edición 1 (June 2020)

Volumen 13 (2019): Edición 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Edición 1 (June 2019)

Volumen 12 (2018): Edición 2 (December 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Edición 1 (June 2018)

Volumen 11 (2017): Edición 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Edición 1 (June 2017)

Volumen 10 (2016): Edición 2 (December 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Edición 1 (June 2016)

Volumen 9 (2015): Edición 2 (December 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Edición 1 (May 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1802-4866
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2015
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 15 (2021): Edición 2 (December 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1802-4866
Publicado por primera vez
16 Apr 2015
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

4 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

A policy window and a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs: The introduction of opioid substitution therapy in Belarus

Publicado en línea: 02 Sep 2021
Páginas: 1 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Why does a regime that is predominantly characterised by conservative ideology introduce opioid substitution therapy (OST), a liberal policy? This article applies the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) to examine the introduction of OST in Belarus. Methodologically, the research draws on qualitative content analysis of drug policy documents and reports as well as on interviews. Results show how an increased HIV prevalence among injecting drug users opened a policy window in the problem stream. The increase in HIV cases could be used by a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs to frame OST as a public health policy instead of a drug policy measure. Findings suggest that, in nondemocratic regimes, global policy entrepreneurs can play a dominant role in introducing new policy ideas. However, the sustainability of the policy change remains questionable when acquiescence by key policymakers is lacking.

Palabras clave

  • Drug Policy
  • Opioid Substitution Therapy
  • Belarus
  • Multiple Streams Framework
access type Acceso abierto

Between incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium: the case of budget in Poland, 1995–2018

Publicado en línea: 02 Sep 2021
Páginas: 14 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) have secured their standing in public policy research when studying change in budgetary data. On the other hand, however, new empirical evidence is constantly developed to confront it with theoretical assumptions. In line with the above, the aim of the paper is threefold. First, it is examined if budgetary outlays in Poland follow either incrementalism or PET's core premises. Second, the paper aims at facilitating discussion on identifying punctuations. It is claimed that any cut-off point should be data-driven, category-responsive, and generalizable across different types of outliers. And third, it is investigated which of the budget categories have the most punctuations. Methodologically, the study is based on descriptive and distributional statistics provided to tackle the above two issues comprehensively. Consequently, the paper aims at filling the gap in theory-driven literature on Polish budget shifts and their empirical rigorous explanations. Thus, it is claimed that the Polish case study contributes to the debate on the verification of empirical research on public policy agendas and public policy change.

Palabras clave

  • public policy
  • incrementalism
  • punctuated equilibrium theory
  • budget analysis
  • outlier detection
access type Acceso abierto

Modelling the impact of Artificial Intelligence on the labour market in Czechia

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2021
Páginas: 31 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

This article describes an original model developed in the Technology Centre CAS for the estimation of the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the labour market in Czechia. On the contrary to the previous estimates, this model is based on the comparison of projected future technical capabilities of AI with a mix of capabilities needed in different job categories. Both the importance and the level of capabilities are taken into account in order to assess the impact of AI on jobs in three different time horizons. Based on the model calculations, it can be expected that on the five-year horizon the AI will be able to replace more than 50% of the required capabilities in 11 % of the occupations. On the thirty-year horizon, AI can replace over 50% of capabilities in the vast majority of the current professions. At the same time, new professions will continuously emerge, though they will place different demands on their performers and will require different skills and capabilities in comparison to current professions. The model and its results may be effectively used for efficient adaptation of education, lifelong learning and retraining to the changing nature of work, and related new demand for workers’ capabilities.

Palabras clave

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • labour market
  • economic modelling
  • economic impact
access type Acceso abierto

From a Caring State to an Investing State. Stages of a Changing Welfare Model in Labour Market Policy

Publicado en línea: 18 Aug 2021
Páginas: 43 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the changing model of social security. The analyses are focusing on changes in labour market policies which have taken place in the countries of the European Union. With the critical review of scientific literature of welfare changes, we try to answer the next questions. What circumstances led to the shift from the welfare state focusing on welfare benefits and services to the generally accepted model of the activating? What reforms and what stages lead to the transformation of the welfare model especially in the area of labour market policies? How the earlier integration efforts, which had mainly focused on entitlement, was replaced with a market-based approach like social investment?

The most important result of the critical analysis is the presentation of the policy model transfer between the states of the European Union and the steps of the reform process, which jeopardise the enforcement of the citizen's social rights.

The first part of the study presents the theoretical framework for the transformation of the labour market policies, the key pillars of the welfare state and the term “activation state” and “investing state”. The second part examines the key features of five stages of changing model.

Palabras clave

  • activating state
  • labour market policy
  • social investment
  • social right
  • policy learning
4 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

A policy window and a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs: The introduction of opioid substitution therapy in Belarus

Publicado en línea: 02 Sep 2021
Páginas: 1 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Why does a regime that is predominantly characterised by conservative ideology introduce opioid substitution therapy (OST), a liberal policy? This article applies the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) to examine the introduction of OST in Belarus. Methodologically, the research draws on qualitative content analysis of drug policy documents and reports as well as on interviews. Results show how an increased HIV prevalence among injecting drug users opened a policy window in the problem stream. The increase in HIV cases could be used by a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs to frame OST as a public health policy instead of a drug policy measure. Findings suggest that, in nondemocratic regimes, global policy entrepreneurs can play a dominant role in introducing new policy ideas. However, the sustainability of the policy change remains questionable when acquiescence by key policymakers is lacking.

Palabras clave

  • Drug Policy
  • Opioid Substitution Therapy
  • Belarus
  • Multiple Streams Framework
access type Acceso abierto

Between incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium: the case of budget in Poland, 1995–2018

Publicado en línea: 02 Sep 2021
Páginas: 14 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) have secured their standing in public policy research when studying change in budgetary data. On the other hand, however, new empirical evidence is constantly developed to confront it with theoretical assumptions. In line with the above, the aim of the paper is threefold. First, it is examined if budgetary outlays in Poland follow either incrementalism or PET's core premises. Second, the paper aims at facilitating discussion on identifying punctuations. It is claimed that any cut-off point should be data-driven, category-responsive, and generalizable across different types of outliers. And third, it is investigated which of the budget categories have the most punctuations. Methodologically, the study is based on descriptive and distributional statistics provided to tackle the above two issues comprehensively. Consequently, the paper aims at filling the gap in theory-driven literature on Polish budget shifts and their empirical rigorous explanations. Thus, it is claimed that the Polish case study contributes to the debate on the verification of empirical research on public policy agendas and public policy change.

Palabras clave

  • public policy
  • incrementalism
  • punctuated equilibrium theory
  • budget analysis
  • outlier detection
access type Acceso abierto

Modelling the impact of Artificial Intelligence on the labour market in Czechia

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2021
Páginas: 31 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

This article describes an original model developed in the Technology Centre CAS for the estimation of the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the labour market in Czechia. On the contrary to the previous estimates, this model is based on the comparison of projected future technical capabilities of AI with a mix of capabilities needed in different job categories. Both the importance and the level of capabilities are taken into account in order to assess the impact of AI on jobs in three different time horizons. Based on the model calculations, it can be expected that on the five-year horizon the AI will be able to replace more than 50% of the required capabilities in 11 % of the occupations. On the thirty-year horizon, AI can replace over 50% of capabilities in the vast majority of the current professions. At the same time, new professions will continuously emerge, though they will place different demands on their performers and will require different skills and capabilities in comparison to current professions. The model and its results may be effectively used for efficient adaptation of education, lifelong learning and retraining to the changing nature of work, and related new demand for workers’ capabilities.

Palabras clave

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • labour market
  • economic modelling
  • economic impact
access type Acceso abierto

From a Caring State to an Investing State. Stages of a Changing Welfare Model in Labour Market Policy

Publicado en línea: 18 Aug 2021
Páginas: 43 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the changing model of social security. The analyses are focusing on changes in labour market policies which have taken place in the countries of the European Union. With the critical review of scientific literature of welfare changes, we try to answer the next questions. What circumstances led to the shift from the welfare state focusing on welfare benefits and services to the generally accepted model of the activating? What reforms and what stages lead to the transformation of the welfare model especially in the area of labour market policies? How the earlier integration efforts, which had mainly focused on entitlement, was replaced with a market-based approach like social investment?

The most important result of the critical analysis is the presentation of the policy model transfer between the states of the European Union and the steps of the reform process, which jeopardise the enforcement of the citizen's social rights.

The first part of the study presents the theoretical framework for the transformation of the labour market policies, the key pillars of the welfare state and the term “activation state” and “investing state”. The second part examines the key features of five stages of changing model.

Palabras clave

  • activating state
  • labour market policy
  • social investment
  • social right
  • policy learning

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