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Figure 1

Survival of IJs in five vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 13%.
Survival of IJs in five vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 13%.

Figure 2

Survival of EPNs in oil emulsions of J. virginiana and C. citratus at a concentration of 13% under laboratory conditions.
Survival of EPNs in oil emulsions of J. virginiana and C. citratus at a concentration of 13% under laboratory conditions.

Figure 3

Effectivity of EPNs at concentration of 50 IJs/tick in vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 33% on engorged adult ticks. Bars with unequal letters are statistically different (Tukey, P ˂ 0.05).
Effectivity of EPNs at concentration of 50 IJs/tick in vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 33% on engorged adult ticks. Bars with unequal letters are statistically different (Tukey, P ˂ 0.05).

Figure 4

Effectivity of EPNs at concentration of 100 IJs/tick in vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 33% on engorged adult ticks. Bars with unequal letters are statistically different (Tukey, P ˂ 0.05).
Effectivity of EPNs at concentration of 100 IJs/tick in vegetable oil emulsions at concentration of 33% on engorged adult ticks. Bars with unequal letters are statistically different (Tukey, P ˂ 0.05).

Figure 5

Control effectiveness of S. websteri at 119 IJs/tick in two vegetable oil emulsions at a concentration of 33% and a Control with S. websteri in only distilled water.
Control effectiveness of S. websteri at 119 IJs/tick in two vegetable oil emulsions at a concentration of 33% and a Control with S. websteri in only distilled water.

Treatments of EPNs in vegetable oil emulsions to evaluate the survival of IJs and control effectivity on adult ticks.

Final composition
Experiment Treatment (%) Oil (µL) Amount of IJs Distilled water (µL)
Survival Heterorhabdistis bacteriophoraC. citratus 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Heterorhabditis bacteriophoraPelargonium 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Heterorhabditis bacteriophoraJ. virginiana 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Heterorhabditis bacteriophoraRose 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Heterorhabditis bacteriophoraM. piperita 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora -AD (control) 0 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsaeC. citratus 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsaePelargonium 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsaeJ. virginiana 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsaeRose 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsaeM. piperita 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema carpocapsae -AD (control) 0 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteriC. citratus 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteriPelargonium 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteriJ. virginiana 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteriRose 13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteriM. piperita13 300 400 ± 20 2,000
Steinernema websteri -AD (Control) 0 400 ± 20 2,000
Control effectiveness in laboratory Steinernema websteri –J. virginiana 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Steinernema websteri –C. citratus 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Steinernema carpocapsae –J. virginiana 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Steinernema carpocapsae –C. citratus 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora –J. virginiana 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora –C. citratus 33 833 50 ± 5 1,667
Steinernema websteri –J. virginiana 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Steinernema websteri –C. citratus 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Steinernema carpocapsae –J. virginiana 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Steinernema carpocapsae –C. citratus 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora –J. virginiana 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora –C. citratus 33 833 100 ± 10 1,667
Control effectiveness in field Steinernema websteri –C. citratus 33 833 119 ± 10 1,667
Steinernema websteri –J. virginiana 33 833 119 ± 10 1,667
Steinernema websteri -AD (Control) 0 119 ± 10 2,500
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