This article presents simulation models of trailer air brake systems in configurations without a valve and with a differential valve, thus demonstrating the rationale for using a valve to improve system performance. Simplified mathematical models using the lumped method for systems without and with a differential valve are presented. The proposed valve can have two states of operation depending on the configuration of relevant parameters. These parameters can include the length of the control pipe, the throughput between chambers in the control part of the valve and the forcing rise time. Based on the calculations, it was found that the differential valve with large control pipe lengths can reduce the response time of the actuator by 42.77% relative to the system without the valve. In the case of transition of the valve to the tracking action, this time increases only by 9.93%. A force rise time of 0.5 s causes the transition of the valve from the accelerating action to the tracking action, with 9.23% delay relative to the system without a valve. The calculations can be used in the preliminary assessment of the speed of operation of pneumatic braking systems and in the formulation of guidelines for the construction of a prototypical differential valve. In conclusion, it is suggested to use a mechatronic system enabling smooth adjustment of the flow rate between chambers of the control system of the differential valve.