Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 4 (2022): Heft 1 (June 2022)

Volumen 3 (2021): Heft 1 (June 2021)
Media and the Climate Crisis

Volumen 2 (2020): Heft 1 (June 2020)
What is Nordic in the Nordic Media Studies?

Volumen 1 (2019): Heft 1 (June 2019)
Disrupting Media Infrastructures

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2003-184X
Erstveröffentlichung
30 May 2019
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 3 (2021): Heft 1 (June 2021)
Media and the Climate Crisis

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2003-184X
Erstveröffentlichung
30 May 2019
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

11 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Media and the Climate Crisis

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 1 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recent years have seen another peak in global media attention to climate change. Driven by increasingly dire news about extreme weather, growing demands of systemic adaption and a new wave political activism, the current situation has increasingly been framed as a climate crisis. This introductory essay maps these recent developments and elaborates the conceptual potentials and limitations of the “crisis” frame. It also briefly reviews the state of the art of media research and situates the contributions of the issue into this landscape.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change
  • climate crisis
  • media and communication research
  • conceptualisation
  • framing
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Agents of sustainable transition or place branding promotors?: Local journalism and climate change in Sweden

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 20 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The climate crisis concerns the whole fabric of society. Local journalism can play a key role when cities are handling the problems. In this article, I analyse local media discourses on climate change in four Swedish cities that aim to be role models in the transition towards carbon neutrality. A discourse analysis of news articles and op-eds about the climate, combined with semi-structured interviews with journalists working at four different local newspapers, shows that the climate crisis is covered in all newspapers – even if the amount and ambition varies – including the ability to fill key roles as watchdog and educator. The newsrooms’ climate focus also had to give way when the Covid-19 pandemic struck. Local decisions about transportation, food, and urban development are common topics and often debated in the local press. However, the prize-winning cities’ ambitious green plans to become climate neutral already by 2030 remain vague for the journalists and probably also their readers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change communication
  • discourse analysis
  • local journalism
  • local media
  • place branding
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The climate change movement and political parties: Mechanisms of social media and interaction during the 2019 electoral period in Finland

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 40 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Building on the framework of electoral contention, we investigate the interaction dynamics between social movements and political parties during elections. We argue that social media today is an important venue for these interactions, and consequently, analysing social media data is useful for understanding the shifts in the conflict and alliance structures between movements and parties. We find that Twitter discussions on the climate change movement during the 2019 electoral period in Finland reveal a process of pre-election approaching and post-election distancing between the movement and parties. The Greens and the Left formed mutually beneficial coalitions with the movement preceding the elections and took distance from one another after these parties entered the government. These findings suggest that research on movement-party interaction should pay more attention to social media and undertake comparative studies to assess whether the approaching-distancing process and its constituent mechanisms characterise movements beyond the climate strikes in Finland.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social movements
  • climate movement
  • electoral contention
  • contentious politics
  • social media
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Just “performance nonsense”?: How recipients process news photos of activists’ symbolic actions about climate change politics

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 61 - 78

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, I investigate how recipients make sense of images that show symbolic actions by environmental activists during two recent United Nations Climate Change Conferences. Environmental advocacy groups are successful in creating visibility for their symbolic actions via news visuals, but little empirical evidence exists about how ordinary media recipients engage with this type of imagery. Can they understand the intended meaning of complex visual rhetoric used by environmental activists? I use think-aloud protocols to uncover the cognitive strategies which are used in processing these stylised visual claims. Results show that news photos rarely manage to communicate the intended meaning of symbolic actions. By systematically analysing various stages of visual frame processing, this study offers insights into specific configurations of the image-viewer relationship that cause high levels of ambiguity and prevent staged visual claims from being understood as intended. Yet I also find empirical evidence for a visual framing approach that works well and describe this recipe for effective communication via symbolic action photography.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change
  • symbolic actions
  • visual communication
  • frame processing
  • think-aloud
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Scare-quoting climate: The rapid rise of climate denial in the Swedish far-right media ecosystem

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 79 - 95

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The final years of the 2010s marked an upturn in coverage on climate change. In Sweden, legacy media wrote more on the issue than ever before, especially in connection to the drought and wildfires in the summer of 2018 and the Fridays for Future movement started by Greta Thunberg. Reporting on climate change also reached unprecedented levels in the growingly influential far-right media ecosystem; from being a topic discussed hardly at all, it became a prominent issue. In this study, we use a toolkit from critical discourse analysis (CDA) to research how three Swedish far-right digital media sites reported on climate during the years 2018–2019. We show how the use of conspiracy theories, anti-establishment rhetoric, and nationalistic arguments created an antagonistic reaction to increased demands for action on climate change. By putting climate in ironic quotation marks, a discourse was created where it was taken for granted that climate change was a hoax.

Schlüsselwörter

  • far right
  • climate change denial
  • scare-quotes
  • Greta Thunberg
  • digital media
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spread of tweets in climate discussions: A case study of the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize announcement

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 96 - 117

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Characterising the spreading of ideas within echo chambers is essential for understanding polarisation. In this article, we explore the characteristics of popular and viral content in climate change discussions on Twitter around the 2019 announcement of the Nobel Peace Prize, where we find the retweet network of users to be polarised into two well-separated groups of activists and sceptics. Operationalising popularity as the number of retweets and virality as the spreading probability inferred using an independent cascade model, we find that the viral themes echo and differ from the popular themes in interesting ways. Most importantly, we find that the most viral themes in the two groups reflect different types of bonds that tie the community together, yet both function to enhance ingroup connections while repulsing outgroup engagement. With this, our study sheds light, from an information-spreading perspective, on the formation and upkeep of echo chambers in climate discussions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate politics
  • Twitter
  • virality
  • polarisation
  • social networks
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Emergent self-mediating classes in the digital semiosphere: Covid-19 conspiracies and the climate justice movement

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 118 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, we advocate for media studies to adopt a systematic evolutionary-complexity model, in order to link the study of human culture and knowledge practices to the biosphere and geosphere, arguing that such global phenomena require a new kind of cultural science. For this purpose, we extend Juri Lotman's model of the semiosphere to the “digital semiosphere”, superseding inherited adversarial models in both mainstream media and media studies. We contrast the mediation of Covid-19 with that of the climate crisis, using Lotman's model to propose that, in the digital semiosphere, the global emergence of girl-led climate activism and far-right Covid-19 conspiracy groups indicates how new social classes are organising around the means of their own mediation. We discuss ways to study and forecast such emergent processes using the means of cultural data analytics and related approaches.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cultural semiotics
  • cultural science
  • climate activism
  • conspiracy theories
  • cultural forecasting
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bridging the computational and visual turn: Re-tooling visual studies with image recognition and network analysis to study online climate images

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 141 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, we argue that to capture the liveliness of how visual public debates like the climate controversy unfold online, we must replace snapshot and single-platform approaches with a method that can capture their temporal and cross-platform dynamics. We suggest that such a methodology could be assembled by combining image recognition, visual network analysis, and a quali-quantitative approach within a digital methods framework. We demonstrate the potential application of the methodology in a two-fold case study of 1) how the human–nature relation is visually depicted on Instagram and Twitter, and 2) how visual genres in the climate debate on Twitter change from 2015 to 2017. Through these experiments, we analyse more than a quarter million social media images to produce novel insights about the climate debate, while showcasing how the computational and visual capabilities of social science can be bridged to open up opportunities for mapping complex visual debates across platforms and time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • digital methods
  • visual studies
  • climate change
  • Twitter
  • Instagram
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Aesthetic practices in the climate crisis: Intervening in consensual frameworks of the sensible through images

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 164 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Previous research has shown that Western visual journalism has represented climate change through certain repetitive and stereotypical imagery mainly consisting of catastrophic images of climate change impacts, images depicting technological causes and solutions, and images of politicians and activists. This imagery has proven to be distant, abstract, and ineffective in motivating personal engagement with climate change. In this article, we claim that visual journalism's representations of climate change are rooted in the consensual frameworks of human-centredness and consumption-centredness. Leaning on Jacques Ranciére's notion of “the politics of aesthetics”, we aim to challenge these frameworks. We suggest, with examples from visual arts, four aesthetic practices which could intervene in these frameworks: 1) revealing connectedness, 2) recognising agency, 3) compromising the attractions of consumerism, and 4) illuminating alternatives. We propose that visual representations, renewed through these aesthetic practices, could have an effect on how people connect to climate issues and imagine possibilities for agency in the climate crisis. Implementing these aesthetic practices would entail shifts in the sphere of visual journalism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • aesthetics
  • aesthetic practices
  • climate crisis
  • images
  • photography
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Premediating climate change in videogames: Repetition, mastery, and failure

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 184 - 199

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article starts with the observation that growth-oriented, techno-futurist narratives are predominant in climate change videogames. It then accounts for the lack of variety by arguing that these videogames are privileged expressions of premediation. Premediation cultivates a multiplicity of future scenarios, while at the same time delimiting them to suit presentist concerns, evoking a sense of inevitability and predictability strengthened by repetition. The iterative, branching temporality at work in this logic is deeply ingrained in videogames, as the trope of mastery through repetition and its analysis requires attentiveness to the affective dimensions of gameplay. If videogames are to engage with the climate crisis more productively, they must develop different temporalities in which the potentiality of the future is preserved. In this article, I analyse the games Fate of the World and The Stillness of the Wind to demonstrate how videogames premediate climate change and how they can explore other temporalities latent in the present.

Schlüsselwörter

  • videogames
  • premediation
  • climate change
  • futures
  • failure
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The difference between “alarmist” and “alarming”: Interview with Maxwell Boykoff

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 200 - 206

Zusammenfassung

11 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Media and the Climate Crisis

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 1 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recent years have seen another peak in global media attention to climate change. Driven by increasingly dire news about extreme weather, growing demands of systemic adaption and a new wave political activism, the current situation has increasingly been framed as a climate crisis. This introductory essay maps these recent developments and elaborates the conceptual potentials and limitations of the “crisis” frame. It also briefly reviews the state of the art of media research and situates the contributions of the issue into this landscape.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change
  • climate crisis
  • media and communication research
  • conceptualisation
  • framing
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Agents of sustainable transition or place branding promotors?: Local journalism and climate change in Sweden

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 20 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The climate crisis concerns the whole fabric of society. Local journalism can play a key role when cities are handling the problems. In this article, I analyse local media discourses on climate change in four Swedish cities that aim to be role models in the transition towards carbon neutrality. A discourse analysis of news articles and op-eds about the climate, combined with semi-structured interviews with journalists working at four different local newspapers, shows that the climate crisis is covered in all newspapers – even if the amount and ambition varies – including the ability to fill key roles as watchdog and educator. The newsrooms’ climate focus also had to give way when the Covid-19 pandemic struck. Local decisions about transportation, food, and urban development are common topics and often debated in the local press. However, the prize-winning cities’ ambitious green plans to become climate neutral already by 2030 remain vague for the journalists and probably also their readers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change communication
  • discourse analysis
  • local journalism
  • local media
  • place branding
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The climate change movement and political parties: Mechanisms of social media and interaction during the 2019 electoral period in Finland

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 40 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Building on the framework of electoral contention, we investigate the interaction dynamics between social movements and political parties during elections. We argue that social media today is an important venue for these interactions, and consequently, analysing social media data is useful for understanding the shifts in the conflict and alliance structures between movements and parties. We find that Twitter discussions on the climate change movement during the 2019 electoral period in Finland reveal a process of pre-election approaching and post-election distancing between the movement and parties. The Greens and the Left formed mutually beneficial coalitions with the movement preceding the elections and took distance from one another after these parties entered the government. These findings suggest that research on movement-party interaction should pay more attention to social media and undertake comparative studies to assess whether the approaching-distancing process and its constituent mechanisms characterise movements beyond the climate strikes in Finland.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social movements
  • climate movement
  • electoral contention
  • contentious politics
  • social media
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Just “performance nonsense”?: How recipients process news photos of activists’ symbolic actions about climate change politics

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 61 - 78

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, I investigate how recipients make sense of images that show symbolic actions by environmental activists during two recent United Nations Climate Change Conferences. Environmental advocacy groups are successful in creating visibility for their symbolic actions via news visuals, but little empirical evidence exists about how ordinary media recipients engage with this type of imagery. Can they understand the intended meaning of complex visual rhetoric used by environmental activists? I use think-aloud protocols to uncover the cognitive strategies which are used in processing these stylised visual claims. Results show that news photos rarely manage to communicate the intended meaning of symbolic actions. By systematically analysing various stages of visual frame processing, this study offers insights into specific configurations of the image-viewer relationship that cause high levels of ambiguity and prevent staged visual claims from being understood as intended. Yet I also find empirical evidence for a visual framing approach that works well and describe this recipe for effective communication via symbolic action photography.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate change
  • symbolic actions
  • visual communication
  • frame processing
  • think-aloud
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Scare-quoting climate: The rapid rise of climate denial in the Swedish far-right media ecosystem

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 79 - 95

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The final years of the 2010s marked an upturn in coverage on climate change. In Sweden, legacy media wrote more on the issue than ever before, especially in connection to the drought and wildfires in the summer of 2018 and the Fridays for Future movement started by Greta Thunberg. Reporting on climate change also reached unprecedented levels in the growingly influential far-right media ecosystem; from being a topic discussed hardly at all, it became a prominent issue. In this study, we use a toolkit from critical discourse analysis (CDA) to research how three Swedish far-right digital media sites reported on climate during the years 2018–2019. We show how the use of conspiracy theories, anti-establishment rhetoric, and nationalistic arguments created an antagonistic reaction to increased demands for action on climate change. By putting climate in ironic quotation marks, a discourse was created where it was taken for granted that climate change was a hoax.

Schlüsselwörter

  • far right
  • climate change denial
  • scare-quotes
  • Greta Thunberg
  • digital media
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spread of tweets in climate discussions: A case study of the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize announcement

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 96 - 117

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Characterising the spreading of ideas within echo chambers is essential for understanding polarisation. In this article, we explore the characteristics of popular and viral content in climate change discussions on Twitter around the 2019 announcement of the Nobel Peace Prize, where we find the retweet network of users to be polarised into two well-separated groups of activists and sceptics. Operationalising popularity as the number of retweets and virality as the spreading probability inferred using an independent cascade model, we find that the viral themes echo and differ from the popular themes in interesting ways. Most importantly, we find that the most viral themes in the two groups reflect different types of bonds that tie the community together, yet both function to enhance ingroup connections while repulsing outgroup engagement. With this, our study sheds light, from an information-spreading perspective, on the formation and upkeep of echo chambers in climate discussions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate politics
  • Twitter
  • virality
  • polarisation
  • social networks
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Emergent self-mediating classes in the digital semiosphere: Covid-19 conspiracies and the climate justice movement

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 118 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, we advocate for media studies to adopt a systematic evolutionary-complexity model, in order to link the study of human culture and knowledge practices to the biosphere and geosphere, arguing that such global phenomena require a new kind of cultural science. For this purpose, we extend Juri Lotman's model of the semiosphere to the “digital semiosphere”, superseding inherited adversarial models in both mainstream media and media studies. We contrast the mediation of Covid-19 with that of the climate crisis, using Lotman's model to propose that, in the digital semiosphere, the global emergence of girl-led climate activism and far-right Covid-19 conspiracy groups indicates how new social classes are organising around the means of their own mediation. We discuss ways to study and forecast such emergent processes using the means of cultural data analytics and related approaches.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cultural semiotics
  • cultural science
  • climate activism
  • conspiracy theories
  • cultural forecasting
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bridging the computational and visual turn: Re-tooling visual studies with image recognition and network analysis to study online climate images

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 141 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, we argue that to capture the liveliness of how visual public debates like the climate controversy unfold online, we must replace snapshot and single-platform approaches with a method that can capture their temporal and cross-platform dynamics. We suggest that such a methodology could be assembled by combining image recognition, visual network analysis, and a quali-quantitative approach within a digital methods framework. We demonstrate the potential application of the methodology in a two-fold case study of 1) how the human–nature relation is visually depicted on Instagram and Twitter, and 2) how visual genres in the climate debate on Twitter change from 2015 to 2017. Through these experiments, we analyse more than a quarter million social media images to produce novel insights about the climate debate, while showcasing how the computational and visual capabilities of social science can be bridged to open up opportunities for mapping complex visual debates across platforms and time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • digital methods
  • visual studies
  • climate change
  • Twitter
  • Instagram
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Aesthetic practices in the climate crisis: Intervening in consensual frameworks of the sensible through images

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 164 - 183

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Previous research has shown that Western visual journalism has represented climate change through certain repetitive and stereotypical imagery mainly consisting of catastrophic images of climate change impacts, images depicting technological causes and solutions, and images of politicians and activists. This imagery has proven to be distant, abstract, and ineffective in motivating personal engagement with climate change. In this article, we claim that visual journalism's representations of climate change are rooted in the consensual frameworks of human-centredness and consumption-centredness. Leaning on Jacques Ranciére's notion of “the politics of aesthetics”, we aim to challenge these frameworks. We suggest, with examples from visual arts, four aesthetic practices which could intervene in these frameworks: 1) revealing connectedness, 2) recognising agency, 3) compromising the attractions of consumerism, and 4) illuminating alternatives. We propose that visual representations, renewed through these aesthetic practices, could have an effect on how people connect to climate issues and imagine possibilities for agency in the climate crisis. Implementing these aesthetic practices would entail shifts in the sphere of visual journalism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • aesthetics
  • aesthetic practices
  • climate crisis
  • images
  • photography
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Premediating climate change in videogames: Repetition, mastery, and failure

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 184 - 199

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article starts with the observation that growth-oriented, techno-futurist narratives are predominant in climate change videogames. It then accounts for the lack of variety by arguing that these videogames are privileged expressions of premediation. Premediation cultivates a multiplicity of future scenarios, while at the same time delimiting them to suit presentist concerns, evoking a sense of inevitability and predictability strengthened by repetition. The iterative, branching temporality at work in this logic is deeply ingrained in videogames, as the trope of mastery through repetition and its analysis requires attentiveness to the affective dimensions of gameplay. If videogames are to engage with the climate crisis more productively, they must develop different temporalities in which the potentiality of the future is preserved. In this article, I analyse the games Fate of the World and The Stillness of the Wind to demonstrate how videogames premediate climate change and how they can explore other temporalities latent in the present.

Schlüsselwörter

  • videogames
  • premediation
  • climate change
  • futures
  • failure
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The difference between “alarmist” and “alarming”: Interview with Maxwell Boykoff

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 200 - 206

Zusammenfassung

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