A low-cost small-scale autonomous vehicle refers to a self-driving vehicle that is designed to be affordable and suitable for smaller applications or specific purposes. In this study, the firefly algorithm was utilized to address obstacle avoidance challenges in the presence of dynamic or statically positioned uncertain obstacles. The autonomous vehicle successfully reached the intended destination, demonstrating a satisfactory level of accuracy. Regardless of the starting point, the vehicle arrived at the predetermined position within an area measuring 5 meters in diameter. The achievement of such results can be attributed to the cost-effective selection of sensors, utilization of a simple algorithm, and the implementation of a moderately powered processor and circuit components.